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William Thurston

William Paul Thurston was an American mathematician. He was a pioneer in the field of low-dimensional topology. In 1982, he was awarded the Fields Medal for his contributions to the study of 3-manifolds. From 2003 until his death he was a professor of mathematics and computer science at Cornell University, his early work, in the early 1970s, was in foliation theory, where he had a dramatic impact. His more significant results include: The proof that every Haefliger structure on a manifold can be integrated to a foliation; the construction of a continuous family of smooth, codimension-one foliations on the three-sphere whose Godbillon–Vey invariant takes every real value. With John N. Mather, he gave a proof that the cohomology of the group of homeomorphisms of a manifold is the same whether the group is considered with its discrete topology or its compact-open topology. In fact, Thurston resolved so many outstanding problems in foliation theory in such a short period of time that it led to a kind of exodus from the field, where advisors counselled students against going into foliation theory, because Thurston was "cleaning out the subject".

His work, starting around the mid-1970s, revealed that hyperbolic geometry played a far more important role in the general theory of 3-manifolds than was realised. Prior to Thurston, there were only a handful of known examples of hyperbolic 3-manifolds of finite volume, such as the Seifert–Weber space; the independent and distinct approaches of Robert Riley and Troels Jørgensen in the mid-to-late 1970s showed that such examples were less atypical than believed. This was the first example of a hyperbolic knot. Inspired by their work, Thurston took a different, more explicit means of exhibiting the hyperbolic structure of the figure-eight knot complement, he showed that the figure-eight knot complement could be decomposed as the union of two regular ideal hyperbolic tetrahedra whose hyperbolic structures matched up and gave the hyperbolic structure on the figure-eight knot complement. By utilizing Haken's normal surface techniques, he classified the incompressible surfaces in the knot complement.

Together with his analysis of deformations of hyperbolic structures, he concluded that all but 10 Dehn surgeries on the figure-eight knot resulted in irreducible, non-Haken non-Seifert-fibered 3-manifolds. These were the first such examples; these examples were hyperbolic and motivated his next revolutionary theorem. Thurston proved that in fact most Dehn fillings on a cusped hyperbolic 3-manifold resulted in hyperbolic 3-manifolds; this is his celebrated hyperbolic Dehn surgery theorem. To complete the picture, Thurston proved a hyperbolization theorem for Haken manifolds. A important corollary is that many knots and links are in fact hyperbolic. Together with his hyperbolic Dehn surgery theorem, this showed that closed hyperbolic 3-manifolds existed in great abundance; the geometrization theorem has been called Thurston's Monster Theorem, due to the length and difficulty of the proof. Complete proofs were not written up until 20 years later; the proof involves a number of deep and original insights which have linked many disparate fields to 3-manifolds.

Thurston was next led to formulate his geometrization conjecture. This gave a conjectural picture of 3-manifolds which indicated that all 3-manifolds admitted a certain kind of geometric decomposition involving eight geometries, now called Thurston model geometries. Hyperbolic geometry is the most prevalent geometry in this picture and the most complicated; the conjecture was proved by Grigori Perelman in 2002–2003. In his work on hyperbolic Dehn surgery, Thurston realized that orbifold structures arose; such structures had been studied prior to Thurston, but his work the next theorem, would bring them to prominence. In 1981, he announced the orbifold theorem, an extension of his geometrization theorem to the setting of 3-orbifolds. Two teams of mathematicians around 2000 finished their efforts to write down a complete proof, based on Thurston's lectures given in the early 1980s in Princeton, his original proof relied on Richard S. Hamilton's work on the Ricci flow. Thurston was born in Washington, D.

C. to a homemaker and an aeronautical engineer. He received his bachelor's degree from New College in 1967. For his undergraduate thesis he developed an intuitionist foundation for topology. Following this, he earned a doctorate in mathematics from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1972, his Ph. D. advisor was Morris Hirsch and his dissertation was on Foliations of Three-Manifolds which are Circle Bundles. After completing his Ph. D. he spent a year at the Institute for Advanced Study another year at MIT as Assistant Professor. In 1974, he was appointed Professor of Mathematics at Princeton University, he and his first wife, Rachel Findley, had three children: Dylan and Emily. In 1991, he returned to UC-Berkeley as Professor of Mathematics and in 1993 became Director of the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute. In 1996, his wife Julian, who had earlier been his Ph. D. student at Princeton University, made a career switch to veterinary medicine, began her studies at the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine.

