Sigma Alpha Epsilon
Sigma Alpha Epsilon known as SAE, is a North American Greek-letter social college fraternity. It was founded at the University of Alabama on March 9, 1856. Of all existing national social fraternities today, Sigma Alpha Epsilon is the only one founded in the Antebellum South, its national headquarters, the Levere Memorial Temple, was established on the campus of Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, in 1929. The fraternity's mission statement is "To promote the highest standards of friendship and service for our members based upon the ideals set forth by our Founders and as enunciated in our creed." The fraternity has chapters and colonies in 50 states and provinces as of 2011. The creed of Sigma Alpha Epsilon, The True Gentleman, must be memorized and recited by all prospective members. New members receive a copy of The Phoenix, the manual of Sigma Alpha Epsilon, for educational development. In March 2014, the fraternity announced that it was eliminating the tradition of pledging following several alcohol- and drug-related incidents.
In 2013, Sigma Alpha Epsilon has had nine deaths linked to drinking and hazing since 2006, more than any other Greek organization in the United States according to data compiled by Bloomberg in 2013. During the 2010s, at least 18 Sigma Alpha Epsilon chapters closed, or banned. Sigma Alpha Epsilon was founded on March 9, 1856, at the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, its founders were Noble Leslie DeVotie, Nathan Elams Cockrell, Samuel Marion Dennis, John Barrett Rudulph, Abner Edwin Patton, Wade Hampton Foster, Thomas Chappell Cook and John Webb Kerr. Their leader was DeVotie, who wrote the ritual, created the grip, chose the name. Rudulph designed the fraternity badge. Of all existing national social fraternities today, Sigma Alpha Epsilon is the only national fraternity founded in the Antebellum South. Founded in a time of intense sectional feeling, Sigma Alpha Epsilon confined its growth to the southern states. By the end of 1857, the fraternity numbered seven chapters, its first national convention met in the summer of 1858 at Murfreesboro, with four of its eight chapters in attendance.
By the time of the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861, fifteen chapters had been established. None of the founders of SAE were members of any other fraternity, although Noble Leslie DeVotie had been invited to join all of the other fraternities at the University of Alabama before founding Sigma Alpha Epsilon; the fraternity had fewer than 400 members. Of those, 369 went to seven for the Union Army. Seventy-four members of the fraternity lost their lives in the war. While many Sigma Alpha Epsilon chapters today claim that Noble Leslie DeVotie was the first person to die in the Civil War, this is in dispute. DeVotie lost his footing while boarding a steamer at Fort Morgan, Alabama, on February 12, 1861, hit his head and drowned, his body washed ashore three days later. Because Alabama had seceded from the Union in January of that year, DeVotie is viewed by many to be the first casualty of the war, he is recognized as such by the state of Alabama. After the Civil War, only one chapter survived – at tiny Columbian College in Washington, D.
C.. When a few of the young veterans returned to the Georgia Military Institute and found their college burned to the ground, they decided to enter the University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia; the founding of a chapter there at the end of 1865, along with the re-establishment of the chapter at the University of Virginia, led to the fraternity's revival. Soon, other chapters came back to life and, in 1867, the first post-war convention was held at Nashville, where a half-dozen revived chapters planned the fraternity's future growth. In the 1870s and early 1880s, more than a score of new chapters were formed. Older chapters died as fast. By 1886, the fraternity had chartered 49 chapters; the first northern chapter had been established at Pennsylvania College, in 1883, a second was placed at Mount Union College in Ohio two years later. Soon after, 16-year-old Harry Bunting entered Southwestern Presbyterian University in Clarksville, now known as Rhodes College in Memphis, Tennessee, he was initiated into the Tennessee Zeta Chapter, which had initiated two of his brothers.
