William Paley was an English clergyman, Christian apologist and utilitarian. He is best known for his natural theology exposition of the teleological argument for the existence of God in his work Natural Theology or Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity, which made use of the watchmaker analogy. Paley was born in Peterborough and was educated at Giggleswick School, of which his father was headmaster, at Christ's College, Cambridge, he graduated in 1763 as senior wrangler, became fellow in 1777, in 1768 tutor of his college. He lectured on Samuel Clarke, Joseph Butler and John Locke in his systematic course on moral philosophy, which subsequently formed the basis of his Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy; the sub controversy was agitating the university, Paley pushed an anonymous defence of a pamphlet in which the Master of Peterhouse and Bishop of Carlisle Edmund Law had advocated the retrenchment and simplification of the Thirty-nine Articles. He was a strong supporter of the American colonies during the revolutionary war because he thought it would lead to the destruction of slavery.
He studied philosophy. In 1776 Paley was presented to the rectory of Musgrave in Westmorland, exchanged soon after for Appleby, he was subsequently made vicar of Dalston near the bishop's palace at Rose Castle. In 1782 he became the Archdeacon of Carlisle. Paley was intimate with the Law family throughout his life, the Bishop and his son John Law were instrumental during the decade after he left Cambridge in pressing him to publish his revised lectures and in negotiating with the publisher. In 1782 Edmund Law, otherwise the mildest of men, was most particular that Paley should add a book on political philosophy to the moral philosophy, which Paley was reluctant to write; the book was published in 1785 under the title of The Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy, was made a part of the examinations at the University of Cambridge the next year. It passed through fifteen editions in the author's lifetime. Paley strenuously supported the abolition of the slave trade, his attack on slavery in the book was instrumental in drawing greater public attention to the practice.
In 1789, a speech he gave on the subject in Carlisle was published. The Principles was followed in 1790 by his first essay in the field of Christian apologetics, Horae Paulinae, or the Truth of the Scripture History of St Paul which compared the Paul's Epistles with the Acts of the Apostles, making use of "undesigned coincidences" to argue that these documents mutually supported each other's authenticity; some have said. It was followed in 1794 by the celebrated View of the Evidences of Christianity, added to the examinations at Cambridge, remaining on the syllabus until the 1920s. For his services in defence of the faith, with the publication of the Evidences, the Bishop of London gave him a stall in St Paul's. During the remainder of Paley's life, his time was divided between Bishopwearmouth and Lincoln, during which time he wrote Natural Theology: or, Evidences of the Existence and Attributes of the Deity, despite his debilitating illness, he is buried in Carlisle Cathedral with his two wives.
His second son was the architect Edward Graham Paley and his grandson was the classical scholar Frederick Apthorp Paley. Paley's Principles of Moral and Political Philosophy was one of the most influential philosophical texts in late Enlightenment Britain, it was cited in several parliamentary debates over the corn laws in Britain and in debates in the US Congress. The book remained a set textbook at Cambridge well into the Victorian era. Charles Darwin, as a student of theology, was required to read it when he did his undergraduate studies at Christ's College, but it was Paley's Natural Theology that most impressed Darwin though it was not a set book for undergraduates. Portraits of Paley and Darwin face each other at Christ's College to this day. Paley is remembered for his contributions to the philosophy of religion, utilitarian ethics and Christian apologetics. In 1802, he published Natural Theology; as he states in the preface, he saw the book as a preamble to his other philosophical and theological books.
The main thrust of his argument was that God's design of the whole creation could be seen in the general happiness, or well-being, evident in the physical and social order of things. Such a book fell within the broad tradition of natural theology works written during the Enlightenment. Paley's argument is built around anatomy and natural history. "For my part", he says, "I take my stand in human anatomy". In making his argument, Paley employed a wide variety of analogies; the most famous is his analogy between a watch and the world. Historians and theologi
James Herriot is a Scottish former footballer who played as a goalkeeper for clubs in Scotland and South Africa. Herriot represented both Scotland and the Scottish League XI. Herriot was an apprentice bricklayer playing part-time for junior club Douglasdale before he joined Dunfermline Athletic in 1958, he became the Pars established number 1 when Eddie Connachan left for Middlesbrough in 1963. Herriot adopted the American Football technique of applying boot polish under and around his eyes to reduce the effects of glare from the sun. Herriot helped. Herriot was transferred to Birmingham City for £18,000 in 1965, he was a fixture in the City side during the next four-and-a-half years and gained international recognition. He made his Scotland debut in October 1968, in a 1–0 defeat by Denmark in a friendly in Copenhagen, played a further seven times for the national side, his last cap came just a year after his first, in a 3–2 defeat by West Germany in a FIFA World Cup qualifier in Hamburg. By 1970 Herriot had fallen from favour at St Andrew's and, following loan spells with Mansfield Town and Aston Villa, he left for South African club Durban City.
