A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at law, barrister-at-law, bar-at-law, civil law notary, counselor, counselor at law, chartered legal executive, or public servant preparing and applying law, but not as a paralegal or charter executive secretary. Working as a lawyer involves the practical application of abstract legal theories and knowledge to solve specific individualized problems, or to advance the interests of those who hire lawyers to perform legal services; the role of the lawyer varies across legal jurisdictions, so it can be treated here in only the most general terms. In practice, legal jurisdictions exercise their right to determine, recognized as being a lawyer; as a result, the meaning of the term "lawyer" may vary from place to place. Some jurisdictions have two types of lawyers and solicitors, whilst others fuse the two. A barrister is a lawyer. A solicitor is a lawyer, trained to prepare cases and give advice on legal subjects and can represent people in lower courts.
Both barristers and solicitors have gone through law school, completed the requisite practical training. However, in jurisdictions where there is a split-profession, only barristers are admitted as members of their respective bar association. In Australia, the word "lawyer" can be used to refer to both barristers and solicitors, whoever is admitted as a lawyer of the Supreme Court of a state or territory. In Canada, the word "lawyer" only refers to individuals who have been called to the bar or, in Quebec, have qualified as civil law notaries. Common law lawyers in Canada are formally and properly called "barristers and solicitors", but should not be referred to as "attorneys", since that term has a different meaning in Canadian usage, being a person appointed under a power of attorney. However, in Quebec, civil law advocates call themselves "attorney" and sometimes "barrister and solicitor" in English, all lawyers in Quebec, or lawyers in the rest of Canada when practising in French, are addressed with the honorific title, "Me." or "Maître".
In England and Wales, "lawyer" is used to refer to persons who provide reserved and unreserved legal activities and includes practitioners such as barristers, solicitors, registered foreign lawyers, patent attorneys, trade mark attorneys, licensed conveyancers, public notaries, commissioners for oaths, immigration advisers and claims management services. The Legal Services Act 2007 defines the "legal activities" that may only be performed by a person, entitled to do so pursuant to the Act.'Lawyer' is not a protected title. In Pakistan, the term "Advocate" is used instead of lawyer in The Legal Practitioners and Bar Councils Act, 1973. In India, the term "lawyer" is colloquially used, but the official term is "advocate" as prescribed under the Advocates Act, 1961. In Scotland, the word "lawyer" refers to a more specific group of trained people, it includes advocates and solicitors. In a generic sense, it may include judges and law-trained support staff. In the United States, the term refers to attorneys who may practice law.
It is never used to refer to patent paralegals. In fact, there are statutory and regulatory restrictions on non-lawyers like paralegals practicing law. Other nations tend to have comparable terms for the analogous concept. In most countries civil law countries, there has been a tradition of giving many legal tasks to a variety of civil law notaries and scriveners; these countries do not have "lawyers" in the American sense, insofar as that term refers to a single type of general-purpose legal services provider. It is difficult to formulate accurate generalizations that cover all the countries with multiple legal professions, because each country has traditionally had its own peculiar method of dividing up legal work among all its different types of legal professionals. Notably, the mother of the common law jurisdictions, emerged from the Dark Ages with similar complexity in its legal professions, but evolved by the 19th century to a single dichotomy between barristers and solicitors. An equivalent dichotomy developed between procurators in some civil law countries.
Several countries that had two or more legal professions have since fused or united their professions into a single type of lawyer. Most countries in this category are common law countries, though France, a civil law country, merged its jurists in 1990 and 1991 in response to Anglo-American competition. In countries with fused professions, a lawyer is permitted to carry out all or nearly all the responsibilities listed below. Arguing a client's case before a judge or jury in a court of law is the traditional province of the barrister in England, of advocates in some civil law jurisdictions. However, the boundary between barristers and solicitors has evolved. In England today, the barrister monopoly covers only appellate courts, barristers must compete directly with solicitors in many trial courts. In countries like the United States, that have fused legal professions, there are trial lawyers who specialize in trying cases in court, but trial lawyers do not have a de jure monopoly like barristers.
