Petty officer third class
Petty officer third class is the fourth enlisted rank in the U. S. Navy, U. S. Coast Guard, the United States Naval Sea Cadet Corps, above seaman and below petty officer second class, is the lowest rank of non-commissioned officer, equivalent to a corporal in the U. S. Army and Marine Corps. Petty officer third class shares the same pay grade as senior airman in the Air Force, which no longer has an NCO rank corresponding with E-4. Unlike seaman and lower ranks, a sailor's advancement to petty officer third class is not automatic given time in service, but is contingent on performance evaluations by their superiors and rate examinations, except for certain technical ratings which carry automatic advancement to PO3 after successful completion of that rating's "A" school and fulfillment of time in rate requirements; the advancement cycle is every 6 months. Only a certain number of billets open up biannually and all seamen compete for promotion; the top scorers are chosen for advancement, but only in sufficient numbers to fill the billets available.
Petty officers serve a dual role as leaders. Unlike the sailors who rank below them, there is no such thing as an undesignated petty officer; every petty officer has both rating. The rank and rating combined are known collectively as a sailor's rate. A petty officer's full title is a combination of the two. Thus, a petty officer third class who has the rating of Aviation Structural Mechanic is called an Aviation Structural Mechanic Third Class; the term petty officer is only used in abstract, the general sense, when referring to a group of petty officers of different ratings, or when the petty officer's rating is unknown. Each rating has an official abbreviation, such as AM for aviation structural mechanic; when combined with the petty officer level, this gives the shorthand for the petty officer's rank, such as AM3 for aviation structural mechanic third class. It is common practice to refer to the petty officer by this shorthand in all but the most formal correspondence, such as printing an inscription on awards.
The petty officer is referred to by the shorthand designation, without using the surname. Thus AM3 Anderson would be called AM3. To address a petty officer, one would say, "Petty Officer Smith", "Smith", or "sailor", the latter two forms being acceptable for use by those equal or greater in rank than the petty officer, it is uncommon to address a petty officer as "petty officer" the way one might address an NCO in the Army as "sergeant." It is acceptable, though archaic, to address a petty officer or chief petty officer of any grade as "Mister Smith" or "Miss Smith." In the modern navy, the use of "miss" or "mister" is common only in reference to junior commissioned officers or warrant officers. The rate insignia for a petty officer third class is a white perched eagle and one specialty mark above a chevron. On dress uniforms the symbol for the petty officer's rating is placed between the two. On the dress white uniform, the eagle and chevron are navy blue; this has led to the eagle, the entire rating badge, being referred to as "the crow."
On the dress blue uniform, the eagle and rating are white, the chevron is red. The insignia worn on working uniforms, such as coveralls and the naval working uniform, metal rank devices, like those worn on the collar of the naval service uniform, have the rating symbol omitted; when a sailor is promoted to petty officer third class, it is traditional for sailors holding that or a higher enlisted rank to "tack on the crow." This custom involved a promoted sailor's fellow petty officers taking turns stitching the new rank insignia on the sailor's uniform, the rushed needlework referred to as "tacking." More the custom has taken on a different form, being done with a gesture ranging from a light tap to a hard punch over the new petty officer's sleeve insignia. This, has been deemed "hazing", as such individuals involved in this practice can be subject to disciplinary action; this disciplinary action includes the individual being demoted. The "tacking on of the crow" has been known to cause serious injury.
It is not just patches that are "tacked on", but metal insignia in the chest area that have sharp attachment pins, such as the insignia for surface warfare or submarine service. A hard enough punch can cause the attachment points to pierce a sailor's skin. Commanding officers are known to direct the ship corpsman to perform physical exams for possible abuse and to report all injuries to newly promoted personnel, so punishment cannot be avoided; the U. S. Navy's high year tenure policy has made the good conduct variation for a petty officer third class all but obsolete. Among enlisted sailors 12 consecutive years of good conduct entitles the sailor to wear a good conduct variation of their rank insignia, with the red chevrons under the specialty mark and perched eagle worn as gold and the eagle itself worn as silver. However, the high year tenure initiative mandates that a petty officer third class may only have eight years of service. If a PO3 fails to make petty officer second class within those eight years, the petty officer is involuntarily separated for not meeting advancement requirements.