Bill and Julian moved to Davis, C

Anthony Kellman

Anthony Kellman is a Barbados-born poet and musician. In 1990, the British publishing house Peepal Tree Press published his first full-length book of poetry, endorsed by the late Martiniquan poet Edouard Glissant and which launched Kellman's international writing career. Since 1990, he has published three novels, four CD recordings of original songs, four additional books of poetry, including Limestone: An Epic Poem of Barbados, the island's first published epic poem which covers over four centuries of Barbadian life. In 1992, he edited the first full-length U. S. anthology of English-language Caribbean poetry, Crossing Water, in 1993, he received a U. S. National Endowment for the Arts Poetry Fellowship. Kellman is the originator of the Barbados poetic form Tuk Verse, derived from melodic and rhythmical patterns of Barbados' indigenous folk music. Kellman was born in Whitehall, Saint Michael and attended Combermere Secondary School. At the age of eighteen, he left for England, where he worked as a troubadour, playing pop and West Indian folk music on the pub and folk club circuit.

He became involved in the London literary scene through the Poetry Society and the late Peter Forbes, former editor of London's Poetry Review. Members met in the London district of Earl's Court to discuss their works; when Kellman returned to Barbados, he took an English undergraduate degree at the University of the West Indies and published two poetry chapbooks, In Depths of Burning Light and The Broken Sun, which drew praise from Kamau Brathwaite, among others. He worked as a newspaper reporter, an arts and literature review columnist, in public relations, before immigrating to the U. S. in 1987. His experiences at the Central Bank provided inspiration for his first novel The Coral Rooms. In 1987, he studied for a Masters of Fine Arts degree in Creative Writing at Louisiana State University. After completing in 1989 he joined the English Department at Augusta University, where he is Professor Emeritus of English & Creative Writing, he has been the longest-serving director of the university's Sandhills Writers Conference & Series which he directed from 1989 to 2015, a period which featured major national and international authors, including Ray Bradbury, Maxine Hong Kingston, Derek Walcott, Edward Albee, Gloria Naylor, Rick Bragg.

Kellman is the founder and coordinator of the Summerville Reading Series, a community literary and musical performance series, A Winter Gathering of Writers. In 1992, he edited the first full-length U. S. anthology of English-language Caribbean poetry, Crossing Water, and, in 1993, he received a U. S. National Endowment for the Arts Poetry Fellowship, he won the 2011 Prime Minister's Award for his poetry manuscript South Eastern Stages which highlighted his Tuk Verse forms and was published in 2012. Kellman's creative and critical writing have been published in anthologies and literary periodicals in the Caribbean, Latin America, the U. S. England, Wales and India. In 1998, his first theoretical essay on Tuk Verse was published in the London international magazine Wasafiri, he finds considerable resonances between the Caribbean and the Southern states of the U. S. which feed into his poetry, where blue jays and wisteria rub shoulders with angel fish and coral reefs. All his work has a powerful involvement with landscape, both as a living entity shaping peoples' lives and as a source of metaphor for inner processes.

The limestone caves of Barbados have provided a fertile source of inspiration. Kellman's imagistic style moves between the indigenous and the international, the concrete and the universal, Barbadian vernacular English and standard English, the personal and the public, between the contemporary moment and the historical past. Kellman continues to compose and perform eclectic folk songs in the world music/singer-songwriter genres, his four albums are Wings of a Stranger, Limestone and Come Again: The Best of Anthony Kellman. Caribbean literature Caribbean poetry List of Caribbean music genres Music of Barbados

Sprout and the Bean

"Sprout and the Bean" is a single by Joanna Newsom. The A-side is from her album The Milk-Eyed Mender, while the B-side, "What We Have Known", is a re-recording of the track appearing on the self-released Yarn and Glue EP; the CD contains the video for "Sprout and the Bean", directed by Terri Timely. The song has been used in commercials and films such as The Strangers, as well as a tourism advert for Melbourne, Australia; the harp intro was used in a Victoria's Secret ad. In 2009, Pitchfork Media named "The Bean" the 229th best song of the 2000s. "Sprout and the Bean" – 4:42 "What We Have Known" – 6:08What We Have Known was released as a 12" Single on July 19, 2011