In some countries, litigants have the option of arguing pro
Dearborn County, Indiana
Dearborn County is one of 92 counties of the U. S. state of Indiana located on the Ohio border near the southeast corner of the state. It was formed in 1803 from a portion of Ohio. In 2010, the population was 50,047; the county seat and largest city is Lawrenceburg. Dearborn County is part of OH-KY-IN Metropolitan Statistical Area; the western boundary of Ohio had been determined by the Greenville Treaty Line of 1795. In 1803 a wedge, or pie shaped, piece of land in Hamilton County east of the treaty line along Ohio's southwestern border was ceded to the Indiana Territory, it became Dearborn County. All or part of seven other present day counties were carved from the original county with the present boundaries being established in 1845; the "Gore" area slices through the present-day counties of Dearborn, Ohio, Switzerland, Union and Fayette. Subdivision of Dearborn County began in 1811 with the formation of Franklin and Wayne Counties, followed by Switzerland in 1814, it was named for Gen. Henry Dearborn.
Dearborn was U. S. Secretary of War at the time the county was named. Early growth was centered on Lawrenceburg, an important railroad junction connecting two of the regions major rail lines. Lawrenceburg was designated as the county seat. However, from the start, a contention existed between the towns of Lawrenceburg and Rising Sun over that designation; the contention between the two towns was resolved in 1844 when the Indiana State legislature separated the portion of Dearborn County south of Laughery Creek and created the new county of Ohio on March 1, 1844, with Rising Sun designated as its county seat. According to the 2010 census, the county has a total area of 307.42 square miles, of which 305.03 square miles is land and 2.38 square miles is water. Part of the southeastern county line is formed by the Ohio River. Dearborn County contains the Perfect North Slopes ski resort. Aurora Lawrenceburg Greendale Dillsboro Moores Hill Saint Leon West Harrison Bright Hidden Valley Franklin County Butler County, Ohio Hamilton County, Ohio Boone County, Kentucky Ohio County Ripley County In recent years, average temperatures in Lawrenceburg have ranged from a low of 21 °F in January to a high of 86 °F in July, although a record low of −25 °F was recorded in January 1977 and a record high of 107 °F was recorded in July 1988.
Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.94 inches in September to 5.53 inches in May. At the 2010 United States Census, there were 50,047 people, 18,743 households and 13,773 families residing in the county; the population density was 164.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 20,171 housing units at an average density of 66.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 97.5% white, 0.6% black or African American, 0.4% Asian, 0.2% American Indian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 0.3% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.0% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 46.5% were German, 19.2% were Irish, 11.4% were English, 7.8% were American. Of the 18,743 households, 35.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 58.5% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.5% were non-families, 22.0% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.64 and the average family size was 3.07.
The median age was 40.0 years. The median household income was $47,697 and the median family income was $66,561. Males had a median income of $45,270 and females $33,353; the per capita income was $25,023. About 4.5% of families and 7.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.5% of those under age 18 and 6.3% of those age 65 or over. The county government is a constitutional body, is granted specific powers by the Constitution of Indiana, by the Indiana Code. County Council: The county council is the legislative branch of the county government and controls all the spending and revenue collection in the county. Representatives are elected from county districts; the council members serve four-year terms. They are responsible for setting salaries, the annual budget, special spending; the council has limited authority to impose local taxes, in the form of an income and property tax, subject to state level approval, excise taxes, service taxes. Board of Commissioners: The executive body of the county is made of a board of commissioners.