This same restriction has been imposed upon the ranks of petty officer second class and first class, allowing 14 years of service to a PO2 before advancement must be attained, 20 years of service to a petty officer first class. All of these initiatives, may be waived in the event the sailor holds cri
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps referred to as the United States Marines or U. S. Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting expeditionary and amphibious operations with the United States Navy as well as the Army and Air Force; the U. S. Marine Corps is one of the four armed service branches in the U. S. Department of Defense and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States; the Marine Corps has been a component of the U. S. Department of the Navy since 30 June 1834, working with naval forces; the USMC operates installations on land and aboard sea-going amphibious warfare ships around the world. Additionally, several of the Marines' tactical aviation squadrons Marine Fighter Attack squadrons, are embedded in Navy carrier air wings and operate from the aircraft carriers; the history of the Marine Corps began when two battalions of Continental Marines were formed on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia as a service branch of infantry troops capable of fighting both at sea and on shore.
In the Pacific theater of World War II the Corps took the lead in a massive campaign of amphibious warfare, advancing from island to island. As of 2017, the USMC has around some 38,500 personnel in reserve, it is the smallest U. S. military service within the DoD. As outlined in 10 U. S. C. § 5063 and as introduced under the National Security Act of 1947, three primary areas of responsibility for the Marine Corps are: Seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and other land operations to support naval campaigns. This last clause derives from similar language in the Congressional acts "For the Better Organization of the Marine Corps" of 1834, "Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps" of 1798. In 1951, the House of Representatives' Armed Services Committee called the clause "one of the most important statutory – and traditional – functions of the Marine Corps", it noted that the Corps has more than not performed actions of a non-naval nature, including its famous actions in Tripoli, the War of 1812, numerous counter-insurgency and occupational duties, World War I, the Korean War.
While these actions are not described as support of naval campaigns nor as amphibious warfare, their common thread is that they are of an expeditionary nature, using the mobility of the Navy to provide timely intervention in foreign affairs on behalf of American interests. The Marine Band, dubbed the "President's Own" by Thomas Jefferson, provides music for state functions at the White House. Marines from Ceremonial Companies A & B, quartered in Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. guard presidential retreats, including Camp David, the Marines of the Executive Flight Detachment of HMX-1 provide helicopter transport to the President and Vice President, with the radio call signs "Marine One" and "Marine Two", respectively. The Executive Flight Detachment provides helicopter transport to Cabinet members and other VIPs. By authority of the 1946 Foreign Service Act, the Marine Security Guards of the Marine Embassy Security Command provide security for American embassies and consulates at more than 140 posts worldwide.
The relationship between the Department of State and the U. S. Marine Corps is nearly as old as the corps itself. For over 200 years, Marines have served at the request of various Secretaries of State. After World War II, an alert, disciplined force was needed to protect American embassies and legations throughout the world. In 1947, a proposal was made that the Department of Defense furnish Marine Corps personnel for Foreign Service guard duty under the provisions of the Foreign Service Act of 1946. A formal Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the Department of State and the Secretary of the Navy on 15 December 1948, 83 Marines were deployed to overseas missions. During the first year of the MSG program, 36 detachments were deployed worldwide; the Marine Corps was founded to serve as an infantry unit aboard naval vessels and was responsible for the security of the ship and its crew by conducting offensive and defensive combat during boarding actions and defending the ship's officers from mutiny.
Continental Marines manned raiding parties, both at ashore. America's first amphibious assault landing occurred early in the Revolutionary War on 3 March 1776 as the Marines gained control of Fort Montague and Fort Nassau, a British ammunition depot and naval port in New Providence, the Bahamas; the role of the Marine Corps has expanded since then. The Advanced Base Doctrine of the early 20th century codified their combat duties ashore, outlining the use of Marines in the seizure of bases and other duties on land to support naval campaigns. Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, Marine detachments served aboard Navy cruisers and aircraft carriers. Marine detachments served in their traditional duties as a ship's landing force, manning the ship's weapons and providing shipboard security. Marine detachments were augmented by members of the ship's company for landing parties, such as in the First Sumatran Expedition of 1832, continuing in the Caribbean and Mexican campaigns of the early 20th centuries.
