Landshut is a town in Bavaria in the south-east of Germany. Situated on the banks of the River Isar, Landshut is the capital of Lower Bavaria, one of the seven administrative regions of the Free State of Bavaria, it is the seat of the surrounding district, has a population of more than 70,000. Landshut is the largest city in Lower Bavaria, followed by Passau and Straubing, Eastern Bavaria's second biggest city. Owing to its characteristic coat of arms, the town is often called "City of the three Helmets". Furthermore, the town is popularly known for a full-tilt medieval festival. Due to its proximity and easy access to Munich and the Franz Josef Strauss International Airport, Landshut became a powerful and future-oriented investment area; the town is one of the richest industrialized towns in Bavaria and has East Bavaria's lowest unemployment rate. Landshut lies in the centre of Lower Bavaria, is part of the Alpine foothills; the River Isar runs through the city centre. Landshut is about 72 kilometres northeast of Munich.
The city of Landshut and Trausnitz castle were founded in 1204 by Duke Louis I. Landshut was a Wittelsbach residence by 1231, in 1255, when the duchy of Bavaria was split in two, Landshut became the capital of Lower Bavaria. Duke Henry XVI was the first of the three famous rich dukes who ruled Bayern-Landshut in the 15th century; the wedding of Duke George with the Polish Princess Royal Jadwiga Jagiellon in 1475 was celebrated in Landshut with one of the most splendid festivals of the Middle Ages. After his death and the Landshut War of Succession, Bavaria-Landshut was reunited with Bavaria-Munich. Louis X, Duke of Bavaria built the Landshut Residence 1537–1543 after his visit to Italy. Louis built the first Renaissance palace constructed north of the Alps after the Palazzo Te in Mantua. William V, Duke of Bavaria ordered to upgrade Trausnitz Castle from a gothic fortification into a renaissance complex when he lived in Landshut as crown prince for ten years until 1579. Afterwards Landshut lost most of its importance until the University of Ingolstadt was moved to Landshut in 1800.
But in 1826 the university was transferred to Munich. In 1634, during the Thirty Years' War, the city was taken and plundered by Swedish forces under the command of Bernard of Saxe-Weimar. During World War II, a subcamp of Dachau concentration camp was located in the city to provide slave labour for local industry; the U. S. Army maintained facilities in Landshut, including Pinder Kaserne and a dependent housing area, until 1968. Since the opening of Munich Airport close to Landshut in 1992, the town has become an attractive business location; the town is of national importance because of its predominantly Gothic architecture within the historic town centre Trausnitz Castle and the Church of Saint Martin featuring the world's tallest brick tower. Among other Gothic architecture are the churches of St. Jodok and Holy Spirit, but the Town Hall and the Ländtor, the only still existing gate of the medieval fortification. Landshut is known for a festival celebrated every four years called the Landshuter Hochzeit, commemorating the 1475 marriage of George of Bavaria and Jadwiga Jagiellon.
The renaissance era produced in particular the decorated inner courtyard of the Trausnitz Castle and the ducal Landshut Residence in the inner town. Baroque churches are represented by the Jesuit church St. Ignatius, the Dominican church St. Blasius and the church of St. Joseph; the medieval churches of the Seligenthal convent and of the Cistercians were redesigned in baroque style. Many old middle-class houses of the past in the Old Town still represent the history of the town from the Gothic times to the Neo-Classicism. There are regular regional train connections to Munich, Passau and Hof. Stadttheater Kleines Theater Theater Nikola Kinoptikum – repertory cinema Kinopolis Landshut – Multiplex cinema Burgtheater/Kühlhauskino Skulpturenmuseum im Hofberg Eisstadion am Gutenbergweg – Indoor Ice hockey arena used by the Landshut Cannibals Sparkassen-Arena – Mainly used for concerts and fairs Grieserwiese – Giant parking area located between Wittstraße and the bank of the river Isar used for the annual Frühjahrs- und Bartlmädult BMW Dräxlmaier Group Deutsche Telekom ebmpapst LFoundry, a semiconductor fab owned by Renesas and before by Hitachi) Schott Glass Vishay Karstadt de:Pöschl TabakThere are two nuclear power plants located 14 km away from Landshut, Isar I and Isar II.
