John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh
John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh OM PC PRS was a physicist who, with William Ramsay, discovered argon, an achievement for which he earned the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1904. He discovered the now called Rayleigh scattering, which can be used to explain why the sky is blue. Rayleighs textbook, The Theory of Sound, is referred to by acoustic engineers today. John William Strutt, of Terling Place Essex, suffered from frailty and he attended Harrow School, before going on to the University of Cambridge in 1861 where he studied mathematics at Trinity College, Cambridge. He obtained a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1865, and a Master of Arts in 1868 and he was subsequently elected to a Fellowship of Trinity. He held the post until his marriage to Evelyn Balfour, daughter of James Maitland Balfour and he had three sons with her. In 1873, on the death of his father, John Strutt, 2nd Baron Rayleigh and he was the second Cavendish Professor of Physics at the University of Cambridge, from 1879 to 1884.
He first described dynamic soaring by seabirds in 1883, in the British journal Nature, from 1887 to 1905 he was Professor of Natural Philosophy at the Royal Institution. Around the year 1900 Lord Rayleigh developed the theory of human sound localisation using two binaural cues, interaural phase difference and interaural level difference. The theory posits that we use two primary cues for sound lateralisation, using the difference in the phases of sinusoidal components of the sound, in 1919, Rayleigh served as President of the Society for Psychical Research. The rayl unit of acoustic impedance is named after him, as an advocate that simplicity and theory be part of the scientific method, Lord Rayleigh argued for the principle of similitude. Lord Rayleigh was elected Fellow of the Royal Society on 12 June 1873, from time to time Lord Rayleigh participated in the House of Lords, however, he spoke up only if politics attempted to become involved in science. He died on 30 June 1919, in Witham, Essex and he was succeeded, as the 4th Lord Rayleigh, by his son Robert John Strutt, another well-known physicist.
Lord Rayleigh was buried in the graveyard of All Saints Church in Terling in Essex, though he did not write about the relationship of science and religion, he retained a personal interest in spiritual matters. The Secretary to the Press suggested with many apologies that the reader might suppose that I was the Lord, still, he kept his wish and the quotation was printed in the five-volume collection of scientific papers. What is more, I think that Christ and indeed other spiritually gifted men see further and truer than I do, Lord Rayleigh was the president of the SPR in 1919. He gave an address the year of his death but did not come to any definite conclusions. Craters on Mars and the Moon are named in his honour as well as a type of surface wave known as a Rayleigh wave, the asteroid 22740 Rayleigh was named in his honour on 1 June 2007
A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth as well as the processes that shape it. Geologists usually study geology, although backgrounds in physics, biology, field work is an important component of geology, although many subdisciplines incorporate laboratory work. Some geologists work in the mining business searching for metals and they are in the forefront of natural hazards and disasters prevention and mitigation, studying natural hazards such as earthquakes, volcanic activity, weather storms. Their studies are used to warn the public of the occurrence of these events. Geologists are important contributors to climate change discussions, james Hutton is often viewed as the first modern geologist. In 1785 he presented a paper entitled Theory of the Earth to the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Hutton published a two-volume version of his ideas in 1795. The first geological map of the U. S. was produced in 1809 by William Maclure, in 1807, Maclure commenced the self-imposed task of making a geological survey of the United States.
Almost every state in the Union was traversed and mapped by him and this antedates William Smiths geological map of England by six years, although it was constructed using a different classification of rocks. Sir Charles Lyell first published his famous book, Principles of Geology and this book, which influenced the thought of Charles Darwin, successfully promoted the doctrine of uniformitarianism. This theory states that slow geological processes have occurred throughout the Earths history and are still occurring today, in contrast, catastrophism is the theory that Earths features formed in single, catastrophic events and remained unchanged thereafter. Though Hutton believed in uniformitarianism, the idea was not widely accepted at the time, most geologists need skills in GIS and other mapping techniques. Geology students often spend portions of the year, especially the summer though sometimes during a January term, geologists may concentrate their studies or research in one or more of the following disciplines, the study of dating based on tree ring patterns.