He returned to Britain in 1971. With Hibs he won his first career honour, the 1972–73 Scottish League Cup, as well as the fledgling Drybrough Cup on two occasions, he left the Edinburgh side to join St Mirren in 1973 moved to Partick Thistle in 1975. After a spell on loan with Morton in October 1975 he returned to Dunfermline Athletic in early 1976 before joining Morton permanently for the 1976–77 season, he retired from the game in the summer of 1977. Herriot is best known today for giving his name to the writer James Herriot, a Yorkshire vet whose real name was Alf Wight. Wight needed a pen-name to comply with professional rules banning advertising and chose Jim Herriot's name after seeing him play for Birmingham City in a televised match against Manchester United. Jim Herriot at the Scottish Football Association Jim Herriot at Post War English & Scottish Football League A–Z Player's Database
This is a list of compositions by Nikolai Myaskovsky by category. No. 1 in C minor, Op. 3 No. 2 in C♯ minor, Op. 11 No. 3 in A minor, Op. 15 No. 4 in E minor, Op. 17 No. 5 in D major, Op. 18 No. 6 in E♭ minor, Op. 23 No. 7 in B minor, Op. 24 No. 8 in A major, Op. 26 No. 9 in E minor, Op. 28 No. 10 in F minor, Op. 30 No. 11 in B♭ minor, Op. 34 No. 12 in G minor, Op. 35 Kolkhoznaya No. 13 in B♭ minor, Op. 36 No. 14 in C major, Op. 37 No. 15 in D minor, Op. 38 No. 16 in F major, Op. 39 No. 17 in G♯ minor, Op. 41 No. 18 in C major, Op. 42 No. 19 in E♭ major, Op. 46 for wind orchestra No. 20 in E major, Op. 50 No. 21 in F♯ minor, Op. 51 No. 22 in B minor, Op. 54 Symphony-Ballad No. 23 in A minor, Op. 56 Symphony-Suite on Kabardanian Themes No. 24 in F minor, Op. 63 No. 25 in D♭ major, Op. 69 No. 26 in C major, Op. 79 Symphony on Russian Themes No. 27 in C minor, Op. 85 Silence, symphonic poem after Edgar Allan Poe, Op. 9 Overture for symphony orchestra, Op. 9 bis Sinfonietta No. 1 in A major for small orchestra, Op. 10 Alastor, symphonic poem after Shelley, Op. 14 Diversions, Op. 32:No. 1.
Serenade for small orchestra No. 2. Sinfonietta No. 2 in B minor for string orchestra No. 3. Lyric Concertino for flute, horn, bassoon and string orchestra Violin Concerto in D minor, Op. 44 2 Pieces for string orchestra, Op. 46 bis, arranged from Symphony No.19 Salutation Overture in C major, Op. 48 2 Marches for wind orchestra, Op. 53 Dramatic Overture for wind orchestra, Op. 60 Links – Suite for orchestra, Op. 65 Orchestrations of early piano pieces Cello Concerto in C minor, Op. 66 Sinfonietta No. 3 in A minor for string orchestra, Op. 68 Slavonic Rhapsody in D minor, Op. 71 Pathetic Overture in C minor, Op. 76 Divertissement for small orchestra, Op. 80 Cantata Kirov is With Us after Tikhonov, for mezzo-soprano, mixed choir and symphony orchestra to the text of the same name. Poems by Nikolai Tikhonov, Op. 61, Dedication: The Beethoven Quartet" Nocturne Kreml nochiu, after Nikolai Vasiliev, Op. 75 Cello Sonata No. 1 in D major, Op. 12 String Quartet No. 1 in A minor, Op. 33, No. 1 String Quartet No. 2 in C minor, Op. 33, No. 2 String Quartet No. 3 in D minor, Op. 33, No. 3 String Quartet No. 4 in F minor, Op. 33, No. 4 String Quartet No. 5 in E minor, Op. 47 String Quartet No. 6 in G minor, Op. 49 String Quartet No. 7 in F major, Op. 55 String Quartet No. 8 in F♯ minor, Op. 59 String Quartet No. 9 in D minor, Op. 62 String Quartet No. 10 in F major, Op. 67, No. 1 String Quartet No. 11 in E♭ major, Op. 67, No. 2 Violin Sonata in F major, Op. 70 String Quartet No. 12 in G major, Op. 77 Cello Sonata No. 2 in A minor, Op. 81 String Quartet No. 13 in A minor, Op. 86 Before his official Piano Sonata No.
1, Myaskovsky composed four or five unpublished piano sonatas. One of these was orchestrated as the Overture for small orchestra, two more were revised in 1944 to become the official Sonatas Nos. 5 and 6. From about 1907 to 1919, Myaskovsky wrote dozens of short piano pieces as studies or exploratory drafts: he provisionally collected these in eight albums and referred to them collectively as Flofion or by the diminutive Flofionchiki, an made-up word meaning something like'Frolics' or'Whimsies'. Several of these were re-worked into the published piano collections Opp. 25, 29, 31, 78 and the orchestral suite Op. 65, while others provided movements – e.g. the slow movement of Piano Sonata No. 4 – or thematic material for chamber and orchestral works. Sonata No. 1 in D minor, Op. 6 Sonata No. 2 in F♯ minor, Op. 13 Sonata No. 3 in C minor, Op. 19 Sonata No. 4 in C minor, Op. 27 Whimsies, 6 sketches, Op. 25"Reminiscences, 6 pieces, Op. 29 Yellowed Leaves, 6 Pieces, Op. 31 Three compositions, Op. 43 No. 1 10 elementary pieces for piano No. 2 Four Easy Pieces in Polyphonic Setting No. 3 Simple Variations in D major Sonatina in E minor, Op. 57 Song and Rhapsody, Op. 58 Sonata No. 5 in B major, Op. 64, No. 1 Sonata No. 6 in A♭ major, Op. 64, No. 2 Stylisations, nine pieces in the forms of ancient dances, Op. 73 From the Past, six improvisations for piano, Op. 74 Polyphonic Sketches, Op. 78 Sonata No. 7 in C major, Op. 82 Sonata No. 8 in D minor, Op. 83 Sonata No. 9 in F major, Op. 84 Reflections, seven poems by Yevgeny Baratynsky for voice and piano, Op. 1 From the early years, 12 romances for voice and piano to words by Konstantin Balmont, Op. 2 On the Border, 18 romances on words by Zinaida Gippius for medium and deep voice with piano, Op. 4 Songs on Verses of Zinaida Gippius, Op. 5 Madrigal, suite for voice and piano, Op. 7 (1