Landshut is twinned with: Ulrich Füetrer and painter Ludwig Feuerbach, philosopher Friedrich Feuerbach and philosopher Gustav Tiedemann, officer Carl du Prel, philosopher and occultist Karl Tanera, officer of the Bavarian Army and author Max Slevogt, graphician Otto Kissenberth, fighter pilot in World War I Hermann Erhardt, actor Max Schäfer, football player- and trainer Marlene Neubauer-Woerner, sculptor Josef Deimer and Lord mayor of Landshut from 1970-2014 David Elsner, professional ice hockey player Tom Kühnhackl, professional ice hockey player Roman Herzog, President of Germany from 1994 to 1999 Honorary Citizen as well Klaus Auhuber, ice hockey player Albert Sigl, author Gerhard Tausche and author Gerd Truntschka, ice hockey player Martin Bayerstorfer, politician Alex Holzwarth, dru
A witch-hunt or witch purge is a search for people labelled "witches" or evidence of witchcraft involving moral panic or mass hysteria. The classical period of witch-hunts in Early Modern Europe and Colonial North America took place in the Early Modern period or about 1450 to 1750, spanning the upheavals of the Reformation and the Thirty Years' War, resulting in an estimated 35,000 to 100,000 executions; the last executions of people convicted as witches in Europe took place in the 18th century. In other regions, like Africa and Asia, contemporary witch-hunts have been reported from Sub-Saharan Africa and Papua New Guinea and official legislation against witchcraft is still found in Saudi Arabia and Cameroon today. In current language, "witch-hunt" metaphorically means an investigation conducted with much publicity to uncover subversive activity, disloyalty and so on, but to weaken political opposition; the wide distribution of the practice of witch-hunts in geographically and culturally separated societies since the 1960s has triggered interest in the anthropological background of this behaviour.
The belief in magic and divination, attempts to use magic to influence personal well-being are human cultural universals. Belief in witchcraft has been shown to have similarities in societies throughout the world, it presents a framework to explain the occurrence of otherwise random misfortunes such as sickness or death, the witch sorcerer provides an image of evil. Reports on indigenous practices in the Americas and Africa collected during the early modern age of exploration have been taken to suggest that not just the belief in witchcraft but the periodic outbreak of witch-hunts are a human cultural universal. One study finds that witchcraft beliefs are associated with antisocial attitudes: lower levels of trust, charitable giving and group participation. Another study finds that income shocks lead to a large increase in the murder of "witches" in Tanzania. Punishment for malevolent sorcery is addressed in the earliest law codes; the Code of Hammurabi prescribes that If a man has put a spell upon another man and it is not yet justified, he upon whom the spell is laid shall go to the holy river.
If the holy river overcome him and he is drowned, the man who put the spell upon him shall take possession of his house. If the holy river declares him innocent and he remains unharmed the man who laid the spell shall be put to death, he that plunged into the river shall take possession of the house of him who laid the spell upon him. No laws concerning magic survive from Classical Athens. However, cases concerning the harmful effects of pharmaka – an ambiguous term that might mean "poison", "medicine", or "magical drug" – do survive those where the drug caused injury or death. Antiphon's speech "Against the Stepmother for Poisoning" tells of the case of a woman accused of plotting to murder her husband with a pharmakon; the most detailed account of a trial for witchcraft in Classical Greece is the story of Theoris of Lemnos, executed along with her children some time before 338 BC for casting incantations and using harmful drugs. In 451 BC, the Twelve Tables of Roman law had provisions against evil incantations and spells intended to damage cereal crops.
In 331 BC, 170 women were executed as witches in the context of an epidemic illness. Livy emphasizes. In 186 BC, the Roman senate issued a decree restricting the Bacchanalia, ecstatic rites celebrated in honor of Dionysus. Livy records that this persecution was because "there was nothing wicked, nothing flagitious, that had not been practiced among them". Consequent to the ban, in 184 BC, about 2,000 people were executed for witchcraft, in 182–180 BC another 3,000 executions took place, again triggered by the outbreak of an epidemic. There is no way to verify the figures reported by Roman historians, but if they are taken at face value, the scale of the witch-hunts in the Roman Republic in relation to the population of Italy at the time far exceeded anything that took place during the "classical" witch-craze in Early Modern Europe. Persecution of witches continued in the Roman Empire until the late 4th century AD and abated only after the introduction of Christianity as the Roman state religion in the 390s.