The commissioners are elected county-wide, in staggered terms, each serves a four-year term. One of the commissioners the most senior, serves as president; the commissioners are charged with executing the acts legislated by the council, collecting revenue, managing the day-to-day functions of the county government. Court: Dearborn County's courts consist of a Circuit Court and two Superior Courts. Judges are elected to six-year terms. Lawrenceburg and Aurora have City Courts. Judges there serve four-year terms. County Officials: The county has several other elected offices, including sheriff, prosecuting attorney, auditor, recorder and circuit court clerk; each of these elected officers serves a term of four years and oversees a different part of county government. Members elected to county government positions are required to declare a party affiliation and to be residents of the county. Dearborn County is part of Indiana's 6th congressional district. Interstate 74
Charles Frederick Crisp
Charles Frederick Crisp was a United States political figure. A Democrat, he was elected as a Congressman from Georgia in 1882, served until his death in 1896. From 1890 until his death, he was leader of the Democratic Party in the House, as either the House Minority Leader or the Speaker of the House, he was the father of Charles R. Crisp who served in Congress. Crisp was born in Sheffield, England on January 29, 1845. In that year, his parents immigrated to the United States and settled in Georgia where he attended the common schools of Savannah and Macon, Georgia. At the outbreak of the American Civil War, he was temporarily residing in Luray, with his parents, who were in the middle of a Shakespearean play tour, he enlisted in a local unit, the "Page Volunteers" of Company K, 10th Virginia Infantry, was commissioned lieutenant. He served with that regiment until May 12, 1864, when he became a prisoner of war at the Battle of Spotsylvania Court House, he was held as one of the Immortal Six Hundred at Fort Pulaski and transferred to Fort Delaware.
After his release in June 1865, he joined his parents at Georgia. Crisp studied law at Georgia, he commenced practice in Ellaville. He was appointed solicitor general of the southwestern judicial circuit in 1872 and reappointed in 1873 for a term of four years, he was appointed judge of the superior court of the same circuit in June 1877. Crisp was elected by the general assembly to the same office in 1878 and reelected judge for a term of four years in 1880 when resigned that office in September 1882 to accept the Democratic nomination for the United States Congress, he married Clara Bell Burton, born in Ellaville, a little town in the southwest of Georgia, of wealthy and religious parentage. Her father, Robert Burton, was a planter before the war, owning many slaves. Both he and her mother cherished high ambitions for the future of their two daughters, they were chagrined when Charles Crisp a poor embryo lawyer, and, of a theatrical family, abhorrent to their religious ideas, desired to marry their youngest daughter, Clara Bell, their grief knew no bounds when they discovered that her affections had been won.
Mrs. Burton was overwhelmed with sorrow, for she felt that her beautiful daughter ought to make a more ambitious marriage. Crisp did, he wrote a manly letter to Mr. Burton, in after years, when Mr. Crisp had reached distinction, Mr. Burton declared that his son-in-law had never written anything better than this letter, but although every line breathed eloquence it was all to no purpose, Mr. and Mrs. Burton would not yield. Crisp requested a friend to go to Mr. Burton and ask that they might be married at her home, but this her parents refused, they decided to be married elsewhere. Clara Bell's sister, assisted her in providing a pretty trousseau, one bright Sunday morning, when she was visiting her brother, who resided in the suburbs of Ellaville, Crisp drove out in his buggy and took her to his boarding place, where, in the presence of a few friends who had assembled in the little parlor, they were married. Just as the minister pronounced them man and wife a bright sunbeam flooded the room; this was prophetic of their future life, most happy.
The Sunday following Crisp and his wife united with the Methodist Church of Ellaville. Clara Bell said, "I felt I wanted to commence right, I thought the best thing we could do, as a young married couple, was to get into the fold of a good institution like the Methodist Church." Soon Clara Bell's parents were reconciled and loved Crisp as a son, he became the mainstay of their old age. They lived fifty-one years in the same place. Clara Bell, on her death-bed, said: "My life would have been marred; as old as I am I can not think. The moon and stars revolve around him to me. My father and mother came to love him much, he has been the dearest, sweetest husband to me, I have loved him better than anything else on earth."Crisp served as president of the Democratic gubernatorial convention at Atlanta, Georgia, in April 1883. He was elected as a Democrat to the Forty-eighth and to the six succeeding Congresses and served from March 4, 1883, until his death. In Congress, he served as chairman of the Committee on Elections in the Fiftieth Congress, Committee on Rules in the Fifty-second and Fifty-third Congresses, Speaker of the House of Representatives in the Fifty-second and Fifty-third Congresses.