Fleet Reserve Association
The Fleet Reserve Association is a non-profit U. S. military and veterans organization headquartered in Virginia. Chartered by the United States Congress that represents the interests of enlisted Navy, Coast Guard, Marine veterans and active duty personnel in the United States. FRA represents approximately; the organization was founded in Philadelphia on October, 1922, by Chief Yeoman George L. Carlin, it was chartered on November 11, 1924, by the U. S. Congress; the association is composed of branches located in each State, U. S. territory, several overseas locations. The guiding principles of the FRA are Loyalty Service. In addition to organizing events, members provide assistance at VA clinics, it is active in issue-oriented U. S. politics. Its primary political activity is advocating on behalf of the Sea Service enlisted personnel, including support for benefits such as pay and pensions; the organization has prompts "Americanism and Patriotism" through its essay contest. Conceived as the U. S. Fleet Naval Reserve Association.
The organization was chartered as Fleet Reserve Association under Title_36_of_the_United_States_Code. Chartered by the U. S. Congress; the organization's official monthly full color magazine was launched in 1921 and called Naval Affairs. In December 2006 the magazine's name and volume numbering system changed again, this time to FRAtoday; the publications is 48 pages of content. The Fleet Reserve Association Headquarters is located in Virginia, it is the primary office for the National President and houses the FRA museum, membership services and the magazine editorial offices. Each Branch is assigned to a region; each region oversees 10-30 branches. The Branch is the basic unit of the Fleet Reserve Association and represents a small geographic area such as a single town or a few counties. There are 190 branches in the United States and Philippines; the Branches located overseas are intended to allow active duty military stationed and veterans living overseas to be involved with the Fleet Reserve Association as if they were in the United States.
Members who do not live near a branch are referred to as Members at Large. The Branch is used for formal business such as meetings and a coordination point for community service projects; the Branch will host community events such as bingo, holiday celebrations, be available to other organizations. It is not uncommon for the Branch to contain a bar open during limited hours. A Branch member is distinguished by a navy blue garrison cap with gold piping. Membership peaked for the Fleet Reserve Association at about 190,000 in the mid-1990s. Membership has been decreasing since and is estimated to be about 45,000. A member's FRA service/garrison cap is distinguished by a gold crown, blue sides, gold piping and the Fleet Reserved Association National seal referred to as the Triangle. Members add gold lettering with the member's status such as Life Member, officer title and Branch number or Member at Large; the Branch officer is distinguished by navy blue brim with gold piping. The executive committee representative is distinguished by a red-topped garrison cap with gold piping.
Veterans who served at least one day of enlisted active duty or are serving now in either the Navy, Coast Guard, Marine are eligible for membership in The Fleet Reserve Association. Members must have been honorably discharged or still serving honorably. Notable members of The Fleet Reserve Association have included: Fleet Reserve Association Homepage
A mortar is a simple, man portable, muzzle-loaded weapon, consisting of a smooth-bore metal tube fixed to a base plate with a lightweight bipod mount and a sight. They launch explosive shells in high-arcing ballistic trajectories. Mortars are used as indirect fire weapons for close fire support with a variety of ammunition. Mortars have been used for hundreds of years in siege warfare. Many historians consider the first mortars to have been used at the 1453 siege of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. An Italian account of the 1456 siege of Belgrade by Giovanni da Tagliacozzo said that the Ottoman Turks used seven mortars that fired "stone shots one Italian mile high"; the time of flight of these was long enough that casualties could be avoided by posting observers to give warning of their trajectories. However, earlier mortars were used in Korea in a 1413 naval battle when Korean gunsmiths developed the Wan'gu; the earliest version of the Wan'gu dates back to 1407. Choi Hae-san, the son of Choe Mu-seon, is credited with inventing the first Wan'gu.
