Germans are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry and history. German is the shared mother tongue of a substantial majority of ethnic Germans; the English term Germans has referred to the German-speaking population of the Holy Roman Empire since the Late Middle Ages. Since the outbreak of the Protestant Reformation within the Holy Roman Empire, German society has been characterized by a Catholic-Protestant divide. Of 100 million native speakers of German in the world 80 million consider themselves Germans. There are an additional 80 million people of German ancestry in the United States, Argentina, South Africa, the post-Soviet states, France, each accounting for at least 1 million. Thus, the total number of Germans lies somewhere between 100 and more than 150 million, depending on the criteria applied. Today, people from countries with German-speaking majorities most subscribe to their own national identities and may or may not self-identify as ethnically German.
The German term Deutsche originates from the Old High German word diutisc, referring to the Germanic "language of the people". It is not clear how if at all, the word was used as an ethnonym in Old High German. Used as a noun, ein diutscher in the sense of "a German" emerges in Middle High German, attested from the second half of the 12th century; the Old French term alemans is taken from the name of the Alamanni. It was loaned into Middle English as almains in the early 14th century; the word Dutch is attested in English from the 14th century, denoting continental West Germanic dialects and their speakers. While in most Romance languages the Germans have been named from the Alamanni, the Old Norse and Estonian names for the Germans were taken from that of the Saxons. In Slavic languages, the Germans were given the name of němьci with a meaning "foreigner, one who does not speak "; the English term Germans is only attested from the mid-16th century, based on the classical Latin term Germani used by Julius Caesar and Tacitus.
It replaced Dutch and Almains, the latter becoming obsolete by the early 18th century. The Germans are a Germanic people. Part of the Holy Roman Empire, around 300 independent German states emerged during its decline after the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 ending the Thirty Years War; these states formed into modern Germany in the 19th century. The concept of a German ethnicity is linked to Germanic tribes of antiquity in central Europe; the early Germans originated on the North German Plain as well as southern Scandinavia. By the 2nd century BC, the number of Germans was increasing and they began expanding into eastern Europe and southward into Celtic territory. During antiquity these Germanic tribes remained separate from each other and did not have writing systems at that time. In the European Iron Age the area, now Germany was divided into the La Tène horizon in Southern Germany and the Jastorf culture in Northern Germany. By 55 BC, the Germans had reached the Danube river and had either assimilated or otherwise driven out the Celts who had lived there, had spread west into what is now Belgium and France.
Conflict between the Germanic tribes and the forces of Rome under Julius Caesar forced major Germanic tribes to retreat to the east bank of the Rhine. Roman emperor Augustus in 12 BC ordered the conquest of the Germans, but the catastrophic Roman defeat at the Battle of the Teutoburg Forest resulted in the Roman Empire abandoning its plans to conquer Germania. Germanic peoples in Roman territory were culturally Romanized, although much of Germania remained free of direct Roman rule, Rome influenced the development of German society the adoption of Christianity by the Germans who obtained it from the Romans. In Roman-held territories with Germanic populations, the Germanic and Roman peoples intermarried, Roman and Christian traditions intermingled; the adoption of Christianity would become a major influence in the development of a common German identity. The first major public figure to speak of a German people in general, was the Roman figure Tacitus in his work Germania around 100 AD; however an actual united German identity and ethnicity did not exist and it would take centuries of development of German culture until the concept of a German ethnicity began to become a popular identity.
The Germanic peoples during the Migrations Period came into contact with other peoples. The Limes Germanicus was breached in AD 260. Migrating Germanic tribes commingled with the local Gallo-Roman populations in what is now Swabia and Bavaria; the arrival of the Huns in Europe resulted in Hun conquest of large parts of Eastern Europe, the Huns were allies of the Roman Empire who fought against Germanic tribes, but the Huns cooperated with the Germanic tribe of the Ostrogoths, large numbers of Germans lived within the lands of the Hunnic Empire of
Harris Brown McDowell Jr. was an American farmer and politician from Middletown in New Castle County, Delaware. He was a member of the Democratic Party, who served in the Delaware General Assembly and five terms as U. S. Representative from Delaware. McDowell was born near Delaware, he attended the public schools of Middletown, graduated from Beacom Business College in Wilmington. He lived in Middletown, was engaged in farming in the insurance and real estate business, was a member of the State Board of Agriculture from 1937 until 1940. McDowell served in the State House during the 1941/42 session and in the State Senate for the 1943/44 and 1945/46 sessions. During those years he was a director of Interstate Milk Producers Cooperative and member of Delaware Farm Bureau from 1941 until 1948, he served as Secretary of State for Delaware during Governor Elbert N. Carvel's first term, from 1949 until 1953 and was a member of New Castle County Zoning Commission in 1953 and 1954. McDowell was elected to the U.