He had been nominated for United States Senator in the Georgia primary of 1896, but he died in Atlanta on October 23, 1896, was buried in Oak Grove Cemetery in his hometown of Americus. Georgia's Crisp County is named in his honor. List of United States Congress members who died in office United States Congress. "Charles Frederick Crisp". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved on 2008-02-13 Malone, Preston St. Clair. “The Political Career of Charles Frederick Crisp.” Ph. D. diss. University of Georgia, 1962. Martin, S. Walter. “Charles F. Crisp: Speaker of the House.” Georgia Review 8: 167-77. Charles Frederick Crisp at Find A Grave
Speaker of the United States House of Representatives
The Speaker of the United States House of Representatives is the presiding officer of the United States House of Representatives. The office was established in 1789 by Article I, Section 2 of the U. S. Constitution; the Speaker is the political and parliamentary leader of the House of Representatives, is the House's presiding officer, de facto leader of the body's majority party, the institution's administrative head. Speakers perform various other administrative and procedural functions. Given these several roles and responsibilities, the Speaker does not preside over debates; that duty is instead delegated to members of the House from the majority party. Neither does the Speaker participate in floor debates; the Constitution does not require the Speaker to be an incumbent member of the House of Representatives, although every Speaker thus far has been. The Speaker is second in the United States presidential line of succession, after the Vice President and ahead of the President pro tempore of the Senate.
The current House Speaker, Democrat Nancy Pelosi of California, was elected to the office on January 3, 2019. Pelosi served as speaker from January 4, 2007 to January 3, 2011, she has the distinction of being the first woman to serve as Speaker, is the first former Speaker to be returned to office since Sam Rayburn in 1955. The House elects its speaker at the beginning of a new Congress or when a speaker dies, resigns or is removed from the position intra-term. Since 1839, the House has elected speakers by roll call vote. Traditionally, each party's caucus or conference selects a candidate for the speakership from among its senior leaders prior to the roll call. Representatives are not restricted to voting for the candidate nominated by their party, but do, as the outcome of the election determines which party has the majority and will organize the House. Moreover, as the Constitution does not explicitly state that the speaker must be an incumbent member of the House, it is permissible for representatives to vote for someone, not a member of the House at the time, non-members have received a few votes in various speaker elections over the past several years.
Every person elected speaker has been a member. Representatives that choose to vote for someone other than their party's nominated candidate vote for someone else in their party or vote "present". Anyone who votes for the other party's candidate would face serious consequences, as was the case when Democrat Jim Traficant voted for Republican Dennis Hastert in 2001. In response, the Democrats stripped him of his seniority and he lost all of his committee posts. To be elected speaker a candidate must receive an absolute majority of the votes cast, as opposed to an absolute majority of the full membership of the House – presently 218 votes, in a House of 435. There have only been a few instances during the past century where a person received a majority of the votes cast, thus won the election, while failing to obtain a majority of the full membership, it happened most in 2015, when John Boehner was elected with 216 votes. Such a variation in the number of votes necessary to win a given election might arise due to vacancies, absentees, or members being present but not voting.
If no candidate wins a majority of the "votes cast for a person by name" the roll call is repeated until a speaker is elected. Multiple roll calls have been necessary only 14 times since 1789. Upon winning election the new Speaker is sworn in by the Dean of the United States House of Representatives, the chamber's longest-serving member; the first Speaker of the House, Frederick Muhlenberg of Pennsylvania, was elected to office on April 1, 1789, the day the House organized itself at the start of the 1st Congress. He served two non-consecutive terms in the Speaker's chair, 1789–1791 and 1793–1795; as the Constitution does not state the duties of the Speaker, the speaker’s role has been shaped by traditions and customs that evolved over time. A partisan position from early in its existence, the speakership began to gain power in legislative development under Henry Clay. In contrast to many of his predecessors, Clay participated in several debates, used his influence to procure the passage of measures he supported—for instance, the declaration of the War of 1812, various laws relating to Clay's "American System" economic plan.
