The Rootes Group or Rootes Motors Limited was a British automobile manufacturer and, separately a major motor distributors and dealers business. Run from London's West End, they were based in the Midlands and south of England. In the decade beginning 1928 the Rootes brothers and Reginald, made prosperous by their successful distribution and servicing business, were keen to enter manufacturing for closer control of the products they were selling. One brother has been termed the other the steering and braking system. With the financial support of Prudential Assurance, the two brothers bought some well-known British motor manufacturers, including Hillman, Singer, Talbot and Karrier, controlling them through their parent, Rootes' 60-per-cent-owned subsidiary, Humber Limited. At its height in 1960, Rootes had manufacturing plants in the Midlands at Coventry and Birmingham, in southern England at Acton and Dunstable, a brand-new plant in the west of Scotland at Linwood. From its offices in Devonshire House, Piccadilly, in London it controlled exports and international distribution for Rootes and other motor manufacturers and its own local distribution and service operations in London, Kent and Manchester.
There were assembly plants in nine countries outside the UK. Rootes Group was under-capitalised and unable to survive industrial relations problems and losses from the 1963 introduction of a new aluminium-engined small car, the Hillman Imp. By mutual agreement, from mid-1964, Rootes Motors was taken over in stages by Chrysler Corporation, which bought control from the Rootes family in 1967. By the end of 1978 the last of the various elements of Chrysler UK had been sold to Peugeot and Renault. Rootes was founded in Hawkhurst, Kent, in 1913 by William Rootes as a car sales agency independent from his father's Hawkhurst motor business. Rootes had moved his operations to Maidstone by 1914 and there he contracted to repair aero engines. In 1917 he formed Rootes Limited to buy the Maidstone branch of his father's motor business, founded by his father in 1897, to expand his aircraft engine repair business and the manufacture of aircraft parts. In 1919 the distribution of cars and commercial vehicles resumed and operations extended to London and other part of the country.
As early as 1924 Rootes had become the largest car distributor in the United Kingdom. They advertised that their showrooms in Devonshire House Piccadilly could supply new cars priced from £145 to £3,000 manufactured by Rolls-Royce, Sunbeam, Hillman, Fiat or Clyno. A particular effort was put into overseas sales and it became clear the export opportunities warranted a move into car manufacture, achieved in 1928 by the purchase of controlling interests in first Hillman Motor Car Company Limited followed a year by Humber Limited and Commercial Cars Limited. Hillman and Commer were made wholly owned subsidiaries of Humber Limited and the Rootes brothers' holding became 60 percent of the Humber ordinary shares; the Rootes brothers could now show their ability to manufacture handsome cars with a strong sales appeal. Humber Cycles There was a resurgence in domestic and export demand for pedal bicycles, in February 1932 Raleigh acquired all the Humber cycles trade marks. Manufacture was transferred to Raleigh's Nottingham works.
Rootes Securities Limited Rootes Limited was renamed Rootes Securities Limited in 1933. During the Depression more businesses were picked up as they came available: Karrier Motors Limited 1934, Sunbeam Motor Company Limited 1934, Clement Talbot Limited 1934 and British Light Steel Pressings Limited 1937 were all bought and made subsidiaries of Humber Limited. London's Mayfair coachbuilders and Rolls-Royce and Daimler dealers Thrupp & Maberly Limited had been bought in 1926 their royal warrant always proudly displayed. Home and export division and overseas interests A new Rootes Limited was incorporated in 1933 to hold the profitable core business of the Rootes brothers: the motor distribution and servicing functions, its extension and development of export markets, it had been the largest truck and car distributor in the United Kingdom in 1924 and generated the capital to buy manufacturer Hillman, merge Hillman with manufacturer Humber and give the Rootes brothers control of Humber and the manufacturing subsidiaries they would have Humber buy.