Economic geology, the study of ore genesis, and the mechanisms of ore creation, the applied branch deals with the study of the chemical makeup and behaviour of rocks, and the study of the behaviour of their minerals. Geochronology, the study of isotope geology specifically toward determining the date within the past of rock formation, metamorphism and geological events. Geomorphology, the study of landforms and the processes that create them Hydrogeology, igneous petrology, the study of igneous processes such as igneous differentiation, fractional crystallization and volcanological phenomena. Isotope geology, the case of the composition of rocks to determine the processes of rock. Metamorphic petrology, the study of the effects of metamorphism on minerals, marine geology, the study of the seafloor, involves geophysical, geochemical and paleontological investigations of the ocean floor and coastal margins. Marine geology has strong ties to physical oceanography and plate tectonics, palaeoclimatology, the application of geological science to determine the climatic conditions present in the Earths atmosphere within the Earths history
Arundel Gardens is a street in Notting Hill, located between Ladbroke Grove and Kensington Park Road. It was built in the 1860s, towards the stages of the development of the Ladbroke Estate and they were obliged to pay a ground rent to the landowner, but in return were granted a 99-year lease on the property. The houses on both sides of Arundel Gardens back onto elegant communal gardens, originally known as pleasure grounds, or paddocks, which are typical of the Ladbroke Estate. The original residents of the street tended to be middle or upper-middle class professionals, the 1871 census shows the painter Anthony Montalba living at 19 Arundel Gardens with four daughters, all artists, including Clara, Ellen and Henrietta. The Montalba sisters were regular contributors to the Royal Academy Summer Exhibition during the 1870s, the 1881 census shows one Samuel Bennett and leader writer living at number 13. During World War I Arundel Gardens was hit by a bomb from a Zeppelin, an angry mob attacked the nearby Electric Cinema, believing that its German-born manager was signalling to the Zeppelin raiders from the roof of the cinema.
During World War II Arundel Gardens again suffered from bombing, one local resident, Vere Hodgson, recorded in her diary in 1940, Went to see the houses in Lansdowne Road that caught it. Just heaps of rubble. right on the corner of Ladbroke Grove, the appearance of the street remains little changed today, except for numbers 43-47, on the corner of Ladbroke Grove, which have been replaced by a modern block of flats. A few of the cornices are missing, and some of the houses on the south side have had their brickwork painted over. In 2008 the council planted a number of trees in the street, otherwise the appearance of the street is much as it was when it was originally constructed. A view of Arundel Gardens is shown in the 1999 film Notting Hill, the route of the Notting Hill Carnival passes along Arundel Gardens. The street is described as dull four-story ranges, that on the side being faced with stucco. The authors did however concede that the Eastward vista along the street was closed by attractive buildings built by Thomas Pocock on Kensington Park Road.
Charles Samuel Myers, lived at 27 Arundel Gardens as a boy, in the 1881 census he is listed as an 8-year-old scholar living with his parents, four brothers and four servants. Myers coined the term shock and was co-founder of the British Psychological Society. Sir William Ramsay, lived at 12 Arundel Gardens from 1887 to 1902 and he was Professor of Chemistry at University College and discoverer of the noble gases Helium, Argon and Xenon, for which he won the 1904 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. Retrieved 7 February 2010 http, //www. ladbrokeassociation. org/ History of Arundel Gardens at the Ladbroke Association webpage
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18. It is in group 18 of the table and is a noble gas. Argon is the third-most abundant gas in the Earths atmosphere, at 0. 934% and it is more than twice as abundant as water vapor,23 times as abundant as carbon dioxide, and more than 500 times as abundant as neon. Argon is the most abundant noble gas in Earths crust, comprising 0. 00015% of the crust, nearly all of the argon in Earths atmosphere is radiogenic argon-40, derived from the decay of potassium-40 in the Earths crust. In the universe, argon-36 is by far the most common argon isotope, the name argon is derived from the Greek word ἀργόν, neuter singular form of ἀργός meaning lazy or inactive, as a reference to the fact that the element undergoes almost no chemical reactions. The complete octet in the atomic shell makes argon stable. Its triple point temperature of 83.8058 K is a fixed point in the International Temperature Scale of 1990. Argon is produced industrially by the distillation of liquid air.