Early mortars, such as the Pumhart von Steyr, were large and heavy, could not be transported. Made, these weapons were no more than iron bowls reminiscent of the kitchen and apothecary mortars whence they drew their name. An early transportable mortar was invented by Baron Menno van Coehoorn; this mortar fired an exploding shell. This innovation was taken up, necessitating a new form of naval ship, the bomb vessel. Mortars played a significant role in the Venetian conquest of Morea and in the course of this campaign an ammunition store in the Parthenon was blown up. An early use of these more mobile mortars as field weapons was by British forces in the suppression of the Jacobite rising of 1719 at the Battle of Glen Shiel. High angle trajectory mortars held a great advantage over standard field guns in the rough terrain of the West Highlands of Scotland; the mortar had fallen out of general use in Europe by the Napoleonic era and interest in the weapon was not revived until the beginning of the 20th century.
Mortars were used by both sides during the American Civil War. At the Siege of Vicksburg, General US Grant reported making coehorn mortars "by taking logs of the toughest wood that could be found, boring them out for six- or twelve-pound shells and binding them with strong iron bands; these answered as Coehorns, shells were thrown from them into the trenches of the enemy". During the Russo-Japanese War, Lieutenant-General Leonid Gobyato of the Imperial Russian Army applied the principles of indirect fire from closed firing positions in the field and, with the collaboration of General Roman Kondratenko, he designed the first mortar that fired navy shells; the German Army studied the Siege of Port Arthur, where heavy artillery had been unable to destroy defensive structures like barbed wire and bunkers. As a result, they developed. Used during World War I, they were made in three sizes. World War I saw the introduction of the Stokes mortar, it was the forerunner of all modern mortars in use today.
These modern weapons are light, easy to operate, yet possess enough accuracy and firepower to provide infantry with quality close fire support against soft and hard targets more than any other means. It was not until the Stokes Mortar was devised by Sir Wilfred Stokes in 1915 during the First World War that the modern mortar transportable by one person was born. In the conditions of trench warfare, there was a great need for a versatile and portable weapon that could be manned by troops undercover in the trenches. Stokes's design was rejected in June 1915 because it was unable to use existing stocks of British mortar ammunition, it took the intervention of David Lloyd George and Lieutenant-Colonel J. C. Matheson of the Trench Warfare Supply Department to expedite manufacture of the Stokes mortar; the weapon proved to be useful in the muddy trenches of the Western Front, as a mortar round could be aimed to fall directly into trenches, where artillery shells, due to their low angle of flight, could not go.
The Stokes mortar was a simple muzzle-loaded weapon, consisting of a smoothbore metal tube fixed to a base plate with a lightweight bipod mount. When a mortar bomb was dropped into the tube, an impact sensitive primer in the base of the bomb would make contact with a firing pin at the base of the tube, detonate, firing the bomb towards the target, it could fire as many as 25 bombs per minute and had a maximum range of 800 yards firing the original cylindrical unstabilised projectile. A modified version of the mortar, which fired a modern fin-stabilised streamlined projectile and had a booster charge for longer range, was developed after World War I. By World War II, it could fire as many as 30 bombs per minute, had a range of over 2,500 yards with some shell types; the French developed an improved version of the Stokes mortar as the Brandt Mle 27, further refined as the Brandt Mle 31. These weapons were the prototypes for all subsequent light mortar developments around the world. Mortar carriers are vehicles.
Numerous vehicles have been used to mount morta
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States. It is located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D. C. and has been the residence of every U. S. President since John Adams in 1800; the term "White House" is used as a metonym for the president and his advisers. The residence was designed by Irish-born architect James Hoban in the neoclassical style. Hoban modelled the building on Leinster House in Dublin, a building which today houses the Oireachtas, the Irish legislature. Construction took place between 1800 using Aquia Creek sandstone painted white; when Thomas Jefferson moved into the house in 1801, he added low colonnades on each wing that concealed stables and storage. In 1814, during the War of 1812, the mansion was set ablaze by the British Army in the Burning of Washington, destroying the interior and charring much of the exterior. Reconstruction began immediately, President James Monroe moved into the reconstructed Executive Residence in October 1817.