Overseas representation of British motor manufacturers was not limited to group members. Ownership and control, Rootes family Rootes Motors Limited was the new name assumed 16 November 1949 of holding company Rootes Securities Limited; the whole of 1917's initial capital had been provided by the two Rootes brothers. Thereafter the business's expansion was financed by retained profits supplemented where necessary, for example the purchase of Hillman, by loans from The Prudential Assurance Company Limited and the company's bankers principally Midland Bank. On 24 November 1949 shares in Rootes Motors Limited were issued to the public in exchange for £3,025,000. Rootes was now a public listed company and the new capital repaid the Prudential and Midland Bank loans; the listed shares however were preference shares. The equity capital remained in the hands of the Rootes family now with new partner Prudential who had taken up all of the offered £1,000,000 of ordinary shares. External shareholders continued to hold a large proportion of Humber Limited.
The preference shares issued to the public by Humber remained listed. In addition there were external shareholdings in the Rootes Acceptances vehicle exporting business and in Automobile Products of India Limited. At this time employees totalled 17,000. Rootes owned, on average, about 80 per cent of the capital of its subsidiaries; the manufacturing subsidiaries were held
Automotive design is the process of developing the appearance, to some extent the ergonomics, of motor vehicles, including automobiles, trucks, buses and vans. The functional design and development of a modern motor vehicle is done by a large team from many different disciplines included within automotive engineering, design roles are not associated with requirements for Professional or Chartered-Engineer qualifications. Automotive design in this context is concerned with developing the visual appearance or aesthetics of the vehicle, though it is involved in the creation of the product concept. Automotive design as a professional vocation is practiced by designers who may have an art background and a degree in industrial design or transportation design. Terminology used in the field is found in the glossary of automotive design; the task of the design team is split into three main aspects: exterior design, interior design, color and trim design. Graphic design is an aspect of automotive design.
Design focuses not only on the isolated outer shape of automobile parts, but concentrates on the combination of form and function, starting from the vehicle package. The aesthetic value will need to correspond to ergonomic utility features as well. In particular, vehicular electronic components and parts will give more challenges to automotive designers who are required to update on the latest information and knowledge associated with emerging vehicular gadgetry dashtop mobile devices, like GPS navigation, satellite radio, HD radio, mobile TV, MP3 players, video playback, smartphone interfaces. Though not all the new vehicular gadgets are to be designated as factory standard items, some of them may be integral to determining the future course of any specific vehicular models; the designer responsible for the exterior of the vehicle develops the proportions and surfaces of the vehicle. Exterior design is first done by a series of manual drawings. Progressively, drawings that are more detailed are executed and approved by appropriate layers of management.
Industrial plasticine and or digital models are developed from, along with the drawings. The data from these models are used to create a full-sized mock-up of the final design. With three- and five-axis CNC milling machines, the clay model is first designed in a computer program and "carved" using the machine and large amounts of clay. In times of high-class 3d software and virtual models on power walls, the clay model is still the most important tool to evaluate the design of a car and, therefore, is used throughout the industry; the designer responsible for the vehicles' interior develops the proportions, shape and surfaces for the instrument panel, door trim panels, pillar trims, etc. Here the emphasis is on the comfort of the passengers; the procedure here is the same as with exterior design. The color and trim designer is responsible for the research and development of all interior and exterior colors and materials used on a vehicle; these include paints, fabric designs, grains, headliner, wood trim, so on.
Color, contrast and pattern must be combined to give the vehicle a unique interior environment experience. Designers work with the exterior and interior designers. Designers draw inspiration from other design disciplines such as: industrial design, home furnishing and sometimes product design. Specific research is done into global trends to design for projects two to three model years in the future. Trend boards are created from this research in order to keep track of design influences as they relate to the automotive industry; the designer uses this information to develop themes and concepts that are further refined and tested on the vehicle models. The design team develops graphics for items such as: badges, dials, kick or tread strips, liveries; the sketches and rendering are transformed into 3D Digital surface modelling and rendering for real-time evaluation with Math data in initial stages. During the development process succeeding phases will require the 3D model developed to meet the aesthetic requirements of a designer and well as all engineering and manufacturing requirements.
