William Penn was the son of the admiral and politician Sir William Penn. Penn was a writer, early member of the Religious Society of Friends, founder of the English North American colony the Province of Pennsylvania, he was an early advocate of democracy and religious freedom, notable for his good relations and successful treaties with the Lenape Native Americans. Under his direction, the city of Philadelphia was developed. Philadelphia was planned out to be grid-like with its streets and be easy to navigate, unlike London where Penn was from; the streets are named with numbers and tree names. He chose to use the names of trees for the cross streets because Pennsylvania means "Penn's Woods." In 1681, King Charles II handed over a large piece of his North American land holdings along the North Atlantic Ocean coast to Penn to pay the debts the king had owed to Penn's father. This land included the present-day states of Delaware. Penn set sail and took his first step on American soil, sailing up the Delaware Bay and Delaware River, in New Castle in 1682.
On this occasion, the colonists pledged allegiance to Penn as their new proprietor, the first Pennsylvania General Assembly was held. Afterward, Penn journeyed further north up the Delaware River and founded Philadelphia, on the west bank. However, Penn's Quaker government was not viewed favorably by the previous Dutch, Swedish colonists, earlier English settlers in what is now Delaware, but claimed for half a century by the neighboring Province of Maryland's proprietor family, the Calverts and Lord Baltimore; these earlier colonists had no historical allegiance to a "Pennsylvania", so they immediately began petitioning for their own representative assembly. 23 years in 1704, they achieved their goal when the three southernmost counties of provincial Pennsylvania along the western coast of the Delaware, were permitted to split off and become the new semi-autonomous colony of Lower Delaware. As the most prominent and influential settlement in the new colony, New Castle, the original Swedish colony town became the capital.
As one of the earlier supporters of colonial unification, Penn wrote and urged for a union of all the English colonies in what was to become the United States of America. The democratic principles that he set forth in the Pennsylvania Frame of Government served as an inspiration for the members of the convention framing the new Constitution of the United States in Philadelphia in 1787; as a pacifist Quaker, Penn considered the problems of peace deeply. He developed a forward-looking project and thoughts for a "United States of Europe" through the creation of a European Assembly made of deputies who could discuss and adjudicate controversies peacefully, he is therefore considered the first thinker to suggest the creation of a European Parliament and what would become the modern European Union in the late 20th century. A man of deep religious convictions, Penn wrote numerous works in which he exhorted believers to adhere to the spirit of Primitive Christianity, he was imprisoned several times in the Tower of London due to his faith, his book No Cross, No Crown, which he wrote while in prison, has become a Christian classic of theological literature.
William Penn was born in 1644 at Tower Hill, the son of English Admiral Sir William Penn, Margaret Jasper, of Dutch descent, the widow of a Dutch captain and the daughter of a rich merchant from Rotterdam. Admiral Penn served in the Commonwealth Navy during the English Civil War and was rewarded by Oliver Cromwell with estates in Ireland; the lands were seized from Irish Catholics in retaliation for the failed Irish Rebellion of 1641. Admiral Penn took part in the restoration of Charles II and was knighted and served in the Royal Navy. At the time of his son's birth, then-Captain Penn was twenty-three and an ambitious naval officer in charge of quelling Irish Catholic unrest and blockading Irish ports. Penn grew up during the rule of Oliver Cromwell, who succeeded in leading a Puritan rebellion against King Charles I. Penn's father was at sea. Little William caught smallpox at a young age, losing all his hair, prompting his parents to move from the suburbs to an estate in Essex; the country life made a lasting impression on young Penn, kindled in him a love of horticulture.