S. Representatives in 1954, defeating Republican Lillian I. Martin. During this term, he served with the Democratic majority in the 84th Congress, he lost his bid for a second term in 1956 to Republican Harry G. Haskell Jr. McDowell was elected again to the U. S. Representatives in 1958, defeating incumbent Republican U. S. Representative Harry G. Haskell Jr. and won election three more times defeating Republicans James T. McKinstry in 1960, Wilmer F. Williams in 1962, James H. Snowden in 1964. During these terms, he served with the Democratic majority in the 86th, 87th, 88th, 89th Congress, he lost his bid for a sixth term in 1966 to William V. Roth Jr. a Wilmington lawyer. His support of President Lyndon Johnson's war policies may have contributed to his defeat. In all, he served twice, once from January 3, 1955 until January 3, 1957, again from January 3, 1959 until January 3, 1967, during the administrations of U. S. Presidents Dwight D. Eisenhower, John F. Kennedy, Lyndon B. Johnson. McDowell is buried in the Forest Presbyterian Cemetery there.
His son, Harris McDowell III, has served in the Delaware Senate since 1977. Elections are held the first Tuesday after November 1. Members of the General Assembly take office the second Tuesday of January. State Senators have a four-year term and State Representatives have a two-year term. U. S. Representatives have a two-year term. Martin, Roger. Elbert N. Carvel. Wilmington, Delaware: Delaware Heritage Press. ISBN 0-924117-08-7. Hoffecker, Carol E.. Honest John Williams. Newark, Delaware: University of Delaware Press. Martin, Roger A.. Memoirs of the Senate. Newark, Delaware: Roger A. Martin. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress Delaware’s Members of Congress Harris Brown McDowell Jr. entry at The Political Graveyard
Max Sieben Baucus is a retired American politician and diplomat who served as a United States Senator from Montana from 1978 to 2014. A member of the Democratic Party, he was a U. S. Senator for nearly 36 years, making him the longest-serving Senator in Montana history. President Barack Obama appointed Baucus to replace Gary Locke as the 11th United States Ambassador to China, a position that he held from 2014 until 2017; as the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Finance, Baucus played an influential role in the debate over health care reform in the United States. He was chairman of the Joint Committee on Taxation, a member of the Senate Committee on Agriculture and Forestry and the Senate Committee on Environment and Public Works, was chairman of the Subcommittee on Transportation and Infrastructure. Before his election to the Senate, Baucus was a member of the United States House of Representatives from 1975 to 1978, representing Montana's 1st congressional district, he served in the Montana House of Representatives from 1973 to 1974.
Max Baucus was born on December 11, 1941 in Helena, Montana, to Jean Sheriff, Stephen Enke, Ph. D. a demographer and economist. His father, born in British Columbia, was of German and Scottish descent, his mother had English and German ancestry. Baucus lived in California until he was two, when his mother returned to Helena, she married John J. Baucus, she and Max Baucus took his name. Baucus graduated from Helena High School in 1959. After attending local public schools in his hometown of Helena, he attended Carleton College in Minnesota for a year before transferring to Stanford University, where he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in economics in 1964, was a member of the Sigma Alpha Epsilon fraternity. After graduating, he attended Stanford Law School and graduated with a Juris Doctor degree in 1967. After finishing law school, Baucus spent three years as a lawyer at the Securities and Exchange Commission in Washington, D. C, he moved back to his native Montana in 1971 to serve as the executive director of the state's Constitutional Convention, opening a law office in Missoula, Montana.