The developed CAS digital model will be re-developed for manufacturing meeting the Class-A surface standards that involves both technical as well as aesthetics. This data will be further developed by Product Engineering team; these modelers have a background in Industrial design or sometimes tooling engineering in case of some Class-A modelers. Autodesk Alias and ICEM Surf are the two most used software tools for Class-A development. Several manufacturers have varied development cycles for designing an Automobile, but in practice these are the following. Design and User Research Concept Development sketching CAS Clay modeling Interior Buck Model Vehicle ergonomics Class-A Surface Development Colour and Trim Vehicle GraphicsThe design process occurs concurrently with other product Engineers who will be engineering the styling data for meeting performance and safety regulations. From mid-phase and forth interactions between the designers and product engineers culminates into a finished product be manufacturing ready.
Apart from this the Engineering team parallelly works in the following areas. Product Engineering, NVH Development team, Prototype
British Motor Museum
The British Motor Museum, is the World's largest collection of historic British cars in Warwickshire, England. There are over 300 Classic cars on display from the British Motor Industry Heritage Trust and the Jaguar Heritage Trust; the collection, now cared for by the British Motor Industry Heritage Trust, was developed in the 1970s when a new division of the British Leyland Motor Corporation was formed to preserve and manage the company's collection of historic vehicles. In 1979, the company became BL Heritage Limited, adopting a new headquarters at Studley, Warwickshire. Two years a museum was opened at the London Transport Museum's former home of Syon Park, west of London, where some 100 vehicles from the collection were put on display. During the early 1980s, closer ties were made with other British motor manufacturers. In 1983, the collection was granted charitable status, became the British Motor Industry Heritage Trust, although there were now several manufacturers involved, the collection still carried a large bias towards the former British Leyland companies.
Austin-Rover continued as the primary backer of the Trust, the other companies withdrew their support. Meanwhile, the collection continued to grow. In the late 1980s, it became evident that larger premises would be required as the collection developed. Several new sites were considered for a purpose built museum; the present location was chosen, on the site of the former RAF Gaydon airfield in South Warwickshire, home to the Rover Group's design and testing ground. Plans were drawn up and construction began in 1991 for the new Heritage Motor Centre. Set in 65 acres of grounds, the centre brought together all of the Trust's operations for the first time, providing exhibition and storage space for the collection of over 250 vehicles and archive of over 2 million photographs, business records and drawings; the site includes conference facilities. When Rover Group was taken over by BMW in 1994, the British Motor Museum came under their ownership. Six years BMW sold the Rover Group, which meant that the Centre changed hands yet again, this time under the ownership of the Ford Motor Company.
This latest change of ownership means that the Trust now had the opportunity to expand its collection to include all of the companies that have formed part of Britain's motor manufacturing history. Following Jaguar's decision to close their Jaguar Daimler Heritage Centre, a small selection of the Jaguar Daimler Heritage Collection has been on display at the Museum. In November 2015 the Heritage Motor Centre closed for a £1.1 million refurbishment, reopened on 13 February 2016 under the new name of British Motor Museum. This is not an exhaustive list — a complete list is provided on the centre's website. Due to space limitations, not all cars are exhibited at all times; the first Land Rover The first and last production models of the Land Rover Freelander Various Land Rover, Range Rover, Rover P5 vehicles used by the British Royal Family and senior politicians An SAS Land Rover Prototype Land Rover 101 Recovery Truck Shaun the Sheep Land Rover Defender Land Rover Series 2 track wheeled off road vehicle Rare Land Rover Llama lorry The millionth Land Rover Discovery 4 The first and last production models of the Rover 75 Rover Gas Turbine cars The Metro 1.3 HLS as shown at the 1980 Motor Show Metro 6R4 Rally Car Various MG Speed Record cars The first Mini produced: 621 AOK The last Rover Mini Cooper produced The Minis that won the Monte Carlo Rally during the 1960s Various Mini based prototypes, such as the Minissima FAB1 from the Thunderbirds film An Ascari KZ1 show car from 2000 Rolls-Royce Phantom The last Aston Martin DB7 Aston Martin V12 Vanquish Sinclair C5 Ford RS200 The last production Austin Montego Ford Escort Mark I as used in the 1970 London to Mexico World Cup Rally Jaguar R1 Formula One racecar from 2000 The British Motor Museum offers a research and registry service for several British car marques.