The Lex Cornelia de sicariis et veneficiis promulgated by Lucius Cornelius Sulla in 81 BC became an important source of late medieval and early modern European law on witchcraft. This law banned the trading and possession of harmful drugs and poisons, possession of magical books and other occult paraphernalia. Strabo, Gaius Maecenas and Cassius Dio all reiterate the traditional Roman opposition against sorcery and divination, Tacitus used the term religio-superstitio to class these outlawed observances. Emperor Augustus strengthened legislation aimed at curbing these practices, for instance in 31 BC, by burning over 2,000 magical books in Rome, except for certain portions of the hallowed Sibylline Books. In AD 354, while Tiberius Claudius was emperor, 45 men and 85 women, who were all suspected of sorcery, were executed; the Hebrew Bible condemns sorcery. Deuteronomy 18:10–12 states: "No one shall be found among you who makes a son or daughter pass through fire, who practices divination, or is a soothsayer, or an augur, or a sorcerer, or one that casts spells, or who consults gh
Order of Friars Minor Capuchin
The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin is an order of friars within the Catholic Church, among the chief offshoots of the Franciscans. The worldwide head of the Order, called the Minister General, is Roberto Genuin; the Order arose in 1525 when Matteo da Bascio, an Observant Franciscan friar native to the Italian region of Marche, said he had been inspired by God with the idea that the manner of life led by the friars of his day was not the one which their founder, St. Francis of Assisi, had envisaged, he sought to return to the primitive way of life of solitude and penance, as practiced by the founder of their Order. His religious superiors tried to suppress these innovations, Friar Matteo and his first companions were forced into hiding from Church authorities, who sought to arrest them for having abandoned their religious duties, they were given refuge by the Camaldolese monks, in gratitude for which they adopted the hood worn by that Order—which was the mark of a hermit in that region of Italy—and the practice of wearing a beard.
The popular name of their Order originates from this feature of their religious habit. In 1528, Friar Matteo obtained the approval of Pope Clement VII and was given permission to live as a hermit and to go about everywhere preaching to the poor; these permissions were not only for himself, but for all such as might join him in the attempt to restore the most literal observance possible of the Rule of St. Francis. Matteo and the original band were soon joined by others. Matteo and his companions were formed into a separate province, called the Hermit Friars Minor, as a branch of the Conventual Franciscans, but with a Vicar Provincial of their own, subject to the jurisdiction of the Minister General of the Conventuals; the Observants, the other branch of the Franciscan Order at that time, continued to oppose the movement. In 1529, they had four houses and held their first General Chapter, at which their particular rules were drawn up; the eremitical idea was abandoned, but the life was to be one of extreme austerity and poverty—in all things as near an approach to St Francis' ideals as was practicable.
Neither the monasteries nor the Province should possess anything, nor were any loopholes left for evading this law. No large provision against temporal wants should be made, the supplies in the house should never exceed what was necessary for a few days. Everything was to be obtained by begging, the friars were not allowed to touch money; the communities were to be small, eight being fixed as twelve as the limit. In furniture and clothing extreme simplicity was enjoined and the friars were discalced, required to go bare-footed—without sandals. Like the Observants, the Capuchins wore a brown habit, their form, was to be of the most simple form, i.e. only of a tunic, with the distinctive large, pointed hood reaching to the waist attached to it, girdled by the traditional woolen cord with three knots. By visual analogy, the Capuchin monkey and the cappuccino style of coffee are both named after the shade of brown used for their habit. Besides the canonical choral celebration of the Divine Office, a portion of, recited at midnight, there were two hours of private prayer daily.
The fasts and disciplines were frequent. The great external work was preaching and spiritual ministrations among the poor. In theology the Capuchins abandoned the Franciscan School of Scotus, returned to the earlier school of St. Bonaventure; the movement at the outset of its history underwent a series of severe blows. Two of the founders left it: Matteo Serafini of Bascio returning to the Observants, while his first companion, on being replaced in the office of Vicar Provincial, became so insubordinate that he had to be expelled from the Order. More scandalously, the third Vicar General, Bernardino Ochino, left the Catholic faith in 1543 after fleeing to Switzerland, where he was welcomed by John Calvin, became a Calvinist pastor in Zürich and married. Years claims that he had written in favor of polygamy and Unitarianism caused him to be exiled from that city and he fled again, first to Poland and to Moravia, where he died; as a result, the whole province came under the suspicion of heretical tendencies and the Pope resolved to suppress it.
He was dissuaded with difficulty. Despite earlier setbacks, the authorities were satisfied as to the soundness of the general body of Capuchin friars and the permission to preach was restored; the movement at once began to multiply and by the end of the 16th century the Capuchins had spread all over the Catholic parts of Europe, so that in 1619 they were freed from their dependence on the Conventual Franciscans and became an independent Order. They are said to have had at that time 1500 houses divided into fifty provinces, they were one of the chief tools in the Catholic Counter-reformation, the aim of the order being to work among the poor, impressing the minds of the common people by the poverty and austerity of their life, sometimes with sensationalist preaching, such as their use of the possessed Marthe Brossier to arouse Paris against the Huguenots. The activities of the Capuchins were not confined to Europe. From an early date they undertook missions to non-Catholics in America and Africa, a College was founded in Rome for the purpose of preparing their members for foreign missions.