Exterior construction continued with the addition of the semi-circular South portico in 1824 and the North portico in 1829. Because of crowding within the executive mansion itself, President Theodore Roosevelt had all work offices relocated to the newly constructed West Wing in 1901. Eight years in 1909, President William Howard Taft expanded the West Wing and created the first Oval Office, moved as the section was expanded. In the main mansion, the third-floor attic was converted to living quarters in 1927 by augmenting the existing hip roof with long shed dormers. A newly constructed East Wing was used as a reception area for social events. East Wing alterations were completed in 1946. By 1948, the residence's load-bearing exterior walls and internal wood beams were found to be close to failure. Under Harry S. Truman, the interior rooms were dismantled and a new internal load-bearing steel frame constructed inside the walls. Once this work was completed, the interior rooms were rebuilt; the modern-day White House complex includes the Executive Residence, West Wing, East Wing, the Eisenhower Executive Office Building—the former State Department, which now houses offices for the President's staff and the Vice President—and Blair House, a guest residence.
The Executive Residence is made up of six stories—the Ground Floor, State Floor, Second Floor, Third Floor, as well as a two-story basement. The property is a National Heritage Site owned by the National Park Service and is part of the President's Park. In 2007, it was ranked second on the American Institute of Architects list of "America's Favorite Architecture". Following his April 1789 inauguration, President George Washington occupied two executive mansions in New York City: the Samuel Osgood House at 3 Cherry Street, the Alexander Macomb House at 39–41 Broadway. In May 1790, New York began construction of Government House for his official residence, but he never occupied it; the national capital moved to Philadelphia in December 1790. The July 1790 Residence Act named Philadelphia, Pennsylvania the temporary national capital for a 10-year period while the Federal City was under construction; the City of Philadelphia rented Robert Morris's city house at 190 High Street for Washington's presidential residence.
The first U. S. President occupied the Market Street mansion from November 1790 to March 1797 and altered it in ways that may have influenced the design of the White House; as part of a futile effort to have Philadelphia named the permanent national capital, Pennsylvania built a much grander presidential mansion several blocks away, but Washington declined to occupy it. President John Adams occupied the Market Street mansion from March 1797 to May 1800. On Saturday, November 1, 1800, he became the first president to occupy the White House; the President's House in Philadelphia became a hotel and was demolished in 1832, while the unused presidential mansion became home to the University of Pennsylvania. The President's House was a major feature of Pierre Charles L'Enfant's' plan for the newly established federal city, Washington, D. C.. The architect of the White House was chosen in a design competition which received nine proposals, including one submitted anonymously by Thomas Jefferson. President Washington visited Charleston, South Carolina in May 1791 on his "Southern Tour", saw the under-construction Charleston County Courthouse designed by Irish architect James Hoban.
He is reputed to have met with Hoban then. The following year, he summoned the architect to Philadelphia and met with him in June 1792. On July 16, 1792, the President met with the commissioners of the federal city to make his judgment in the architectural competition, his review is recorded as being brief, he selected Hoban's submission. The building has classical inspiration sources, that could be found directly or indirectly in the Roman architect Vitruvius or in Andrea Palladio styles; the building Hoban designed is verifiably influenced by the upper floors of Leinster House, in Dublin, which became the seat of the Oireachtas. Several other Georgian-era Irish country houses have been suggested as sources of inspiration for the overall floor plan, details like the bow-fronted south front, interior details like the former niches in the present Blue Room; these influences, though undocumented, are cited in the official White House guide, in White
2nd Battalion, 7th Marines
The 2nd Battalion, 7th Marines is a light infantry battalion of the United States Marine Corps. They are based at the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms and consist of 1,200 Marines and Sailors; the battalion falls under the command of the 1st Marine Division. The battalion's current subordinate units are: Headquarters & Service Company Echo Company Fox Company Golf Company Weapons CompanyAt the beginning of World War II, the battalion had three subordinate rifle companies – E, F, G, a weapons company designated as H, a Headquarters Company; as the war progressed, the weapons company was eliminated and the component elements redistributed throughout the headquarters and rifle companies. During the Korean War, the battalion's three rifle companies were designated D, E and F. During the Vietnam War, the battalion was organized under a four rifle company order of battle – E, F, G and H; the battalion was activated on 1 January 1940 at Cuba. On 18 September 1942, 2/7 landed on Guadalcanal.