For a small fee, owners may send in their Vehicle Identification Number and/or engine numbers, they will research the original production records for that vehicle and send back whatever information on the vehicle is available. This is a'Certified Copy of a Factory Record' or more known as a Heritage Certificate; this can include such details as a list of the options the car was ordered with, the original paint colour and any identification numbers that may be missing. This can be useful when to obtain an age-related Registration Mark. British Motor Museum Classic Car Collection Gaydon Series of photos of the classic cars at the British Motor Museum
Moreton-in-Marsh is a small market town in the Evenlode Valley, within the Cotswolds Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty in Gloucestershire, England. The town stands at the crossroads of the Fosse Way Roman road and the A44, it is served by Moreton-in-Marsh railway station on the Cotswold Line. It is flat and low-lying compared with the surrounding Cotswold Hills; the River Evenlode rises near Batsford, runs around the edge of Moreton and meanders towards Oxford, where it flows into the Thames just east of Eynsham. Just over 1.5 miles east of Moreton, the Four shire stone marked the boundary of the historic counties of Gloucestershire, Warwickshire and Oxfordshire, until the re-organisation of the county boundaries in 1931. Since it marks the meeting place of Gloucestershire and Oxfordshire. Moreton is derived from Old English which means "Farmstead on the Moor" and "in Marsh" is from henne and mersh meaning a marsh used by birds such as moorhens. An alternative suggestion is. A settlement was built during the British Iron Age just northwest of the town centre near the cricket ground.
Archaeological research has found Roman pottery and coins at the site showing it remained occupied after the Roman invasion of Britain. During this period, the Fosse Way, one of the best preserved Roman routes in Britain, was constructed, it was constructed by the Roman army but was subsequently maintained by the local Civitas. The course can be traced through the county by the modern roads that tend to follow its course, although there are deviations such as south of the town where it crosses the hill into Stow-on-the-Wold. Moreton, is first mentioned as a Saxon settlement, around 577 AD. Following the Norman conquest of Britain, the township was part of the monastic property held by Westminster Abbey in London. Abbott Richard of Barking, began developing Moreton as a medieval market town between 1222 and 1246; the new town was built on common land bordering the Fosse Way to the northwest of the original Saxon settlement. An area, still referred to as the "Old Town". To accommodate medieval markets, the new town has a wide High Street.
The Curfew Tower on the corner of Oxford Street is 16th century. Its bell was cast in 1633 and its clock was built in 1648; the Church of England parish church of Saint David began as a chapel of ease for Blockley, to which the residents of Moreton had to transport their dead for burial. The early history of the church in Moreton is not clear, but there is evidence that a primitive Celtic place of worship preceded the church on the present site, which had seven springs; the church at Moreton came under the jurisdiction of the Batsford Estate, when that estate was given to the Bishops of Worcester in the 12th century. Latterly, the church in Moreton was a chapel-at-ease for Batsford, technically the parish church; the appointment of the vicar for Batsford with Moreton alternates between the Bishop of Gloucester and the Lord of the Manor at Batsford Lord Dulverton, until the Second World War, exercised his right to collect a shilling a year for every shop window facing Moreton High Street. There is a tradition that the church was rebuilt and reconsecrated in the middle of the 16th century.