Argon is used in incandescent, fluorescent lighting, and other gas-discharge tubes, Argon makes a distinctive blue-green gas laser. Argon is used in fluorescent glow starters, Argon has approximately the same solubility in water as oxygen and is 2.5 times more soluble in water than nitrogen. Argon is colorless, odorless and nontoxic as a solid, liquid or gas, Argon is chemically inert under most conditions and forms no confirmed stable compounds at room temperature. Although argon is a gas, it can form some compounds under extreme conditions. Argon fluorohydride, a compound of argon with fluorine and hydrogen that is stable below 17 K, has been demonstrated. Although the neutral ground-state chemical compounds of argon are presently limited to HArF, such as ArH+, and excited-state complexes, such as ArF, have been demonstrated. Theoretical calculation predicts several more argon compounds that should be stable but have not yet been synthesized, Argon was suspected to be a component of air by Henry Cavendish in 1785.
Argon was first isolated from air in 1894 by Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay at University College London by removing oxygen, carbon dioxide and they had determined that nitrogen produced from chemical compounds was 0. 5% lighter than nitrogen from the atmosphere. The difference was slight, but it was important enough to attract their attention for many months and they concluded that there was another gas in the air mixed in with the nitrogen. Argon was encountered in 1882 through independent research of H. F. Newall, each observed new lines in the color spectrum of air that did not match known elements
Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10 and is a noble gas. Neon is a colorless, inert gas under standard conditions. It was discovered in 1898 as one of the three residual rare inert elements remaining in dry air, after nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide were removed. Neon was the second of three rare gases to be discovered, and was immediately recognized as a new element from its bright red emission spectrum. The name neon is derived from the Greek word, νέον, neuter singular form of νέος, Neon is chemically inert and forms no uncharged chemical compounds. The compounds of neon include ionic molecules, molecules held together by van der Waals forces and clathrates, during cosmic nucleogenesis of the elements, large amounts of neon are built up from the alpha-capture fusion process in stars. Although neon is a common element in the universe and solar system. It composes about 18.2 ppm of air by volume, the reason for neons relative scarcity on Earth and the inner planets is that neon is highly volatile and forms no compounds to fix it to solids.
As a result, it escaped from the planetesimals under the warmth of the newly ignited Sun in the early Solar System, even the atmosphere of Jupiter is somewhat depleted of neon, presumably for this reason. It is lighter than air, causing it to escape even from Earths atmosphere, Neon gives a distinct reddish-orange glow when used in low-voltage neon glow lamps, high-voltage discharge tubes and neon advertising signs. The red emission line from neon causes the well known red light of helium–neon lasers, Neon is used in some plasma tube and refrigerant applications but has few other commercial uses. It is commercially extracted by the distillation of liquid air. Since air is the source, it is considerably more expensive than helium. Neon, was discovered in 1898 by the British chemists Sir William Ramsay, Neon was discovered when Ramsay chilled a sample of air until it became a liquid, warmed the liquid and captured the gases as they boiled off. The gases nitrogen and argon had been identified, first to be identified was krypton.
The next, after krypton had been removed, was a gas which gave a brilliant red light under spectroscopic discharge and this gas, identified in June, was named neon, the Greek analogue of novum, suggested by Ramsays son. A second gas was reported along with neon, having approximately the same density as argon but with a different spectrum – Ramsay. However, subsequent spectroscopic analysis revealed it to be contaminated with carbon monoxide
Chemistry is a branch of physical science that studies the composition, structure and change of matter. Chemistry is sometimes called the science because it bridges other natural sciences, including physics. For the differences between chemistry and physics see comparison of chemistry and physics, the history of chemistry can be traced to alchemy, which had been practiced for several millennia in various parts of the world. The word chemistry comes from alchemy, which referred to a set of practices that encompassed elements of chemistry, philosophy, astronomy, mysticism. An alchemist was called a chemist in popular speech, and the suffix -ry was added to this to describe the art of the chemist as chemistry, the modern word alchemy in turn is derived from the Arabic word al-kīmīā. In origin, the term is borrowed from the Greek χημία or χημεία and this may have Egyptian origins since al-kīmīā is derived from the Greek χημία, which is in turn derived from the word Chemi or Kimi, which is the ancient name of Egypt in Egyptian.