In just eight years, Harry Bunting and his younger brother, emboldened Sigma Alpha Epsilon chapters to increase their membership. They wrote encouraging articles in the fraternity's quarterly journal, The Record, promoting better chapter standards. Above all, they gave new life to old chapters in the South and founded new ones in the North and West; the Buntings were responsible for an explosion of growth, founding nearly 50 chapters of Sigma Alpha Epsilon. When Harry Bunting founded the Northwestern University chapter in 1894, he initiated as a charter member William Collin "Billy" Levere. Bunting passed the torch of leadership to Levere, for the next three decades, Levere's high spirits brought the fraternity to maturity; when Levere died on February 22, 1927, the fraternity's Supreme Council decided to name the new national headquarters building The Levere Memorial Temple. Construction of the Temple, an immense German Gothic structure located near Lake Michigan and across from the Northwestern University campus, was started in 1929, the building was dedicated in the winter of 1930.
When the Supreme Council met in the early 1930s at the Temple, educator John O. Moseley, the fraternity's national president, lamented, "We have in the Temple a magnificent school-house. Why can we not
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The Civil War is the most studied and written about episode in U. S. history. As a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people, war broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States; the loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery. Among the 34 U. S. states in February 1861, secessionist partisans in seven Southern slave states declared state secessions from the country and unveiled their defiant formation of a Confederate States of America in rebellion against the U. S. Constitutional government; the Confederacy grew to control over half the territory in eleven states, it claimed the additional states of Kentucky and Missouri by assertions from exiled native secessionists without territory or population.
These were given full representation in the Confederate Congress throughout the Civil War. The two remaining slave holding states of Delaware and Maryland were invited to join the Confederacy, but nothing substantial developed; the Confederate States was never diplomatically recognized by the government of the United States or by that of any foreign country. The states that remained loyal to the U. S. were known as the Union. The Union and the Confederacy raised volunteer and conscription armies that fought in the South over the course of four years. Intense combat left 620,000 to 750,000 people dead, more than the number of U. S. military deaths in all other wars combined. The war ended when General Robert E. Lee surrendered to General Ulysses S. Grant at the Battle of Appomattox Court House. Confederate generals throughout the southern states followed suit. Much of the South's infrastructure was destroyed the transportation systems; the Confederacy collapsed, slavery was abolished, four million black slaves were freed.
During the Reconstruction Era that followed the war, national unity was restored, the national government expanded its power, civil rights were granted to freed black slaves through amendments to the Constitution and federal legislation. In the 1860 presidential election, led by Abraham Lincoln, supported banning slavery in all the U. S. territories. The Southern states viewed this as a violation of their constitutional rights and as the first step in a grander Republican plan to abolish slavery; the three pro-Union candidates together received an overwhelming 82% majority of the votes cast nationally: Republican Lincoln's votes centered in the north, Democrat Stephen A. Douglas' votes were distributed nationally and Constitutional Unionist John Bell's votes centered in Tennessee and Virginia; the Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a plurality of the popular votes and a majority of the electoral votes nationally. He was the first Republican Party candidate to win the presidency.
However, before his inauguration, seven slave states with cotton-based economies declared secession and formed the Confederacy. The first six to declare secession had the highest proportions of slaves in their populations, with an average of 49 percent. Of those states whose legislatures resolved for secession, the first seven voted with split majorities for unionist candidates Douglas and Bell, or with sizable minorities for those unionists. Of these, only Texas held a referendum on secession. Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for secession. Outgoing Democratic President James Buchanan and the incoming Republicans rejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861, inaugural address declared that his administration would not initiate a civil war. Speaking directly to the "Southern States", he attempted to calm their fears of any threats to slavery, reaffirming, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to interfere with the institution of slavery in the United States where it exists.
I believe I have no lawful right to do so, I have no inclination to do so." After Confederate forces seized numerous federal forts within territory claimed by the Confederacy, efforts at compromise failed and both sides prepared for war. The Confederates assumed that European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" that they would intervene, but none did, none recognized the new Confederate States of America. Hostilities began on April 1861, when Confederate forces fired upon Fort Sumter. While in the Western Theater the Union made significant permanent gains, in the Eastern Theater, the battle was inconclusive during 1861–1862. In September 1862, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which made ending slavery a war goal. To the west, by summer 1862 the Union destroyed the Confederate river navy much of its western armies, seized New Orleans; the successful 1863 Union siege of Vicksburg split the Confederacy in two at the Mississippi River. In 1863, Robert E. Lee's Confederate incursion north ended at the Battle of Gettysburg.