In November 1972, Baucus was elected to the Montana House of Representatives as a state representative from Missoula. In November 1974 he was elected to the United States House of Representatives, was re-elected in 1976. Baucus was elected to the U. S. Senate on November 7, 1978 for the term beginning January 3, 1979, but was subsequently appointed to the seat by Montana's Democratic Governor Thomas Lee Judge on December 15, 1978 to fill the brief vacancy created by Senator Paul G. Hatfield's resignation. On April 23, 2013, a Democratic official confirmed. Committee on Agriculture and Forestry Subcommittee on Domestic and Foreign Marketing and Plant and Animal Health Subcommittee on Production, Income Protection and Price Support Subcommittee on Hunger and Family Farms Committee on Finance As Chairman of the full committee, Baucus may serve as an ex officio member of all subcommittees of which he is not a full member. Subcommittee on Taxation, IRS Oversight, Long-term Growth Subcommittee on Fiscal Responsibility and Economic Growth Committee on Environment and Public Works Subcommittee on Clean Air and Nuclear Safety Subcommittee on Superfund and Environmental Health Subcommittee on Transportation and Infrastructure Joint Committee on Taxation Joint Select Committee on Deficit Reduction As a Democratic member of the Senate, Baucus was conservative, broke with his party on the issues of taxes, the environment, health care, gun control.
The web site That's My Congress gives him a 23 percent rating on progressive issues. NARAL Pro-Choice America's political action committee endorsed Baucus during his 2008 election campaign; the American Civil Liberties Union rated Baucus at 60 percent in December 2002, indicating a mixed civil rights voting record. Baucus voted against giving voting representation to the District of Columbia. In 2006, the Human Rights Campaign gave Baucus a 67% overall rating indicating having a mixed record on voting for gay rights. In 1996 Baucus voted in favor of the Defense of Marriage Act which prohibited "marriage between members of the same sex in federal law, provide that no state is required to recognize same-sex marriages performed in other states" and defined marriage as being between a single man and a single woman. However, in 2004 he voted against the proposed constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage and in June 2012, he definitively spoke out in support for same-sex marriage, he has supported measures to curb job hate crimes based on sexual orientation.
He voted in favor of the Don't Ask, Don't Tell Repeal Act of 2010. In 2012, Baucus added to a transportation bill in Congress that extended the regulations covering cigarette manufacturers to "roll your own cigarette" stores that operate mass cigarette rolling machines. In 1994, Baucus cast a pivotal vote in favor of Senator Dianne Feinstein's "Assault Weapons" Ban. In 2013, Baucus was one of four Democrats to vote against the Manchin-Toomey Amendment to expand background checks for potential gun buyers. In 1999, Baucus was the only Democrat to vote against an amendment by Senator Frank Lautenberg that sought to "regulate the sale of firearms at gun shows". Baucus can be found hunting and fishing on public lands around Montana. Baucus has a 74 % pro-business voting record, he twice voted to make filing bankruptcy more difficult for debtors, once in July 2001 to
Sweden the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian Nordic country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and north and Finland to the east, is connected to Denmark in the southwest by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund, a strait at the Swedish-Danish border. At 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the largest country in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union and the fifth largest country in Europe by area. Sweden has a total population of 10.2 million. It has a low population density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre; the highest concentration is in the southern half of the country. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats and Swedes and constituting the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is forested. Sweden is part of the geographical area of Fennoscandia; the climate is in general mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence, that in spite of this still retains warm continental summers.
Today, the sovereign state of Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state, like its neighbour Norway. The capital city is Stockholm, the most populous city in the country. Legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister. Sweden is a unitary state divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. An independent Swedish state emerged during the early 12th century. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century killed about a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League threatened Scandinavia's culture and languages; this led to the forming of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, which Sweden left in 1523. When Sweden became involved in the Thirty Years War on the Reformist side, an expansion of its territories began and the Swedish Empire was formed; this became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, ending with the annexation of present-day Finland by Russia in 1809.
The last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since Sweden has been at peace, maintaining an official policy of neutrality in foreign affairs; the union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905. Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars and the Cold War, albeit Sweden has since 2009 moved towards cooperation with NATO. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995, but declined NATO membership, as well as Eurozone membership following a referendum, it is a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides universal health care and tertiary education for its citizens, it has the world's eleventh-highest per capita income and ranks in numerous metrics of national performance, including quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic competitiveness, equality and human development.