Alternately, al-kīmīā may derive from χημεία, meaning cast together, in retrospect, the definition of chemistry has changed over time, as new discoveries and theories add to the functionality of the science. The term chymistry, in the view of noted scientist Robert Boyle in 1661, in 1837, Jean-Baptiste Dumas considered the word chemistry to refer to the science concerned with the laws and effects of molecular forces. More recently, in 1998, Professor Raymond Chang broadened the definition of chemistry to mean the study of matter, early civilizations, such as the Egyptians Babylonians, Indians amassed practical knowledge concerning the arts of metallurgy and dyes, but didnt develop a systematic theory. Greek atomism dates back to 440 BC, arising in works by such as Democritus and Epicurus. In 50 BC, the Roman philosopher Lucretius expanded upon the theory in his book De rerum natura, unlike modern concepts of science, Greek atomism was purely philosophical in nature, with little concern for empirical observations and no concern for chemical experiments.
Work, particularly the development of distillation, continued in the early Byzantine period with the most famous practitioner being the 4th century Greek-Egyptian Zosimos of Panopolis. He formulated Boyles law, rejected the four elements and proposed a mechanistic alternative of atoms. Before his work, many important discoveries had been made, the Scottish chemist Joseph Black and the Dutchman J. B. English scientist John Dalton proposed the theory of atoms, that all substances are composed of indivisible atoms of matter. Davy discovered nine new elements including the alkali metals by extracting them from their oxides with electric current, british William Prout first proposed ordering all the elements by their atomic weight as all atoms had a weight that was an exact multiple of the atomic weight of hydrogen. The inert gases, called the noble gases were discovered by William Ramsay in collaboration with Lord Rayleigh at the end of the century, thereby filling in the basic structure of the table.
Organic chemistry was developed by Justus von Liebig and others, following Friedrich Wöhlers synthesis of urea which proved that organisms were, in theory
The Davy Medal is awarded by the Royal Society of London for an outstandingly important recent discovery in any branch of chemistry. Named after Humphry Davy, the medal is awarded with a gift of £1000, the medal was first awarded in 1877 to Robert Wilhelm Bunsen and Gustav Robert Kirchhoff for their researches & discoveries in spectrum analysis, and has since been awarded 131 times. The medal is awarded annually, and unlike other Royal Society medals, such as the Hughes Medal, Royal Society General Davy Medal
Govan is a district and former burgh now part of southwest City of Glasgow, Scotland. It is situated 2.5 miles west of Glasgow city centre, on the bank of the River Clyde, opposite the mouth of the River Kelvin. Historically it was part of the County of Lanark, according to medieval legend, Constantine, a 7th-century King of Strathclyde, founded a monastery under the rule of Columbanus in Govan. During the Middle Ages, Govan was the site of a ferry linked the area with Partick for seasonal cattle drovers. In the 18th and 19th centuries, textile mills and coal mining were important, in 1864, Govan gained burgh status, and was Scotlands fifth largest burgh. It was incorporated into the city of Glasgow in 1912, recent studies of the archaeology of old Govan have revealed the presence of an ancient Christian church. Two associated Christian burials are dated to the 5th or 6th centuries. Govan is believed to have been part of a kingdom ruled from Dumbarton Rock, known as Alt Clut, the rock on the Clyde.
During the Viking Age, perhaps following the sack of Dumbarton Rock in 878, according to John of Fordun, Constantine, a 7th-century king of Strathclyde, founded a monastery at Govan, where he died and was buried. In 1855, a carved sandstone sarcophagus was found during digging in the churchyard. It is now kept inside the church and it may have been used to contain the body or relics of Constantine, although the style of carving indicates an origin in the 10th or 11th centuries. This King Constantine is first mentioned in the 12th-century Life of St. Kentigern by Jocelyn of Furness and he is likely a literary invention. The early church in Govan is dedicated to a Saint Constantine, Govans earliest recorded name may be found in the Historia Regnum Anglorum attributed to Symeon of Durham. This is a 12th-century Latin source, but one believed to be based on earlier materials. Based on this, Govans Cumbric language name has been reconstructed as *uovan, Govan is Baile a Ghobhainn in Scottish Gaelic.