The nave was enlarged in 1790, with a £1,000 gift from Samuel Wilson Warneford, most of the church was rebuilt in 1858 and the tower was replaced in 1860. The chancel and south aisle were enlarged in 1892 and the east end of the south aisle has been used as a chapel since 1927. A nonconformist congregation started meeting in Moreton in 1796, was constituted as a Congregational church in 1801 and had a chapel built in 1817. In 1860–61 the Congregationalists replaced the chapel with a new one on the same site in a mixed neo-Grecian and Romanesque style; the Stratford and Moreton Tramway was built between 1821 and 1826, linking Moreton with the Stratford-on-Avon Canal at Stratford. It was horse-drawn until 1859, when the section between Moreton and Shipston-on-Stour was converted to a branch line railway operated with steam locomotives; the Oxford and Wolverhampton Railway, built between 1845 and 1851, passes through Moreton. The railway station was opened in 1853; the Great Western Railway took over the OW&W Railway in 1862 and the Shipston-on-Stour branch in 1868.
The GWR withdrew passenger trains from the branch in 1929 and British Railways withdrew freight traffic and closed it in 1960. The OW&W Railway is now part of the Cotswold line; the line between Oxford and Worcester was singled, except for the distance between Shipton-under-Wychwood to Moreton-in-Marsh, in the 1970s. The double track has been replaced, except between Evesham and Worcester in 2011, freight services are planned to re-use this route; the Redesdale Market Hall was designed by the architect Sir Ernest George and built in 1887. The town was known as "Moreton-in-the-Marsh" into the early 20th century; the name was changed to "Moreton-in-Marsh" before 1930. In 1940, a large area of level land east of the town was developed as RAF Moreton-in-Marsh and used by Wellington bombers; the former airfield is now the Fire Service College where senior fire officers from brigades all over the UK undergo operational and leadership training. The same complex is now the headquarters of the Institution of Fire Engineers, the professional body for fire fighters and civilians with an interest in fire engineering.
Moreton-in-Marsh and Batsford War Memorial is in the High Street and commemorates the dead of the First and Second World Wars. The last time Moreton was badly flooded was in 2007; the floods, which blocked the High Street, were f
Aston Martin Lagonda
The Aston Martin Lagonda is a full-sized, luxury four-door saloon, built by Aston Martin of Newport Pagnell, between 1974 and 1990. A total of 645 were produced; the name was derived from the Lagonda marque that Aston Martin had purchased in 1947. There are two distinct generations, the original, short lived 1974 design based on a lengthened Aston Martin V8, the redesigned, wedge-shaped Series 2 model introduced in 1976, subsequent evolutions. In 2014, Aston Martin confirmed it would launch a new Lagonda called the Taraf for the Middle-East market, sold on an invitation only basis. Aston Martin was facing financial pressure in the mid-1970s and needed something to bring in some much-needed funds. Traditionally, Aston Martin had worked on 2 +2 sports cars; as soon as it was introduced, it drew in hundreds of deposits from potential customers, helping Aston Martin's cash reserves. After a handful of series 1 cars, the 1976 car was designed from the ground up new by William Towns in an extreme interpretation of the classic 1970s "folded paper" style.
It was as unconventional a design as it is now. Together with famous contemporaries like the Lamborghini Countach, Lotus Esprit, the DMC DeLorean, the Lagonda is named among the most striking wedge-shaped designs of all. Car enthusiasts are fiercely divided on the car's aesthetic value; the Lagonda combined striking styling with opulent, club-like leather interior, state-of-the-art instrumentation. Coupled to a Chrysler three-speed "TorqueFlite" automatic transmission its four-cam carbureted V8 provided poor single-digit, miles-per-gallon, little improved by the change to fuel-injection in the Series 3. Throughout the history of the marque, these hand-built Lagondas were amongst the most expensive saloons in the world; the only other "production" cars to approach its lofty price tag were the Rolls-Royce Silver Spirit/Silver Spur and Bentley Mulsanne. The Lagonda was the first production car to use a digital instrument panel; the development cost for the electronics alone on the Lagonda came to four times as much as the budget for the whole car.