Western successes led to Ulysses S. Grant's command of all Union armies in 1864. Inflicting an ever-tightening naval blockade of Confederate ports, the Union marshaled the resources and manpower to attack the Confederacy from all directions, leading to the fall of Atlanta to William T. Sherman and his march to th
University of North Georgia
The University of North Georgia is a public university and institution in the University System of Georgia. The university was established on January 8, 2013 by a merger of North Georgia College & State University and Gainesville State College; the regents announced plans for the merger on January 10, 2012, the name of the new school was announced on May 8, 2012. The Southern Association of Colleges and Schools approved the consolidation December 11, 2012; the combined institution has campus locations in Dahlonega, Watkinsville, Blue Ridge, Cumming. With nearly 19,000 enrolled students, the University of North Georgia is the sixth-largest public university in the state of Georgia. Within UNG, there are five colleges which collectively offer over one hundred bachelor's and associate degrees, as well as thirteen master's degrees and one doctoral degree. 696 students are involved in the university's ROTC program, which has given it the designation as The Military College of Georgia. The university is one of six senior military colleges in the United States.
North Georgia College and State University began in 1873 as North Georgia Agricultural College. It was an offsite branch of the University of Georgia's College of Agriculture and Mechanical, was created with funds from the Morrill Act. William Pierce Price, a local congressman, persuaded officials at UGA to use part of the funds to establish a branch of the newly created college in Dahlonega, Price's birthplace and home; the college opened classes in 1873 with 177 students, 98 males and 79 females, making it the first coeducational college in the state. Classes were held in the old U. S. mint building, shut down during the Civil War. After the college was awarded the power to grant degrees in 1876, the first graduating class received degrees in 1879; the first graduating class of four consisted of three men and one woman, making North Georgia the first public institution in the state to award a degree to a female. The college had always had a military presence, since land-grant schools were required to teach military tactics, but it was not until World War I when the military programs began to grow.
The National Defense Act of 1916 that created the ROTC helped establish the military presence, felt on the campus today. In 1929 the designation of Agricultural was dropped from the name and the school became North Georgia College. By 1932 the college was reduced to a two-year junior college. World War II saw a decline in enrollment because of the number of male students joining the war effort; this changed when an Army Specialized Training Program was placed at the college to train junior officers. After the war the college grew because of young servicemen and veterans using their GI bill benefits to attend school. By 1946 the college was reinstated as a four-year college. In the 1950s, Dahlonega provided gold for the leafing of the capitol building, it was at this time that similar efforts to gold leaf Price Memorial Hall were begun, a project that did not see fruition until 1973. It was granted university status in 1996. Meanwhile, Gainesville Junior College was founded in Oakwood, Georgia in 1964 and began holding classes in 1966.
The school was a two-year college and for many years had an open-access mission, meaning that it accepted all applicants who held a high school diploma. Over time, the school expanded, opening branch campuses in Watkinsville and Cumming, changing its name to Gainesville College and Gainesville State College. Before consolidation with the North Georgia College and State University, the school had begun to shift towards allowing four-year baccalaureate programs. On January 10, 2012, the University System of Georgia approved the consolidation of North Georgia College and State University and Gainesville State College to form a new institution, the University of North Georgia in January 2013; the University of North Georgia has campuses located in Dahlonega, Watkinsville and Blue Ridge. Collectively, there is 794 acres of land among the Dahlonega and Watkinsville campuses. UNG's Dahlonega campus is the former site of North Georgia State University, it was not until 1879 that the oldest surviving structure, Price Memorial Hall, was constructed upon the former site of the Dahlonega Mint.
Today the gold-leafed steeple of the Price Memorial Hall building remains one of the most striking features of the UNG skyline. Much of the campus has been developed around the William J. Livsey Drill Field, more known as "the Drill Field". Dahlonega is located an hour's drive from downtown Atlanta, an hour and half drive from downtown Athens, a two hours and fifteen minutes drive from Chattanooga, an two hours and twenty minutes drive from Greenville, South Carolina; until it was consolidated with North Georgia College & State University in 2013, UNG's Gainesville campus was the location of Gainesville State College. Now known as the "Gainesville campus", it is located adjacent to Lanier Technical College's campus within the city limits of Oakwood, it has retained its association with Gainesville, since the school was founded and located in that city. Because of its close proximity to Interstate 985 and Georgia State Route 53, it is conveniently accessible for much of Hall County. In 2012, an academic facility in Cumming, GA was opened on GA 400.