Furthermore, when no candidate received an Electoral College majority in the 1824 presidential election causing the President to be elected by the House, Speaker Clay threw his support to John Quincy Adams instead of Andrew Jackson, thereby ensuring Adams' victory. Following Clay's retirement in 1825, the power of the speakership once again began to decline, despite speakership elections becoming bitter; as the Civil War approached, several sectional factions nominated their own candidates making it difficult for any candidate to attain a majority. In 1855 and again in 1859, for example, the contest for Speaker lasted for two months before the House achieved a result. During this time, Speakers tended to have short tenures. For example, from 1839 to 1863 there were eleven Speakers, only one of whom served for more than one term. To date, James K. Polk is the only Speaker of the House elected President of the United States. Towards the end of the 19th century, the office of Speaker began to develop into a po
Domestic policy of the Ronald Reagan administration
This article discusses the domestic policy of the Ronald Reagan administration from 1981 to 1989. Reagan's policies stressed conservative economic values, starting with his implementation of supply-side economic policies, dubbed as "Reaganomics" by both supporters and detractors, his policies included the largest tax cut in American history as well as increased defense spending as part of his Soviet strategy. However, he raised taxes four times due to economic conditions and reforms, but the tax reforms instituted during presidency brought top marginal rates to their lowest levels since 1931, such that by 1988, the top US marginal tax rate was 28%. Notable events included his firing of nearly 12,000 striking air traffic control workers and appointing the first woman to the Supreme Court bench, Sandra Day O'Connor, he believed in federalism, free markets and passed policies to encourage development of private business criticizing and defunding the public sector. Despite his support for limited government, he accelerated the nation's War on Drugs.
Based on supply-side economics, Reagan implemented his economic policies in 1981. The four pillars of the policies were to: Reduce marginal tax rates on income from labor and capital. Reduce regulation. Tighten the money supply to reduce inflation. Reduce the growth of government spending. By reducing or eliminating decades-long social programs, while at the same time lowering taxes and marginal tax rates, Reagan's approach to handling the economy marked a significant departure from that of many of his predecessor's Keynesian policies. Milton Friedman, the monetarist economist, an intellectual architect of free-market policies, was a primary influence on Reagan; when Reagan entered office, the country faced the highest rate of inflation since 1947, interest rates as high as 13%. These were considered the nation's principal economic problems and were all considered components of "stagflation." Reagan sought to stimulate the economy with large, across-the-board tax cuts The expansionary fiscal policies soon became known as "Reaganomics", were considered by some to be the most serious attempt to change the course of U.
S. economic policy of any administration since the New Deal. His radical tax reforms, in combination with a curb on domestic social spending, harsh restraints applied by the Federal Reserve Board under Paul Volcker on the nation's money supply, heavy government borrowing required to finance the budget and trade deficits, as well as military expenditures, produced significant economic expansion and reduced inflation. Inflation was reduced by more than ten percentage points, reaching a low of 1.9% annual average inflation in 1986. One of the Reagan administration's strategies to reduce government spending was privatization of government functions, paying contractors to do work that government agencies had done. President Reagan's tenure marked a time of expanded economic prosperity for many Americans; the misery index sank to 9.72 from a high of 19.33, the greatest improvement record for a President since Harry S. Truman left office. In terms of American households, the percentage of total households making less than $10,000 a year shrunk from 8.8% in 1980 to 8.3% in 1988 while the percentage of households making over $75,000 went from 20.2% to 25.7% during that period.
However, the number of Americans below the poverty level did not decline at all. The number of children, ages 18 years and younger, below the poverty level increased from 11.543 million in 1980, 18.3% of children, to 12.455, 19.5%, in 1988. The situation of low income groups was affected by the reduction of social spending, inequality increased; the share of total income received by the 5% highest-income households grew from 16.5% in 1980 to 18.3% in 1988 and the share of the highest fifth of income increased from 44.1% to 46.3% in same years. In contrast, the share of total income of the lowest fifth of households fell from 4.2% in 1980 to 3.8% in 1988 and the second poorest fifth from 10.2% to 9.6%. In August 1981, after negotiations with the Republican-controlled Senate and the Democratic-controlled House, Reagan signed the largest marginal tax cut in American history into law at his California ranch. However, the 1981 marginal cuts were offset by bracket creep and increased Social Security rates the following year.