The Series 3 used cathode ray tubes for the instrumentation, which proved less reliable than the original model's light-emitting diode display. It was named by Bloomberg Businessweek as one of the 50 ugliest cars of the last 50 years and Time Magazine included it in its "50 Worst Cars of All Time", describing it as a mechanical "catastrophe" with electronics that would be impressive if they worked. A number of "series" were produced during the lifetime of the Lagonda, the original Series 1, the wedge shaped Series 2, 3 and 4. A total of 645 cars were produced in the 12 year production run of the wedged shaped version. A long-wheelbased, four-door version of the Aston Martin V8 was announced at the 1974 London Motor Show. Designed by William Towns and based on the DBS, it was the first car to wear the Lagonda name since the 1961 Rapide; the 5.3 L V8 engine supplied with a 5-speed automatic transmission. In appearance, the car is a 4-door version of the Aston Martin V8. Only seven were sold. Engine: 5.3 L 5,340 cc DOHC V8, producing 280 bhp and torque 301 lb⋅ft Top speed: 149 mph 0-60 mph: 6.2 seconds Length: 4,928 mm Wheelbase: 2,910 mm Width: 1,829 mm Height: 1,323 mm Weight: 2,000 kg At least 2 of them, numbers 12003 and 12005, have been upgraded by R.
S. Williams, Ltd of Cobham to a 7.0 liter version of the original Aston Martin V8 engine, able to make 440 bhp to 480 bhp on unleaded fuel. The wedge shaped Lagonda V8 saloon was launched in 1976 at the London Motor Show and was a total contrast to the 1974 model, sharing little but the engine. Deliveries of the Lagonda did not commence until 1979. Series 2 cars were fitted with digital LED dashboards and touch pad controls, but the innovative steering wheel controls and gas plasma display were abandoned in 1980; the Lagonda retailed at £49,933 in 1980 more than a Ferrari 400 or Maserati Kyalami but less than a Rolls-Royce Corniche. The car commenced sales in the US from 1982 with minor amendments to airdam. Engine: 5.3 L 5,340 cc DOHC V8, producing 280 bhp at 5,000 rpm and torque 302 lb⋅ft at 3,000 rpm Top speed: 143 mph 0-60 mph: 8.8 seconds Length: 5,281 mm Wheelbase: 2,916 mm Width: 1,791 mm Height: 1,302 mm Weight: 2,023 kg The Series 3 was only produced for one year with 75 models manufactured, featured fuel injected engines.
With cathode ray tube instruments versions featured a vacuum fluorescent display system similar to that used by some Vauxhalls and Opels, but externally were the same as the Series 2 model. The Series 4 was launched at the Geneva Motor Show in March 1987 and received a significant exterior facelift by the car's original designer William Towns; the car's sharp edges rounded off and the pop-up headlights eliminated, with a new arrangement of triple headlights each side of the grille being the most obvious alteration, along with the removal of the side swage line and the introduction of 16-inch wheels. With production of around one car per week, 105 Series 4 Lagondas were manufactured; the last car was produced during January 1990.81 remain registered in the United Kingdom as of 2011, down only from 94 in 1994, but 32 of the surviving examples are SORN. Non-standard variations of the Lagonda included: Tickford Lagonda — Five Series 2 Lagondas were sold with a bodykit and upgraded interiors Tickford limousine — Fo
David Ernest Bache was a British car designer. For much of his career he worked with Rover. Bache was born in Mannheim, the son of Aston Villa and England footballer Joe Bache, coaching in Mannheim following his retirement. Towards the end of World War II David joined the Austin Motor Company as an engineering apprentice; when he had finished his apprenticeship he moved to Austin's design office. In the Austin design office Bache worked under Dick Burzi, recruited from Lancia by Austin in 1929. One of his first jobs was to design the dashboard of the Austin A30. In 1954 Bache moved to Rover in Solihull, becoming Rover's first stylist, his first task was to update the Rover 75 and 90 models. He raised enlarged the rear window. A year he modified the frontal treatment, strengthening the detail and the new David Bache styled cars lasted ten more years with a minor alteration to the grille inset, he was responsible for giving the Land Rover Series II a more domesticated appearance than its more agricultural predecessor.