The goal of the Cumming campus is to offer a range of programs. The intention of the non-residential campus is to address capacity concerns for the University o
The city of Dahlonega is the county seat of Lumpkin County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the city had a population of 5,242. Dahlonega is located at the north end of Georgia 400, it was named as one of the best places to retire by the publication Real Estate Scorecard. In 1828 Dahlonega was the site of the first major gold rush in the United States; the Dahlonega Gold Museum Historic Site stands in the middle of the town square, housed in the 1836 Lumpkin County Courthouse. From its steps in 1849, Dahlonega Mint assayor Dr. M. F. Stephenson tried to persuade miners to stay in Dahlonega instead of joining the California Gold Rush, saying, "There's millions in it," famously misquoted as "There's gold in them thar hills."Dahlonega is home to the main campus of the University of North Georgia. In the 1820s, Dahlonega became the site of the second significant gold rush in the US and became a boom town of the Georgia Gold Rush; the area of Dahlonega was home to many Cherokee. There are few Cherokee descendants in Dahlonega today.
Most of the descendants are Cherokee of mixed race. Names such as Corn, Chambers, Dover and Bird are associated with these lines of Cherokee blood. Surnames like Thrasher are of Creek blood; the Cherokee called the area ᏓᎶᏂᎨ or Da-lo-ni-ge, which means "yellow". George Featherstonhough, an English geologist who visited the town in 1837, observed that the courthouse, designed by Ephriam Clayton, was built upon a broad expanse of hornblende slate "and that the soil of the public square was impregnated with small specks of gold." The courthouse building was paid for in part with gold bullion. It was made of bricks made locally, although transported from Augusta; the foundation stone and timber were obtained locally. The spelling of the Cherokee word Da-lo-ni-ge-i was disputed by early correspondents. Since 1977, Cherokee descendants who organized as a tribe and are enrolled as members have been recognized by the state as the Georgia Tribe of Eastern Cherokee. Numerous gold mines were illegally developed in the area.
Miners, entering illegally into the Cherokee Nation lands, came into conflict with the Cherokee, whose territory they had trespassed. The Cherokee lands were defined by the treaty between the Federal Government and the Cherokee Nation in the Treaty of Washington 1819; the miners raised political pressure against the Cherokee. The Federal Government forced the Native Americans west of the Mississippi River to Oklahoma on the Trail of Tears during Indian Removal. Dahlonega was founded two years before the Treaty of New Echota 1835, which made its founding a violation of the Treaty of Washington of 1819. In 1833 the city was named Talonega by the Georgia General Assembly on December 21, 1833; the name was changed from Talonega by the Georgia General Assembly on December 25, 1837 to Dahlonega, from the Cherokee-language word Dalonige, meaning "yellow" or "gold". The city is just east of Auraria. Senator John Calhoun of South Carolina owned the Calhoun Mine, just south of the city square; the United States Mint built a branch mint here, which it operated from 1838–1861.
The Dahlonega Mint, like the one established in 1838 in Charlotte, North Carolina, only minted gold coins, in denominations of $1.00, $2.50, $3.00 and $5.00. It was cost effective in consideration of the economics and risk of shipping gold to the main mint in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; the Dahlonega Mint was a small operation accounting for only a small fraction of the gold coinage minted annually in the US. The government decided against re-opening the facility after the Civil War. By the U. S. government had established a mint in California. Given the large amount of gold discovered in California from the late 1840s on, that one handled the national needs of gold minting; as a result, surviving Dahlonega coinage is today prized in American numismatics. The mint building burned in 1878. North Georgia College built Price Memorial Hall on its foundation; the building has a gold-leaf steeple to refer to the history of the site. In recent years and Lumpkin County have been recognized as "the heart of the North Georgia Wine Country".