Marmaduke Rawdon (antiquary)

Marmaduke Rawdon was an English factor and antiquary. He was the youngest son of Laurence Rawdon and alderman of York, by Margery, daughter of William Barton of Cawton, Yorkshire, he was baptised in the church of St. Crux, York, on 17 March 1610, received his education in the grammar school of St. Peter in that city. On the death of his father in 1624 he was adopted by his uncle Marmaduke Rawdon, a prominent London merchant. In 1627 Rawdon was sent to Holland as supercargo of a small merchant vessel, for a time was stationed at Bordeaux. In 1631 he was factor for his uncle in Tenerife, he was in the Canary Islands, with brief intervals, for over 20 years. During his long residence at La Laguna in Gran Canaria Rawdon ascended Mount Teide; the route he took to the summit of the volcano was the same as that followed by George Glas a century and by Alexander von Humboldt. In 1655, after England's diplomatic rupture with Spain, Rawdon returned to England, and during most of the rest of his life he resided with his kinsman Marmaduke Rawdon, at Hoddesdon, Hertfordshire.

He visited Dunkirk in 1662, ahead of its sale to France. He invested in the Canary Company in 1664. Rawdon died, unmarried, at Hoddesdon, on 7 February 1669, was buried in the chancel of the church at Broxbourne. By his will he left to the corporation of York a gold loving cup, money to purchase a gold chain for the lady mayoress of York. Rawdon made extensive manuscript collections, compiled a brief history of cathedrals, prepared for the press a genealogical memoir of his family. Nearly half a century after his death his manuscripts were in the possession of Samuel Bagnall of London. In 1712 Ralph Thoresby saw the collection, extracts from some of the manuscripts were in his Ducatus Leodiensis, in the notice of Sir George Rawdon which Edmund Gibson introduced into his edition of William Camden's Britannia; when Thomas Wotton was collecting materials for his Baronetage, the Rawdon manuscripts were still in Bagnall's possession, but their subsequent history is unknown. Robert Davies edited for the Camden Society The Life of Marmaduke Rawdon of York, or Marmaduke Rawdon, the second of that name.

Now first printed from the original MS. in the possession of Robert Cooke, esq. F. R. G. S.. This memoir presents sketches of social and domestic life and manners, during the seventeenth century; the original manuscript is now in the British Library. Charles Harding Firth and Cromwellian Armies in Flanders, 1657-1662, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society New Series, Vol. 17, pp. 67–119. Published by: Royal Historical Society. Stable URL: Barbara Sebek, Bristoles, Ingleses: English Traders in the Canaries in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries, in Jyotsna G. Singh, A Companion to the Global Renaissance: English Literature and Culture in the Age of Expansion, Wiley-Blackwell ISBN 978-1-4051-5476-5, pp. 279–93 Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Rawdon, Marmaduke". Dictionary of National Biography. 47. London: Smith, Elder & Co

Eel life history

The eel is a long, thin bony fish of the order Anguilliformes. Because fishermen never caught anything they recognised as young eels, the life cycle of the eel was a mystery for a long period of scientific history. Although more than 6500 publications mention eels, much of their life history remains an enigma; the European eel was the one most familiar to Western scientists, beginning with Aristotle, who wrote the earliest known inquiry into the natural history of eels. He speculated that they were born of "earth worms", which he believed were formed of mud, growing from the "guts of wet soil" rather than through sexual reproduction. Many centuries passed before scientists were able to demonstrate that such spontaneous generation does not occur in nature. Other early scientists believed that the eelpout Zoarces viviparus was the "mother of eels". In 1777, the Italian Carlo Mondini located an eel's ovaries and demonstrated that eels are a kind of fish. In 1876, as a young student in Austria, Sigmund Freud dissected hundreds of eels in search of the male sex organs.