They fought the Battle of Guadalcanal for four months until they were relieved by elements of the United States Army's Americal Division. The battalion was sent to Australia along with the rest of the 1st Marine Division for rest and refit. 2/7 landed on Cape Gloucester, New Britain on 26 December 1943 under the command of Lieutenant colonel Odell M. Conoley securing an airfield the first day; that night, Japanese Marines counterattacked and 2/7 took the brunt of the assault and the fighting continued throughout the night. By the time the sun began to rise, the entire Japanese force had been wiped out. On 14 January, 2/7 along with the rest of the regiment assaulted and took the last Japanese stronghold on the island, Hill 660. Two days the counter-attack came but the Marines held the hilltop resorting to hand-to-hand fighting; the battalion continued to run patrols around the island to protect against guerrilla attacks from hold-out Japanese soldiers. In March 1943, New Britain were declared secure and on 1 April Marine Division was relieved by the US Army 40th Infantry Division.
2/7, the rest of the 1st Marine Division again returned to Australia. On 15 September 1944, the 7th Marines landed along with the rest of the 1st Marine Division. Note: The 2nd battalion was the only battalion to be held in reserve, they were to go in in the day in support of the 7th Marines. However, Chesty Puller's 1st Marines were having the worst time as they were on the left flank and adjacent to where the mountainous area on Peleliu called the Umurbrogal Pocket began - where all the Japanese holed up. On the night of 20 September the 2nd battalion went out to the transfer line, but there were not enough LVT's. Instead, they had to wait and go in the next morning directly in support of Chesty Puller's 1st Marines; the 2nd battalion went right into the middle of the fighting of the 1st marine regiment. When they landed they were met by intense artillery and mortar fire from Japanese positions that had not been touched by the pre-invasion bombardment. On 20 September, the 7th Marines linked up with the 1st Marines.
The battalion fought on the island for another eight weeks. On 1 April 1945, was part of the 80,000 Marines; the 1st Marine Division landed on the southern portion of Okinawa against light resistance. Their beachhead was secured and supplies began flowing in. Resistance began to become stronger; the 1st Marine Division was ordered into Reserve to protect the right flank of the invasion forces. The battalion fought the Japanese along the coast and was stopped at the Shuri Castle. For 30 days, along with the rest of the Division and the Army 77th Infantry Division, battled the Japanese stronghold. After Okinawa, 2/7 was part of the occupation in China where they were to disarm the Japanese forces there. In addition they were called upon to keep the peace during the bloody civil war between the Chinese Nationalists and Communist forces. In 1947, 2/7 returned to California and were deactivated that year. During the Battle of Chosin Reservoir Captain William Barber earned the Medal of Honor for his actions as commander of Fox 2/7.
F/2/7 held a position known as "Fox Hill" against vastly superior numbers of Chinese infantry, holding the Toktong Pass open and keeping the 5th Marine Regiment and the 7th Marine Regiment from getting cut off at Yudam-ni. His company's actions to keep the pass open, allowed these two regiments to withdrawal from Yudam-ni and consolidate with the rest of the 1st Marine Division at Hagaru-ri; the mission to relieve F/2/7 on top of Fox Hill led to LtCol Raymond Davis commanding officer of 1st Battalion 7th Marines, receiving the Medal of Honor. In addition to Chosin, the Battalion participated in the Inchon Landing, the recapture of Seoul and operations along both the Eastern and Western Fronts. 2/7 was deployed to Vietnam from July 1965 until October 1970 as part of the 7th Marine Regiment, 1st Marine Division. The Battalion operated in the southern half of I Corp most of the time. Qui Nhon, Chu Lai, Da Nang Air Base, Dai Loc and An Hoa. 2/7 were instrumental players in Operation Harvest Moon.
2/7 relocated during January 1990 to Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms and participated in Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait from August 1990 through March 1991 when they redeployed back to the United States. For the rest of the 1990s the battalion took part in the regular Unit Deployment Program rotation to Okinawa. In this scheme, 7th Marine Regiment sequen
Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton
Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton is the major West Coast base of the United States Marine Corps and is one of the largest Marine Corps bases in the US. It is located on the Southern California coast, in San Diego County, bordered by Oceanside to the south, Cleveland National Forest, San Clemente, Orange County to the north, Riverside County to the northeast, Fallbrook to the east; the base was established in 1942 to train U. S. Marines for service in World War II. By October 1944, Camp Pendleton was declared a "permanent installation" and by 1946, it became the home of the 1st Marine Division, it was named after Major General Joseph Henry Pendleton, who had long advocated setting up a training base for the Marine Corps on the west coast. Today it is the home to myriad Operating Force units including the I Marine Expeditionary Force and various training commands. In 1769, a Spanish expedition led by Captain Gaspar de Portolá explored northward from Loreto, Baja California Sur, seeking to reach Monterey Bay, something never before done overland by Europeans.