The county features five licensed wineries that attract many tourists. The historic Dahlonega Square is a popular destination, with gift shops, art galleries and studios, wine tasting rooms. In 2015, Senator Steve Gooch introduced Georgia Senate Resolution 125 recognizing Lumpkin County as the Wine Tasting Room Capital of Georgia; the city's local festivals draw many visitors. "Bear on the Square", an annual three-day festival held the third weekend in April, marks the day that a black bear wandered onto the square. It features old-time music. "Gold Rush Days", an annual two-day event the third weekend in October, attracts over 200,000 people. Dahlonega is home to the Holly Theatre. Located at 384 Mountain Drive, WPA Historical Marker 19 B-7 explains: This court house, built in 1836, replaced the small structure used since the establishment of Lumpkin County in 1832; the town was named Dahlonega in October, 1833, for the Cherokee word Talonega meaning "golden." From its steps in 1849, Dr. M. F. Stephenson, assayer at the Mint, attempted to dissuade Georgia miners from leaving to join the California Gold Rush.
His oration gave rise to the sayings: "There's millions in it," and "Thar's gold in them thar hills." Dahlonega is located at 34°32′N 83°59′W (
Joseph B. Kershaw
Joseph Brevard Kershaw was a lawyer, a Confederate general in the American Civil War. Kershaw, the scion of plantation aristocracy, was born in Camden, South Carolina in 1822, admitted to the bar in 1843, was a member of the South Carolina Senate in 1852–1856. Kershaw saw battle during the Mexican–American War, but fell dangerously sick and was permitted to return home. At the start of the Civil War Kershaw commanded the 2nd South Carolina Infantry Regiment and was present at Morris Island during the Battle of Fort Sumter, at the First Battle of Bull Run as part of Brig. Gen Milledge Bonham's brigade. During the battle, Kershaw's regiment along with the 8th South Carolina was detached from Bonham and sent to help drive back the Union assault on Henry House Hill. Afterwards, Kershaw gained the ire of Confederate general Pierre G. T. Beauregard by failing to file a proper report of the battle and instead writing a lengthy article in a Charleston newspaper which gave the impression that he and the 2nd South Carolina singlehandedly defeated the Union army.
Beauregard called him "that militia idiot", but he was transferred to the West in the fall and in December, Milledge Bonham resigned his commission to take a seat in the Confederate Congress. Kershaw took command of Bonham's former brigade, he was commissioned brigadier general on February 13, 1862, commanded a brigade in Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia during the Peninsula Campaign, at the close of which he continued with Lee and took part in the Northern Virginia Campaign and Maryland Campaign. Towards the end of the Battle of Fredericksburg, he succeeded Brig. Gen. T. R. R. Cobb upon the latter's death, repulsed the last two attacks made by the Federals on Marye's Heights; the next year he was engaged in the Battle of Gettysburg and was transferred with Lt. Gen. James Longstreet's corps to the West, where he took part in the charge that destroyed the Federal right wing at Chickamauga. After the relief of McLaws following the battle of Knoxville Kershaw was given the command of the division and promoted to major general on June 2, 1864.
When Longstreet returned to Virginia, he commanded a division in the battles of the Wilderness, Spotsylvania Court House, Cold Harbor, was engaged in the Shenandoah campaign of 1864 against Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan. After the evacuation of Richmond, his troops formed part of Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell's corps, captured at the Battle of Sayler's Creek, April 6, 1865. At the close of the war he returned to South Carolina and in 1865 was chosen president of the State Senate, he was judge of the Circuit Court from 1877 to 1893. In 1894, he was appointed postmaster of Camden, an office that he held until his death in the same year. Joseph B. Kershaw was Grand Master of the Freemasons of South Carolina, he is buried there in the Quaker Cemetery. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "Kershaw, Joseph Brevard", Volume 11, p. 462. New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. List of American Civil War generals Eicher, John H. and David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands.
Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 978-0-8047-3641-1. Sifakis, Stewart. Who Was Who in the Civil War. New York: Facts On File, 1988. ISBN 978-0-8160-1055-4. Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1959. ISBN 978-0-8071-0823-9. Archives and Museum - Camden, S. C. Joseph B. Kershaw at Find a Grave
Greenville, South Carolina
Greenville is the largest city in and the seat of Greenville County, South Carolina, United States. The city's mayor is Knox H. White, in that position since December 1995. With an estimated population of 68,219 as of 2017, it is the sixth-largest city in the state; the population of the surrounding area was 400,492 as of 2010, making it the third-largest urban area in South Carolina as well as the fastest growing. Greenville is the largest city in the Greenville-Anderson-Mauldin Metropolitan Statistical Area; the MSA had a population of 895,923 in 2017, making it the largest in South Carolina and the third largest in the Carolinas. Greenville is the largest city in the Greenville-Spartanburg-Anderson Combined Statistical Area, a 10-county region of northwestern South Carolina known as "The Upstate". According to United States Census Bureau, the CSA had a population of 1,459,766 as of 2017, making it the largest CSA in the state. Greenville is located halfway between Atlanta and Charlotte, North Carolina, along Interstate 85, its metropolitan area includes Interstates 185 and 385.
Greenville has gained recognition in various national publications such as CNN Money, which ranked Greenville as one of the "Top 10 Fastest Growing Cities in the U. S." Bloomberg named Greenville the Third Strongest Job Market for 2010. Greenville earned the No. 3 slot by Condé Nast Traveler's "Best Small Cities in the U. S." in 2017. Greenville was the fourth fastest-growing city in the United States between 2015 and 2016, according to the U. S. Census Bureau; the land of present-day Greenville was once the hunting ground of the Cherokee, forbidden to colonists. A wealthy settler from Virginia named Richard Pearis arrived in South Carolina around 1754 and established relations with the Cherokee. Pearis had a child with a Cherokee woman and received about 100,000 acres from the Cherokee around 1770. Pearis established a plantation on the Reedy River called the Great Plains in present-day downtown Greenville; the American Revolution divided the South Carolina country between the Patriots. Pearis supported the Loyalists and together with their allies.
The Patriots retaliated by jailing him in Charleston. Pearis never returned to his plantation but Paris Mountain is named after him; the Treaty of Dewitt's Corner in 1777 ceded all Cherokee land, including present-day Greenville, to South Carolina. Greenville County was named for its physical appearance. However, other sources say Greenville is named after General Nathanael Greene in honor of his service in the American Revolutionary War. Lemuel J. Alston came to Greenville County in 1788 and bought 400 acres and a portion of Pearis' former plantation. In 1797 Alston used his land holdings to establish a village called Pleasantburg where he built a stately mansion. In 1816, Alston's land was purchased by Vardry McBee, who leased the Alston mansion for a summer resort, before making mansion his home from 1835 until his death in 1864. Considered to be the father of Greenville, McBee donated land for many structures such as churches, a cotton mill. Furman University was funded by McBee who helped bring the university to Pleasantburg from Winnsboro, South Carolina in 1851.
In 1853 McBee and other Greenville County leaders funded a new railroad called the Greenville and Columbia Railroad. Pleasantburg boomed to around 1,000 in the 1850s due to the growth of McBee's donations and the attraction of the town as a summer resort for visitors. In 1831 Pleasantburg was incorporated as Greenville. In December 1860 Greenville supported a convention to debate the issue of secession for South Carolina; the Greenville District sent James Furman, William K. Easley, Perry E. Duncan, William H. Campbell, James P. Harrison as delegates for the convention. On December 20, 1860 the South Carolina state convention, along with the Greenville delegation, voted to secede from the Union. Greenville County provided over 2,000 soldiers to the Confederate States Army; the town supplied food and firearms to the Confederacy. Greenville saw no action from the war until 1865 when Union troops came through the town looking for President Jefferson Davis of the Confederacy who had fled south from Richmond, Virginia.
In June 1865 Andrew Johnson appointed Greenville County native Benjamin Franklin Perry as Governor of South Carolina. In February 1869, Greenville's town charter was amended by the S. C. General Assembly establishing Greenville, the town, as a city. Construction boomed in the 1870s such as the establishment of a bridge over the Reedy River, new mills on the river and new railroads; the Greenville News was established in 1874 as Greenville's first daily newspaper. Southern Bell installed the first telephone lines in the city; the most important infrastructure that came to the city were cotton mills. Prominent cotton mill businesses operated near Greenville making it a cotton mill town. By 1915 Greenville became known as the "Textile Center of the South." During World War I, Greenville served as a training camp center for Army recruits. After World War I commercial activity expanded with new movie theaters and department stores; the Mansion House was demolished and replaced with the Poinsett Hotel in 1925.