He had to concede failure in his first major published research paper, turned to other issues in frustration. Larval eels — transparent, leaflike two-inch creatures of the open ocean — were not recognized as such until 1893. In 1886, the French zoologist Yves Delage discovered the truth when he kept leptocephali alive in a laboratory tank in Roscoff until they matured into eels, in 1896 Italian zoologist Giovanni Battista Grassi confirmed the finding when he observed the transformation of a Leptocephalus into a round glass eel in the Mediterranean Sea. Although the connection between larval eels and adult eels is now well understood, the name leptocephalus is still used for larval eel; the Danish professor Johannes Schmidt, beginning in 1904, led a series of expeditions into the Mediterranean Sea and the North Atlantic to investigate eels. The expeditions were financed by the Carlsberg Foundation, he noted that all the leptocephali he found were similar, hypothesized that they all must have descended from a common ancestor species.

He observed that the farther out to sea in the Atlantic Ocean he went, the smaller the leptocephali he caught were. In a 1922 expedition, he sailed as far as the Sargasso Sea, south of Bermuda, where he caught the smallest eel-larvae, seen. Although Schmidt did not directly observe eel spawning, or find ready-to-spawn adult eels, he was able to deduce the following about the life history of the eel, based on the size distribution of the leptocephali he collected: The larvae of European eels travel with the Gulf Stream across the Atlantic Ocean, grow to 75–90 mm within one to three years, before they reach the coasts of Europe. Eels in this so-called "recruitment" developmental stage are known as glass eels because of the transparency of their bodies. Glass eels refers to an intermediary stage in the eel's complex life history between the leptocephalus stage and the juvenile stage. Glass eels are defined as "all developmental stages from completion of leptocephalus metamorphosis until full pigmentation".

The term refers to a transparent glass eel of the family Anguillidae. One well-known place where glass eels are collected large-scale is Epney, on the Severn, in England. Once they recruit to coastal areas, they migrate up rivers and streams, overcoming various natural challenges — sometimes by piling up their bodies by the tens of thousands to climb over obstacles — and they reach the smallest of creeks; the eels can propel themselves over wet grass and dig through wet sand to reach upstream headwaters and ponds, thus colonising the continent. In fresh water they develop pigmentation, turn into elvers, feed on creatures such as small crustaceans and insects. For 10 to 14 years they mature. During this stage they are called yellow eels because of their golden pigmentation. Marine eels of the order Anguilliformes have a leptocephalus stage, pass through a stage similar to the anguillid glass eels, but they are seen in the ocean. In July, some mature individuals migrate back towards the sea, crossing wet grasslands at night to reach rivers that lead to the sea.

Eel migration out of their freshwater growth habitats from various parts of Europe, or through the Baltic Sea in the Danish straits, have been the basis of traditional fisheries with characteristic trapnets. How the adults make the 6,000 km open ocean journey back to their spawning grounds north of the Antilles and Puerto Rico remains unknown. By the time they leave the continent, their gut dissolves, making feeding impossible, so they have to rely on stored energy alone; the external features undergo other dramatic changes, as well: the eyes start to enlarge, the eye pigments change for optimal vision in dim blue clear ocean light, the sides of their bodies turn silvery, to create a countershading pattern which makes them difficult to see by predators during their long open-ocean migration. These migrating eels are called "silver eels" or "big eyes". German fisheries biologist Friedrich Wilhelm Tesch, an eel expert and author, conducted many expeditions with high-tech instrumentation to follow eel migration, first down the Baltic along the coasts of Norway and England, but the transmitter signals were lost at the continental s


Coronaridine known as 18-carbomethoxyibogamine, is an alkaloid found in Tabernanthe iboga and related species, including Tabernaemontana divaricata for which it was named. Coronaridine persistently reduces the self-administration of morphine in rats. Coronaridine has been reported to bind to an assortment of molecular sites, including: μ-opioid, δ-opioid, κ-opioid receptors, NMDA receptor, nAChRs, it has been found to inhibit the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, act as a voltage-gated sodium channel blocker, displays estrogenic activity in rodents. In contrast to ibogaine and other iboga alkaloids, coronaridine does not bind to either the σ1 or σ2 receptor. Coronaridine has estrogenic properties. Ibogaine Ibogamine Tabernanthine Voacangine