The revised shape, completed in just six weeks lived on, little changed, until Land Rover Defender production ceased in early 2017. The shape of cars was changing during the 1950s as soft rounded curves gave way to straight lines and sharp corners. Improvements in construction enabled engineers to dispense with a separate chassis, allowing passengers to sit lower in the vehicle; the development of curved glass gave stylists new opportunities. A visit to the 1955 Paris Auto Show would have a profound effect on Bache's style vocabulary, he was taken with the revolutionary new Citroen DS, as well as the imposing Facel Vega. Other influences were the Italian coach-builder Ghia's designs for Chrysler, work of Pininfarina, commissioned to produce a coupé and convertible on the Rover P4 chassis prior to Bache's arrival. Bache created the shape for the P5 expected to be a smaller, higher volume model of a similar size to the current Ford Zephyr. Bache's first attempts anticipated generous use of chrome fittings.
It did not please Rover Managing Director Maurice Wilks who, before Bache's arrival had overseen all styling. "It's a head turner", Wilks explained, "The Rover Company don't make head-turners. We like to make vehicles which pass unobtrusively and are not noticed." Bache went back to the drawing board and came up with something more like an evolution of the P4. But after a full-size mock-up for the P5 was completed, Wilks changed direction; the success of the Land Rover intended as a stop-gap model to help Rover's exports after the war, meant all available space in the Solihull factory was being taken up with meeting this demand. There was no room for a new high-volume model; the decision was taken in 1956 to make the P5 a larger lower-volume car. Bache's started again, produced an imposing unfussy design; the straight line running from the top of the front wing to the rear and slab sides are reminiscent of the Facel Vega, as was the wrap-around front windscreen. It is a tribute to Bache's vision that while the P4 went through at least three facelifts, the shape of the P5 remained unchanged for fifteen years.
With his 1963 Rover P6, Bache broke new ground not only with its external styling, but with its imaginative interior styling too, including an "open plan" dashboard and individual rear bucket seats. Bache's design for a big Rover saloon to compete with Jaguar's XJ6 was cancelled at the last moment. A mid-engined coupé prototype was cancelled. A period of unrest in the British car industry began and Rover was absorbed, first into the Leyland Motor Corporation and into British Leyland; this upheaval resulted in the cancellation of the big Rover and the coupé projects that Bache was involved with. Bache had a hand in the styling of the Range Rover, launched in 1970, although the basic lines had been defined by Spen King and Gordon Bashford. David Bache smoothed the prototype's functional lines and must share in the credit for the car's award-winning design. Bache's final Rover was the 1976 SD1 - the replacement for his P6, it was notable for its ground-breaking five-door hatchback design on a large executive car and its bold interior, winning the 1977 European Car of the Year award.