The Great Depression hurt the economy of Greenville forcing mills to lay off workers. Furman University and the Greenville Women's College struggled in the crippling economy forcing them to merge in 1933; the Textile Workers Strike of 1934 caused such an uproar in the city and surrounding mill towns that the National Guard had to subdue the chaos. The New Deal established Sirrine S
Georgia House of Representatives
The Georgia House of Representatives is the lower house of the Georgia General Assembly of the U. S. state of Georgia. There are 180 elected members; the Georgia House of Representatives was created in 1777 during the American Revolution, making it older than the U. S. Congress. During its existence, its meeting place has moved multiple times, from Savannah to Augusta, to Louisville, to Milledgeville and to Atlanta in 1868. In 1867, the military governor of Georgia called for an assembly in Atlanta to discuss a constitutional convention. Atlanta officials moved to make the city Georgia's new state capital, donating the location of Atlanta's first city hall; the constitutional convention agreed and the people voted to ratify the decision on April 20, 1868. The Georgia General Assembly first presided in Atlanta on July 4, 1868. On October 26, 1884, construction began on a new state capitol and was first occupied on June 15, 1889; the state constitution gives the state legislature the power to make state laws, restrict land to protect and preserve the environment and natural resources, form a state militia under the command of the Governor of Georgia, expend public money, condemn property, zone property, participate in tourism, control and regulate outdoor advertising.
The state legislature cannot grant incorporation to private persons but may establish laws governing the incorporation process. It is prohibited from authorizing contracts or agreements that may have the effect of or the intent of lessening competition or encouraging a monopoly. Members of the Georgia House of Representatives maintain two privileges during their time in office. First, no member can be arrested during session or during committee meetings except in cases of treason, felony, or "breach of the peace". Second, members are not liable for anything they might say in committee meetings. According to the state constitution of 1983, this body is to comprise no fewer than 180 members elected for two-year terms. Current state law provides for 180 members. Elections are held the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even-numbered years, it is the third-largest lower house of the 50 United States. As of 2011, attorneys account for about 16.1% of the membership of the Georgia House of Representatives, a low figure.
The House of Representatives elects its own Speaker as well as a Speaker Pro Tempore. The current speaker of the Georgia House of Representatives is David Ralston; the current Speaker Pro Tempore is Jan Jones. The Speaker Pro Tempore becomes Speaker in case of the death, resignation, or permanent disability of the Speaker; the Speaker Pro Tempore serves. In addition there is a clerk of the House, charged with overseeing the flow of legislation through the body; the current clerk is William L. Reilly. Agriculture and Consumer Affairs Judiciary Appropriations Judiciary – Non-Civil Banks and Banking Legislative and Congressional Reapportionment MARTOC Defense and Veterans Affairs Motor Vehicles Economic Development and Tourism Natural Resources and Environment Education Public Safety and Homeland Security Ethics Energy and Telecommunications Game and Parks Regulated Industries Governmental Affairs Retirement Health and Human Services Rules Higher Education Science and Technology Human Relations and Aging Special Rules Industry and Labor State Properties Information and Audits State Planning and Community Affairs Insurance Transportation Interstate Cooperation Ways and Means Intergovernmental Coordination Budget & Fiscal Affairs Oversight Code Revision Juvenile Justice Small Business Development 155th Georgia General Assembly 154th Georgia General Assembly 153rd Georgia General Assembly 152nd Georgia General Assembly 151st Georgia General Assembly 150th Georgia General Assembly 149th Georgia General Assembly 148th Georgia General Assembly 147th Georgia General Assembly 146th Georgia General Assembly 140th Georgia General Assembly 139th Georgia General Assembly 138th Georgia General Assembly 137th Georgia General Assembly 136th Georgia General Assembly 135th Georgia General Assembly 134th Georgia General Assembly Georgia Senate Official website