Bishop Leslie in his Scotia Descriptio of 1578 says it got its name from the excellence of its ale, whereas Chalmers in his Caledonia says it is derived from Scottish Gaelic, the earliest references to Govan are found in connection with the Christian church. In 1136, when Glasgow Cathedral was formally consecrated, King David I gave to the See the lands of Partick and of the church at Govan, the Govan Old Parish Church was rebuilt in 1762,1826, and again 1884-1888. Within it and its roughly circular churchyard is one of the finest collections of Early Christian stones in the United Kingdom, by the 16th century, extensive coal mine workings had been developed around Craigton and Drumoyne
Development in this region is restricted by the Metropolitan Green Belt. Other large settlements include the county town of Aylesbury, Marlow in the south near the Thames and Princes Risborough in the west near Oxford. Some areas without rail links to London, such as around the old county town of Buckingham. The largest town is Milton Keynes in the northeast, which with the area is administered as a unitary authority separately to the rest of Buckinghamshire. The remainder of the county is administered by Buckinghamshire County Council as a non-metropolitan county, in national elections, Buckinghamshire is considered a reliable supporter of the Conservative Party. A large part of the Chiltern Hills, an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, runs through the south of the county and attracts many walkers, in this area older buildings are often made from local flint and red brick. Chequers, an estate owned by the government, is the country retreat of the incumbent Prime Minister. To the north of the county lies rolling countryside in the Vale of Aylesbury, the Thames forms part of the county’s southwestern boundary.
Notable service amenities in the county are Pinewood Film Studios, Dorney rowing lake, many national companies have offices in Milton Keynes. Heavy industry and quarrying is limited, with agriculture predominating after service industries, the name Buckinghamshire is Anglo-Saxon in origin and means The district of Buccas home. Buccas home refers to Buckingham in the north of the county, the county has been so named since about the 12th century, the county has existed since it was a subdivision of the kingdom of Mercia. Historically, the biggest change to the county came in the 19th century, Buckinghamshire is a popular home for London commuters, leading to greater local affluence, some pockets of relative deprivation remain. As a result, most county institutions are now based in the south of the county or Milton Keynes, the county can be split into two sections geographically. The county includes parts of two of the four longest rivers in England, the River Thames forms the southern boundary with Berkshire, which has crept over the border at Eton and Slough so that the river is no longer the sole boundary between the two counties.
The River Great Ouse rises just outside the county in Northamptonshire and flows east through Buckingham, Milton Keynes, the main branch of the Grand Union Canal passes through the county as do its arms to Slough, Aylesbury and Buckingham. The canal has been incorporated into the landscaping of Milton Keynes, the southern part of the county is dominated by the Chiltern Hills. The two highest points in Buckinghamshire are Haddington Hill in Wendover Woods at 267 metres above sea level, quarrying has taken place for chalk, clay for brickmaking and gravel and sand in the river valleys. Flint, extracted from quarries, was used to build older local buildings
Otto Hahn, OBE, ForMemRS was a German chemist and pioneer in the fields of radioactivity and radiochemistry. He was exclusively awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1944 for the discovery and he is referred to as the father of nuclear chemistry. Hahn was an opponent of socialism and Jewish persecution by the Nazi Party. Albert Einstein wrote that Hahn was one of the few who stood upright. After World War II, Hahn became a campaigner against the use of nuclear energy as a weapon. He served as the last President of the Kaiser Wilhelm Society in 1946, considered by many to be a model for scholarly excellence and personal integrity, he became one of the most influential and respected citizens of the new Federal Republic of Germany. Hahn was the youngest son of Heinrich Hahn, a glazier and entrepreneur. Together with his brothers Karl and Julius, Otto was raised in a sheltered environment, at the age of 15, he began to take a special interest in chemistry, and carried out simple experiments in the laundry room of the family home.
His father wanted Otto to study architecture, as he had built or acquired several residential and business properties, in 1897, after taking his Abitur at the Klinger Oberrealschule in Frankfurt, Hahn began to study chemistry and mineralogy at the University of Marburg. His subsidiary subjects were physics and philosophy, Hahn joined the Students Association of Natural Sciences and Medicine, a student fraternity and a forerunner of todays Landsmannschaft Nibelungia. He spent his third and fourth semester studying under Adolf von Baeyer at the University of Munich, in 1901, Hahn received his doctorate in Marburg for a dissertation entitled On Bromine Derivates of Isoeugenol, a topic in classical organic chemistry. Hahns intention had been to work in industry, with this in mind, and to improve his knowledge of English, he took up a post at University College London in 1904, working under Sir William Ramsay, known for having discovered the inert gases. Here Hahn worked on radiochemistry, at time a very new field.