Its success was hampered by BL's notorious reliability problems. As chief stylist at BL, Bache was involved in the design of the 1981 Austin Metro and the Austin Maestro. After being forced to resign from his post by newly installed BL chief Harold Musgrove in 1982 following disagreements over the yet-to-be-launched Austin Maestro, his replacement by Roy Axe, he set up his own design company, David Bache Associates which worked outside the motor industry as much as inside it. On 26 November 1994 Bache died from cancer, he was married, with one daughter. Rover P5 Land Rover Series II Rover P6 1964 Rover-BRM gas turbine car Range Rover Rover SD1 Austin Mini Metro Austin Maestro
Engineers, as practitioners of engineering, are professionals who invent, analyze and test machines, systems and materials to fulfill objectives and requirements while considering the limitations imposed by practicality, regulation and cost. The word engineer is derived from the Latin words ingenium; the foundational qualifications of an engineer include a four-year bachelor's degree in an engineering discipline, or in some jurisdictions, a master's degree in an engineering discipline plus four to six years of peer-reviewed professional practice and passage of engineering board examinations. The work of engineers forms the link between scientific discoveries and their subsequent applications to human and business needs and quality of life. In 1961, the Conference of Engineering Societies of Western Europe and the United States of America defined "professional engineer" as follows: A professional engineer is competent by virtue of his/her fundamental education and training to apply the scientific method and outlook to the analysis and solution of engineering problems.
He/she is able to assume personal responsibility for the development and application of engineering science and knowledge, notably in research, construction, superintending, managing and in the education of the engineer. His/her work is predominantly intellectual and varied and not of a routine mental or physical character, it requires the exercise of original thought and judgement and the ability to supervise the technical and administrative work of others. His/her education will have been such as to make him/her capable of and continuously following progress in his/her branch of engineering science by consulting newly published works on a worldwide basis, assimilating such information and applying it independently. He/she is thus placed in a position to make contributions to the development of engineering science or its applications. His/her education and training will have been such that he/she will have acquired a broad and general appreciation of the engineering sciences as well as thorough insight into the special features of his/her own branch.
In due time he/she will be able to give authoritative technical advice and to assume responsibility for the direction of important tasks in his/her branch. Engineers develop new technological solutions. During the engineering design process, the responsibilities of the engineer may include defining problems and narrowing research, analyzing criteria and analyzing solutions, making decisions. Much of an engineer's time is spent on researching, locating and transferring information. Indeed, research suggests engineers spend 56% of their time engaged in various information behaviours, including 14% searching for information. Engineers must weigh different design choices on their merits and choose the solution that best matches the requirements and needs, their crucial and unique task is to identify and interpret the constraints on a design in order to produce a successful result. Engineers apply techniques of engineering analysis in production, or maintenance. Analytical engineers may supervise production in factories and elsewhere, determine the causes of a process failure, test output to maintain quality.
They estimate the time and cost required to complete projects. Supervisory engineers are responsible for entire projects. Engineering analysis involves the application of scientific analytic principles and processes to reveal the properties and state of the system, device or mechanism under study. Engineering analysis proceeds by separating the engineering design into the mechanisms of operation or failure, analyzing or estimating each component of the operation or failure mechanism in isolation, recombining the components, they may analyze risk. Many engineers use computers to produce and analyze designs, to simulate and test how a machine, structure, or system operates, to generate specifications for parts, to monitor the quality of products, to control the efficiency of processes. Most engineers specialize in one or more engineering disciplines. Numerous specialties are recognized by professional societies, each of the major branches of engineering has numerous subdivisions. Civil engineering, for example, includes structural and transportation engineering and materials engineering include ceramic and polymer engineering.
Mechanical engineering cuts across just about every discipline since its core essence is applied physics. Engineers may specialize in one industry, such as motor vehicles, or in one type of technology, such as turbines or semiconductor materials. Several recent studies have investigated. Research suggests that there are several key themes present in engineers' work: technical work, social work, computer-based work and information behaviours. Among other more detailed findings, a recent work sampling study found that engineers spend 62.92% of their time engaged in technical work, 40.37% in social work, 49.66% in computer-based work. Furthermore, there was considerable overlap between these different types of work, with engineers spending 24.96% of their time engaged in technical and social work, 37.97% in technical and non-social, 15.42% in non-technical and social, 21.66% in non-technical and non-social. Engineering is an information-intensive field, with research finding that engineers spend 55