The name Sweden was loaned from Dutch in the 17th century to refer to Sweden as an emerging great power. Before Sweden's imperial expansion, Early Modern English used Swedeland. Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod, which meant "people of the Swedes"; this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige means "realm of the Swedes", excluding the Geats in Götaland. Variations of the name Sweden are used in most languages, with the exception of Danish and Norwegian using Sverige, Faroese Svøríki, Icelandic Svíþjóð, the more notable exception of some Finnic languages where Ruotsi and Rootsi are used, names considered as referring to the people from the coastal areas of Roslagen, who were known as the Rus', through them etymologically related to the English name for Russia; the etymology of Swedes, thus Sweden, is not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning "one's own", referring to one's own Germanic tribe. Sweden's prehistory begins in the Allerød oscillation, a warm period around 12,000 BC, with Late Palaeolithic reindeer-hunting camps of the Bromme culture at the edge of the ice in what is now the country's southernmost province, Scania.
This period was characterised by small bands of hunter-gatherer-fishers using flint technology. Sweden is first described in a written source in Germania by Tacitus in 98 AD. In Germania 44 and 45 he mentions the Swedes as a powerful tribe with ships that had a prow at each end. Which kings ruled these Suiones is unknown, but Norse mythology presents a long line of legendary and semi-legendary kings going back to the last centuries BC; as for literacy in Sweden itself, the runic script was in use among the south Scandinavian elite by at least the 2nd century AD, but all that has come down to the present from the Roman Period is curt inscriptions on artefacts of male names, demonstrating th
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprises the legislature of the United States. The Senate chamber is located in the north wing of the Capitol, in Washington, D. C; the composition and powers of the Senate are established by Article One of the United States Constitution. The Senate is composed of senators; each state, regardless of its population size, is represented by two senators who serve staggered terms of six years. There being at present 50 states in the Union, there are presently 100 senators. From 1789 until 1913, senators were appointed by legislatures of the states; as the upper chamber of Congress, the Senate has several powers of advice and consent which are unique to it. These include the approval of treaties, the confirmation of Cabinet secretaries, Supreme Court justices, federal judges, flag officers, regulatory officials, other federal executive officials and other federal uniformed officers.
In addition to these, in cases wherein no candidate receives a majority of electors for Vice President, the duty falls to the Senate to elect one of the top two recipients of electors for that office. Furthermore, the Senate has the responsibility of conducting the trials of those impeached by the House; the Senate is considered both a more deliberative and more prestigious body than the House of Representatives due to its longer terms, smaller size, statewide constituencies, which led to a more collegial and less partisan atmosphere. The presiding officer of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States, President of the Senate. In the Vice President's absence, the President Pro Tempore, customarily the senior member of the party holding a majority of seats, presides over the Senate. In the early 20th century, the practice of majority and minority parties electing their floor leaders began, although they are not constitutional officers; the drafters of the Constitution created a bicameral Congress as a compromise between those who felt that each state, since it was sovereign, should be represented, those who felt the legislature must directly represent the people, as the House of Commons did in Great Britain.
This idea of having one chamber represent people while the other gives equal representation to states regardless of population, was known as the Connecticut Compromise. There was a desire to have two Houses that could act as an internal check on each other. One was intended to be a "People's House" directly elected by the people, with short terms obliging the representatives to remain close to their constituents; the other was intended to represent the states to such extent as they retained their sovereignty except for the powers expressly delegated to the national government. The Senate was thus not designed to serve the people of the United States equally; the Constitution provides that the approval of both chambers is necessary for the passage of legislation. First convened in 1789, the Senate of the United States was formed on the example of the ancient Roman Senate; the name is derived from Latin for council of elders. James Madison made the following comment about the Senate: In England, at this day, if elections were open to all classes of people, the property of landed proprietors would be insecure.
An agrarian law would soon take place. If these observations be just, our government ought to secure the permanent interests of the country against innovation. Landholders ought to have a share in the government, to support these invaluable interests, to balance and check the other, they ought to be so constituted. The Senate, ought to be this body. Article Five of the Constitution stipulates that no constitutional amendment may be created to deprive a state of its equal suffrage in the Senate without that state's consent; the District of Columbia and all other territories are not entitled to representation allowed to vote in either House of the Congress. The District of Columbia elects two "shadow U. S. Senators", but they are officials of the D. C. City Government and not members of the U. S. Senate; the United States has had 50 states since 1959, thus the Senate has had 100 senators since 1959. The disparity between the most and least populous states has grown since the Connecticut Compromise, which granted each state two members of the Senate and at least one member of the House of Representatives, for a total minimum of three presidential electors, regardless of population.