In early 1905, in the course of his work with salts of radium, Hahn discovered a new substance he called radiothorium, Ramsay was very enthused when yet another new element was found in his institute, and he intended to announce the discovery in a correspondingly suitable way. In accordance with tradition this should be done before the committee of the venerable Royal Society, at the session of the Royal Society on the 16 March 1905 Ramsay communicated Hahns discovery of radiothorium, and even the press was interested. The Daily Telegraph informed its readers, A NEW ELEMENT - Very soon the scientific papers will be agog with a new discovery which has added to the many brilliant triumphs of Gower Street. Its activity is at least 250,000 times as great as that of thorium and it gives off a gas, identical with the radioactive emanation from thorium. - The discoverer read a paper on the subject to the Royal Society last week, and this should rank and it was the first of more than 250 scientific publications of Otto Hahn in the field of radiochemistry
Andrew Ramsay (geologist)
Sir Andrew Crombie Ramsay was a Scottish geologist. He was first stationed at Tenby, and to that circumstance may be attributed the fact that so much of his work dealt with Wales. His first book, The Geology of the Isle of Arran, was published in 1841, in 1845 he became local director for Great Britain, but he continued to carry on a certain amount of field-work until 1854. In 1866 he published The Geology of North Wales, of which an edition was published in 1881. He was chosen as a professor of geology at University College, London, in 1848, eleven years he was elected to the presidential chair of the Geological Society of London, and in 1872 he succeeded Murchison as director-general of the Geological Survey. In 1880 he acted as president of the British Association at Swansea, in 1860 he published a book entitled The Old Glaciers of Switzerland and North Wales. The study of this led him to discuss the Glacial Origin of Certain Lakes in Switzerland. He dealt with the origin of The Red Rocks of England and The River Courses of England and his lectures to working men, given in 1863 in the Museum of Practical Geology, formed the nucleus of his Physical Geology and Geography of Great Britain.
He died at Beaumaris in Anglesey and is buried at St Sadwrns church in Llansadwrn where his grave is marked by a glacial erratic boulder, clan Ramsay This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. article name needed. Memoir of Sir Andrew Crombie Ramsay
Study of structure includes many physical and chemical methods to determine the chemical composition and the chemical constitution of organic compounds and materials. In the modern era, the range extends further into the table, with main group elements, Group 1 and 2 organometallic compounds. They either form the basis of, or are important constituents of, many products including pharmaceuticals and products made from them, plastics and explosives. Before the nineteenth century, chemists generally believed that compounds obtained from living organisms were endowed with a force that distinguished them from inorganic compounds. According to the concept of vitalism, organic matter was endowed with a vital force, during the first half of the nineteenth century, some of the first systematic studies of organic compounds were reported. Around 1816 Michel Chevreul started a study of soaps made from various fats and he separated the different acids that, in combination with the alkali, produced the soap.
Since these were all compounds, he demonstrated that it was possible to make a chemical change in various fats, producing new compounds. In 1828 Friedrich Wöhler produced the chemical urea, a constituent of urine, from inorganic starting materials. The event is now accepted as indeed disproving the doctrine of vitalism. In 1856 William Henry Perkin, while trying to manufacture quinine accidentally produced the organic dye now known as Perkins mauve and his discovery, made widely known through its financial success, greatly increased interest in organic chemistry. A crucial breakthrough for organic chemistry was the concept of chemical structure, ehrlich popularized the concepts of magic bullet drugs and of systematically improving drug therapies. His laboratory made decisive contributions to developing antiserum for diphtheria and standardizing therapeutic serums, early examples of organic reactions and applications were often found because of a combination of luck and preparation for unexpected observations.
The latter half of the 19th century however witnessed systematic studies of organic compounds, the development of synthetic indigo is illustrative. The production of indigo from plant sources dropped from 19,000 tons in 1897 to 1,000 tons by 1914 thanks to the methods developed by Adolf von Baeyer. In 2002,17,000 tons of indigo were produced from petrochemicals. In the early part of the 20th Century and enzymes were shown to be large organic molecules, the multiple-step synthesis of complex organic compounds is called total synthesis. Total synthesis of natural compounds increased in complexity to glucose. For example, cholesterol-related compounds have opened ways to synthesize complex human hormones, since the start of the 20th century, complexity of total syntheses has been increased to include molecules of high complexity such as lysergic acid and vitamin B12