Unemployment hit a low of 5.3% in 1988 after peaking at over 10% in 1982. Real GDP growth recovered throughout Reagan's term, averaging +3.5% per year, with a high of +7.3% in 1984. The average annual GDP growth during Reagan's presidency was the fifth highest since the Great Depression and the highest of any Republican president. Inflation decreased falling from 13.6% in 1980 to 4.1% by 1988, 16 million new jobs were created. The net effect of all Reagan-era tax bills resulted in a 1% decrease of government revenues, with the revenue-shrinking effects of the 1981 tax cut and the revenue-gaining effects of the 1982 tax hike, while subsequent bills were more revenue-neutral. However, tax revenue itself nominally increased massively by 103.1% from 1981 through 1989 as a result of more loopholes abolished than tax rates lowered. During the Reagan Administration, federal receipts grew at an average rate of 8.2%, federal outlays grew at an annual rate of 7.1%. Reagan's administration is the only one not to have raised the minimum wage by its conclusion.
Along with these, Reagan reappointed Paul Volcker as Chairman of the Federal Reserve, as well as the monetarist Alan Greenspan to succeed him in 1987. He preserved the core New Deal safeguards
Indiana House of Representatives
The Indiana House of Representatives is the lower house of the Indiana General Assembly, the state legislature of the United States state of Indiana. The House is composed of 100 members representing an equal number of constituent districts. House members serve two-year terms without term limits. According to the 2010 census, each State House district contains an average of 64,838 people; the House convenes at the Indiana Statehouse in Indianapolis. In order to run for a seat for the Indiana House of Representatives one must be a citizen of the United States, has to be at least 21 years of age upon taking office, should reside in the state of Indiana for 2 years and in the district to represent for at least 1 year at the time of the election. Representatives serve terms of two years, there is no limit on how many terms a representative may serve. †Member was appointed to the seat. As of 25 July 2018; the Indiana House of Representatives held its first session in the first statehouse in the original state capital of Corydon and the first speaker of the body was Isaac Blackford.
Under the terms of the constitution of 1816, state representatives served one years terms, meaning elections were held annually. In 1851, the constitution was replaced by the current constitution and terms were lengthened to two years, but sessions were held biennially. A 1972 constitutional amendment allowed for a short legislative session to be held in odd numbered years. On November 6, 2012, the Republican Party in Indiana expanded their majority in the House of Representatives from 60 members in the 117th General Assembly to 69 members, a "quorum-proof" majority; the Republicans were able to take 69% of the seats, despite having only received 54% of the votes for the state's House of Representatives. Of the 3 newly elected members of the U. S. House elected to the 113th Congress from Indiana, two are former members of the Indiana House of Representatives. Congresswoman Jackie Walorski represented Indiana's 21st district from 2005 to 2011 and Congressman Luke Messer represented Indiana's 57th district from 2003 to 2007.
Congressman Marlin Stutzman was re-elected to a second term, he is a former member of the Indiana House of Representatives where he served Indiana's 52nd district from 2003 to 2009. Speaker of the Indiana State House of Representatives Indiana Senate Government of Indiana Politics of Indiana American Legislative Exchange Council members Indiana General Assembly Indiana House of Representatives at Ballotpedia State House of Indiana at Project Vote Smart Indiana House Democrats Indiana House Republicans 2015 Indiana Candidate Guide - Qualifications
Veraestau is a historic home located in Center Township, Dearborn County, Indiana. It was built in 1838, is a two-story, Greek Revival style brick and frame dwelling, it incorporates an earlier brick extension to the original 1810 log cabin that burned in 1838. A two-story addition was built in 1913, a three-room brick addition to it in 1937. On the property are the contributing stable and carriage house, Indian mound, family cemetery, the remains of a kiln; the original house was built by Jesse Lynch Holman. Veraestau was the birthplace of his son Congressman William S. Holman and home of his son-in-law Allen Hamilton, who built the 1838 house, it was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1973. Veraestau serves as their Southeast field office, it is available for rental. Indiana Landmarks: Veraestau Historic American Buildings Survey No. IN-184, "Veraestau, Holman Hill Road, Dearborn County, IN", 15 photos, 6 measured drawings, 8 data pages, 1 photo caption page Historic American Buildings Survey No.
IN-184-A, "Veraestau, Carriage House & Stable, Holman Hill Road, Dearborn County, IN", 3 photos, 3 data pages, 1 photo caption page