In 1787, Virginia had ten times the population of Rhode Island, whereas today California has 70 times the population of Wyoming, based on the 1790 and 2000 censuses. This means some citizens are two orders of magnitude better represented in the Senate than those in other states. Seats in the House of Representatives are proportionate to the population of each state, reducing the disparity of representation. Before the adoption of the Seventeenth Amendment in 1913, senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. Problems with repeated vacant seats due to the inability of a legislature to elect senators, intrastate political struggles, bribery and intimidation had led to a growing movement to amend the Constitution to allow for the direct election of senators; the party composition of the Senate during the 116th Congress: Art
University of Oregon
The University of Oregon is a public flagship research university in Eugene, Oregon. Founded in 1876, the institution's 295-acre campus is along the Willamette River. Since July 2014, UO has been governed by the Board of Trustees of the University of Oregon; the university has a Carnegie Classification of "highest research activity" and has 19 research centers and institutes. UO was admitted to the Association of American Universities in 1969; the University of Oregon is organized into five colleges and seven professional schools and a graduate school. Furthermore, UO offers 316 graduate degree programs. Most academic programs follow the 10 week Quarter System. UO student-athletes compete as the Ducks and are part of the Pac-12 Conference in the National Collegiate Athletic Association. With eighteen varsity teams, the Oregon Ducks are best known for their football team and track and field program; the university's motto, Mens agitat molem, is shared by the Military Academy of the German Armed Forces founded in 1957, the University of Warwick founded in 1965, Eindhoven University of Technology founded in 1956.
Book VI, line 727 of the Aeneid by Virgil has been identified as the first written record of this thought. The Oregon State Legislature established the university on October 12, 1872, despite the new state's funding woes; the residents of Eugene struggled to help finance the institution, holding numerous fundraising events such as strawberry festivals, church socials, produce sales. They raised $27,500, enough to buy eighteen acres of land at a cost of $2,500; the doors opened in 1876 with the name of Oregon State University and Deady Hall as its sole building. The first year of enrollment contained 155 students taught by five faculty members; the first graduating class was in 1878. In 1881, the university was nearly closed. In 1913 and 1932, there were proposals to merge the university with what is now Oregon State University. Both proposals were defeated. During Prince Lucien Campbell's tenure as president from 1902 to 1925, the university experienced tremendous growth; the budget, enrollment and faculty members all grew several times its amount prior to his presidency.
Numerous schools were established during his tenure, including the School of Music in 1902, the School of Education in 1910, the School of Architecture, the College of Business in 1914, the School of Law in 1915, the School of Journalism in 1916, the School of Health and Physical Education in 1920. However, the University of Oregon lost its School of Engineering to Oregon Agricultural College, now known as Oregon State University. In 1917, a "three term" calendar was adopted by the university faculty as a war-time measure; this academic calendar has remained since then. However, it is now referred to as the Quarter System; the Zorn-MacPherson Bill in 1932 proposed the University of Oregon State College merge. The bill lost in a landslide vote of over 6 to 1; the University of Oregon Medical School was founded in 1887 in Portland and merged with Willamette University's program in 1913. However, in 1974 it became an independent institution known as Oregon Health Sciences University. In 1969, the UO was admitted into the Association of American Universities.
With financial support from the state dwindling from 40% to 13% of the university budget, in January 2001, University President Dave Frohnmayer began Campaign Oregon with the goal of raising $600 million by December 2008, the most ambitious philanthropic fundraising campaign in the state's history at the time. With contributions exceeding $100 million from benefactors such as Phil Knight and Lorry I. Lokey, the campaign goal was exceeded by over $253 million; the university occupies over 80 buildings. There are several ongoing campus construction projects such as a $95 million expansion and renovation of the Erb Memorial Union scheduled to open in September 2016 as well as a $16.75 million successor to the Science Library complex. These projects, among others, were commissioned in part to support current student enrollment as well as possible future increases. In reaction to a growing movement to establish an independent university board, the Oregon Legislature in 2013 passed SB 270, requiring local governing boards for the state's three largest institutions.