Due to this strong missionary thrust, a large number of Capuchins have suffered martyrdom over the centuries. Activity in Europe and elsewhere continued until the close of the 18th century, when the number of Capuchin friars was estimated at 31,000; the crypt i
Archbishop of Cologne
The Archbishop of Cologne is an archbishop representing the Archdiocese of Cologne of the Catholic Church in western North Rhine-Westphalia and northern Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany and was ex officio one of the electors of the Holy Roman Empire, the Elector of Cologne, from 1356 to 1801. Since the early days of the Catholic Church, there have been ninety-four bishops and archbishops of Cologne. Seven of these ninety-four retired by resignation, including four resignations which were in response to impeachment. Eight of the bishops and archbishops were coadjutor bishops. Seven individuals were appointed as coadjutors by the Pope. One of the ninety-four moved to the Curia. Additionally, six of the archbishops of Cologne were chairmen of the German Bishops' Conference. Rainer Maria Cardinal Woelki is the Archbishop of Cologne, since his 2014 transfer from Berlin, where he had been Cardinal Archbishop. All names before Maternus II are to be approached with considerable skepticism, as little contemporary evidence is available.
Maternus was present at a council in Rome in 313. The bishops between Severinus and Charentius are apocryphal. Domitianus was the Bishop of Maastricht; the given dates of office before Gunther are conjectural, at best. Maternus I c. 88–128 Paulinus Marcellinus Aquilinus Levoldus c. 248–285 Maternus II c. 285–315 Euphrates c. 315–348 Severinus c. 348–403 Ebergisil I? c. 403–440 Solatius c. 440–470 Sunnovaeus c. 470–500 Domitianus fl. c. 535 Charentinus fl. c. 570 Eberigisil II? c. 580–600? Remedius c. 600? –611? Solatius c. 611? –622 Cunibert c. 623–663 Bodatus c. 663–674 Stephen 674–680 Adelwin 680–695 Giso 695–708 Anno I 708–710 Faramund 710–713 Agilolf 713–717 Reginfried 718–747 Hildegar 750–753 Bertholm 753–763 Rikulf 763–784 Hildebold 784–818 Hadbold 818–842 Hildwin 842–849 Günther 850–864 Hugo Welf 864 Wilbert 870–889 Hermann I 890–924 Wigfried 924–953 Bruno I 953–965 Volkmar 965–969 Gero 969–976 Warin 976–984 Ebergar 984–999 Heribert 999–1021 Pilgrim 1021–1036 Hermann II 1036–1056 Anno II 1056–1075 Hildholf 1076–1078 Sigwin 1078–1089 Hermann III 1089–1099 Friedrich I 1100–1131 Bruno II von Berg 1131–1137 Hugo von Sponheim 1137 Arnold I 1138–1151 Arnold II von Wied 1152–1156 Friedrich II von Berg 1156–1158, nephew of Bruno II von Berg above Rainald of Dassel 1159–1167 Philipp von Heinsberg 1167–1191, he gained the title of Duke of Westphalia and Angria in 1180, from on held in personal union by all incumbents of the Cologne see until 1803.
Bruno III von Berg 1191–1192, brother of Friedrich II above Adolf I von Berg 1192–1205, nephew of Bruno III above Bruno IV von Sayn 1205–1208 Dietrich I von Hengebach 1208–1215 Engelbert II von Berg 1216–1225, nephew of Bruno III above Heinrich I von Mulnarken 1225–1237 Ferdinand August von Spiegel 1824–1835 Clemens August II Droste zu Fischering 1835–1845 Johannes von Geissel 1845–1864 Paul Melchers 1866–1885 Philipp Krementz 1885–1899 Hubert Theophil Simar 1899-1902 Anton Hubert Fischer 1902–1912 Felix von Hartmann 1912–1919 Karl Joseph Schulte 1920–1941 Josef Frings 1942–1969 Joseph Höffner 1969–1987 Joachim Meisner 1988–2014 Rainer Maria Woelki since 2014 Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cologne Cologne Cathedral List of Bishops and Archbishops of Cologne Archdiocese of Cologne List of Bishops and Archbishops of Cologne Cologne Cathedral
Maria Anna of Bavaria (1574–1616)
Maria Anna of Bavaria, was German princess member of the House of Wittelsbach by birth and Archduchess of Inner Austria by marriage. Born in Munich, she was the fourth child and second daughter of William V, Duke of Bavaria and Renata of Lorraine. On 23 April 1600, Maria Anna married her first-cousin Ferdinand, Archduke of Inner Austria at Graz Cathedral; this marriage reaffirmed the alliance between the Wittelsbach. Without interfering in politics, Maria Anna lived at her husband's shadow. Maria Anna died in Graz aged 41, three years before the coronation of her husband as King of Bohemia and King of Hungary and his elevation to Holy Roman Emperor, she was buried in the Mausoleum near Graz. Archduchess Christine. Archduke Karl. Archduke Johann Karl. Ferdinand III, Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia. Archduchess Maria Anna, married on 15 July 1635 to Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria. Archduchess Cecilia Renata, married on 9 August 1637 to Wladyslaw IV, King of Poland. Archduke Leopold Wilhelm, Bishop of Passau and Strasbourg, Olmütz, Governor of the Spanish Netherlands, Grand Master of the Teutonic Order.