On July 20 of that year, the expedition arrived in the area now known as Camp Pendleton, as it was the holy day of St. Margaret, they christened the land in the name of Santa Margarita; the expedition went on to establish military outposts and Franciscan missions at San Diego and Monterey. During the next 30 years, 21 missions were established, the most productive one being Mission San Luis Rey, just south of the present-day Camp Pendleton. At that time, San Luis Rey Mission had control over the Santa Margarita area. After 1821, following the Mexican War of Independence from Spain, some of the former members of the Portolà expedition who had stayed on were awarded large land grants by Mexican governors; the retired soldiers were joined as rancheros by prominent businessmen and military leaders. They and their children, the Californios, became the landed gentry of Alta California. In 1841, two brothers, Pio Pico and Andrés Pico, became the first private owners of Rancho Santa Margarita. More land was added to the grant, giving it the name of Rancho Santa Margarita y Las Flores, which stayed with the ranch until the Marine Corps acquired it in 1942.
The design of the ranch's cattle brand is seen in the base's logo today. In 1863, an Englishman named John Forster paid off Pico's gambling debts in return for the deed to the ranch. During his tenure as owner of the ranch, he expanded the ranch house, first built in 1827, developed the rancho into a thriving cattle industry. Forster's heirs, were forced to sell the ranch in 1882 because of a string of bad luck, which included a series of droughts and a fence law that forced Forster to construct fencing around the extensive rancho lands, it was purchased by wealthy cattleman James Clair Flood and managed by Irishman Richard O'Neill, rewarded for his faithful service with half ownership. Under the guidance of O'Neill's son, the ranch began to net a profit of nearly half a million dollars annually, the house was modernized and furnished to its present form. In the early 1940s, both the Army and the Marine Corps were looking for land for a large training base; the Army lost interest in the project, but in February 1942 it was announced that the 122,798 acres of Rancho Santa Margarita y Los Flores was about to be transformed into the largest Marine Corps base in the country.
It was named for Major General Joseph Henry Pendleton who had long advocated the establishment of a West Coast training base. Construction began in April but the base was considered a temporary facility so it was built to minimum standards of wood frame construction. After five months of furious building activity, the 9th Marine Regiment, under Colonel Lemuel C. Shepherd Jr. marched from Camp Elliott in San Diego to Camp Pendleton to be the first troops to occupy the new base. On September 25, 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt dedicated the base. Wartime training facilities at the base included landing craft school, amphibious tractor school, beach battalion school, amphibious communications school, a medical field service school at the naval hospital at Santa Margarita Ranch; this facility was used as a base for discharging soldiers returning from Europe and Asia after World War II ended in 1945, for the processing of their discharge documents for same. During the Korean War, $20 million helped expand and upgrade existing facilities, including the construction of Camp Horno.
When Camp Pendleton trained the country's fighting force for the Korean and Vietnam Wars 200,000 Marines passed through the base on their way to the Far East. Beginning in 1954, Camp Pendleton has hosted a variation of Basic Training familiarization for teenagers age 14 to 17; this training, called "Devil Pups", promotes physical fitness, instills discipline and promotes love of country and the Marine Corps. The camp's stables display a plaque and statue commemorating a horse, Sergeant Reckless, which served with the Marine Corps in Korea. In 1975 Camp Pendleton was the first military base in the U. S. to provide accommodations for Vietnamese evacuees in Operation New Arrivals. Camp Pendleton has continued to grow through renovations, replacing its original tent camps with more than 2,626 buildings and over 500 miles of roads. Efforts today continue to preserve the heritage of Camp Pendleton's founders and the Marine Corps' history; the original ranch house has been declared a National Historic Site as well as the Las Flores Adobe.
The base's diverse geography, spanning over 125,000 acres, plays host to year-round training for Marines