Their neighbor was famed diarist Samuel Pepys, friendly at first but secretly hostile to the Admiral embittered in part by his failed seductions of both Penn's mother and his sister Peggy. Penn was educated first at Chigwell School, by private tutors whilst in Ireland, at Christ Church, Oxford. At that time, there were no state schools and nearly all educational institutions were affiliated with the Anglican Church. Children from poor families had to have a wealthy sponsor to get an education. Penn's education leaned on the classical authors and "no novelties or conceited modern writers" were allowed including William Shakespeare. Foot racing was Penn's favorite sport, he would run the more than three-mile distance from his home to the school; the school itself was cast in an Anglican mode – strict and somber – and teachers had to be pillars of virtue and provide sterling examples to their charges. Though opposing Anglicanism on religious grounds, Penn absorbed many Puritan behaviors, was known for his serious demeanor, strict behavior and lack of humor.
After a failed mission to the Caribbean, Admiral Penn and his family were exiled to his lands in Ireland. It was during this period, when P
Small nucleolar RNA snR52 is a non-coding RNA molecule which functions in the modification of other small nuclear RNAs. This type of modifying RNA is located in the nucleolus of the eukaryotic cell, a major site of snRNA biogenesis, it is known as a small nucleolar RNA and often referred to as a guide RNA. snoRNA Z13 belongs to the C/D box class of snoRNAs which contain the conserved sequence motifs known as the C box and the D box. Most of the members of the box C/D family function in directing site-specific 2'-O-methylation of substrate RNAs.snoRNA snR52 was discovered using a computational screen of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. Further experiments have shown that snR52 is transcribed by RNA polymerase III. Page for Small nucleolar RNA Z13/snr52 at Rfam Link to snR52 at the FournierLab/snoRNAdb
Agenda is a literary journal published in London and founded by William Cookson. Agenda Editions is an imprint of the journal operating as a small press. Agenda was started in 1959. Pound had suggested that Cookson edit pages in an existing publication, but when these plans did not come to fruition, the bookseller and poet Peter Russell suggested that Cookson found his own magazine. Agenda was edited with Peter Dale and Patricia McCarthy, who continues to edit the journal following Cookson's death in 2003; the editorial preoccupations of Agenda reflected Cookson's own passions. The journal continued to champion Pound long after the poet's death. A "Special Issue in Honour of Ezra Pound's Eighty-Fifth Birthday" was a significant early issue of the journal in 1970, a special issue on "Dante, Ezra Pound and Contemporary Poetry" was published as late as 1996. Cookson used Agenda to promote the reputation of David Jones, devoting two major special issues to him in addition to articles in several other issues.
Agenda Editions published several major Jones volumes. These included The Kensington Mass and The Roman Quarry, a full-length volume of until unpublished material. Agenda Editions published volumes of Jones's letters in 1979 and 1996. Agenda is notable for its focus upon the art of translation. Recent issues include "Translation as Metamorphosis" in 2005. Poets and reviewers included were: Michael Alexander W. H. Auden Jonathan Barker John Bayley William Bedford Anne Beresford Heather Buck Basil Bunting Stanley Burnshaw John Cayley Humphrey Clucas William Cookson Arthur Cooper Peter Dale Donald Davie Peter Dent Ronald Duncan T. S. Eliot Thom Gunn Donald Hall Michael Hamburger Ian Hamilton Seamus Heaney David Heidenstam A. L. Hendriks Geoffrey Hill Peter Jay Roland John David Jones Peter Levi Saunders Lewis Eddie Linden Edward Lowbury Robert Lowell Patricia McCarthy Hugh MacDiarmid Seán Mac Falls Jean MacVean Eve Machin Sylvia Mann Virginia Maskell Alan Massey Ruth Mead Matthew Mead Moelwyn Merchant W. S. Milne Marianne Moore George Oppen Alan Neame Pénélope Palmer Rachel Pelham Burn Stuart Piggott Ezra Pound Kathleen Raine Norman ReaTheodore Roethke David Rokeah Peter Russell N. K. Sandars Tom Scott C. H. Sisson W. D. Snodgrass Henry Swabey R. S. Thomas Charles Tomlinson Peter Whigham Julie Whitby William Carlos Williams Caroline Wright Louis Zukofsky Agenda Official Site