Effective July 1, 2014, the University of Oregon became an independent public body governed by the Board of Trustees of the University of Oregon. Proponents of local governing boards believe an independent board will give the university more autonomy, free it from relying on inadequate state funding. On August 6, 2014, Michael R. Gottfredson resigned as president. In the summer of 2014, former UO president Robert Berdahl told the president of the university's board of trustees he believes UO risks losing its membership in the Association of American Universities. To address this growing concern, UO began preparing several initiatives which include a cluster-hire and a capital campaign. In the fall of 2014 the institution announced; this number was revised to $3 billion in the fall of 2018. Michael H. Schill became the university's president in the summer of 2015. In June 2015, UO's endowment surpassed the $700 million mark. Eugene will host the 2021 World Championships in Athletics. University facilities, such
Senator William V. Roth Jr. Bridge
The Senator William V. Roth Jr. Bridge is a concrete and steel cable-stayed bridge that spans the Chesapeake & Delaware Canal near St. Georges, Delaware; the bridge is located near a tolled section of Delaware Route 1 that runs parallel to the St. Georges Bridge carrying U. S. Route 13. In November 2006, the bridge was named after U. S. Senator William V. Roth, Jr. who not only lent his name to the Roth IRA, but was instrumental in securing federal funding to build the bridge. It is owned and operated by the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers and does not carry a toll, despite the location of a nearby toll plaza. Plans for a new bridge began in the 1980s when former Governor Michael N. Castle investigated a new canal crossing to replace the aging St. Georges Bridge; the bridge plans became incorporated into the "Relief Route" plans for an upgraded US 13 as a toll freeway, as the narrower surface roads were over-capacity with north-south traffic. The project took about a decade to overcome various political and social obstacles, construction began in 1992 on the new freeway and bridge.
The freeway north of the bridge from Tybouts Corner to Christiana, was designated as a southward extension of Delaware Route 7. It was redesignated as a northward extension of Delaware Route 1 once the bridge was completed on December 9, 1995, concurrent with the opening of the Relief Route freeway from Tybouts Corner to Biddles Corner. After its opening in 1995, the Corps of Engineers rerouted US 13 onto the new bridge; the old St. Georges Bridge was scheduled to be demolished, however local opposition saved the bridge and it was rehabilitated with new lead-free paint, new roadway deck, several joint and structural repairs that allows heavier vehicles to use it. After the multi-year rehabilitation project, which lasted from 1998-2001, US 13 was returned to the St. Georges Bridge. Though the entire Relief Route was planned as a toll road, it was agreed to install the tollbooths past the US 13 exit south of the canal, so as to keep both crossings toll free. In December 2018, US 13 was again temporarily re-routed over the Roth Bridge when the St. Georges bridge was closed for repairs.
The repairs are expected to be complete within four months of closing, for a March 2019 reopening, after which US 13 will be returned to its former alignment. The Senator William V. Roth Jr. Bridge, the first cable-stayed bridge of its type in the Delaware Valley area, is the first pre-cast concrete bridge to be built in the United States. Modeled after that of the Sunshine Skyway Bridge in St. Petersburg, the bridge incorporates many features not found on the other canal bridges: Fixed high-level crossing, a 100 feet clearance like that of the other Canal highway crossings. 750 feet center span, with the major anchorages out of the water Six travel lanes, with the option of restriping to eight Pull-off emergency shoulders on both sides Roadway lighting – they were removed in 2003 at the requests of canal pilots and replaced with low-voltage low-pressure sodium floodlights that illuminate the main support anchors 65-mph speed limit Separate approach spans, only joining at the anchorages of the cablesThe bridge incorporates a 3% climbing grade, a feature lacked on the nearby St. Georges Bridge.
The bridge, built between 1991 and 1994, utilized pre-cast concrete segments that were made in Cape Charles and transported by barge until it reached the job site. Once at the site, the segments were fitted into place like that of a jigsaw puzzle. 1995: Harry H. Edwards Award from the Precast Concrete Institute Bridges portal Delaware portal List of crossings of the Chesapeake & Delaware Canal Indian River Inlet Bridge Crossing the Delaware