Constantin von Wurzbach: Habsburg, Maria Anna von Bayern in: Biographisches Lexikon des Kaiserthums Oesterreich, vol 7, ed L. C. Zamarski, Vienna 1861, p. 23 on-line. Hellmut Andics: Die Frauen der Habsburger. Heyne, Munich 1997. Richard Reifenscheid: Die Habsburger in Lebensbildern. Piper, 2007
Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma
Alexander Farnese was an Italian noble and condottiero, Duke of Parma and Castro from 1586 to 1592, as well as Governor of the Spanish Netherlands from 1578 to 1592. He is best known for his successful campaign 1578-1592 against the Dutch Revolt, in which he captured the main cities in the south and returned them to the control of Catholic Spain. During the French Wars of Religion he relieved Paris for the Catholics, his talents as a field commander and organizer earned him the regard of his contemporaries and military historians as the first captain of his age. Alessandro was the son of Duke Ottavio Farnese of Parma and Margaret, the illegitimate daughter of the King of Spain and Habsburg Emperor Charles V, he had a twin brother, who only lived one month. His mother was the half-sister of Philip II of John of Austria, he led a significant military and diplomatic career in the service of Spain under the service of his uncle the King. He fought in the Battle of Lepanto and in the Netherlands against the rebels.
He accompanied his mother to Brussels. In 1565 his marriage with Maria of Portugal was celebrated in Brussels with great splendour. Alexander Farnese had been brought up in Spain with his cousin, the ill-fated Don Carlos, Don John, both of whom were about the same age as himself, after his marriage he took up his residence at once in the court of Madrid, it was seven years. During that time the provinces of the Netherlands had revolted against Spanish rule. Don John, sent as governor-general to restore order, found difficulties in dealing with William the Silent, who had succeeded in uniting all the provinces in common resistance to King Philip II. In the autumn of 1577, Farnese was sent to join Don John at the head of reinforcements, it was his able strategy and prompt decision at a critical moment that won the Battle of Gembloux in 1578. Shortly afterwards Don John, whose health had broken down, died. Phillip appointed Farnese to take his place, both as Captain-General of the Army of Flanders, as Governor-General.
Farnese was confronted with a difficult situation. Perceiving that his opponents were divided between Catholic and Protestant and Walloon, he skilfully worked to exploit these divisions. By this means, he regained the allegiance of the Walloon provinces for the king. By the treaty of Arras, January 1579, he secured the support of the'Malcontents' for the royal cause; the rebels in the seven northern provinces formed the Union of Utrecht, formally abjuring Phillip's rule and pledging to fight to the end. As soon as he had secured a base of operations in Hainaut and Artois, Farnese set himself in earnest to the task of reconquering Brabant and Flanders by force of arms. Town after town fell under his control. Tournai, Breda and Ghent opened their gates. In a war composed of sieges rather than battles, he proved his mettle, his strategy was to offer generous terms for surrender: there would be no massacres or looting. He laid siege to the great seaport of Antwerp; the town was open to the sea fortified, defended with resolute determination and courage by its citizens.
They were led by the famous Marnix van St. Aldegonde and assisted by an ingenious Italian engineer named Federigo Giambelli; the siege called forth all of Farnese's military genius. He cut off all access to Antwerp from the sea by constructing a bridge of boats across the Scheldt from Calloo to Oordam, in spite of the desperate efforts of the besieged townspeople; the terms offered. This disciplined capture and occupation of the town should not be confused with the bloody events of the Spanish Fury on 4 November 1576. Farnese avoided the mistakes of his predecessor Don Luis de Requesens. With the Fall of Antwerp, with Mechelen and Brussels in the hands of Farnese, the whole of the southern Netherlands was once more placed under the authority of Philip. At one stage Holland and Zeeland, whose geographical position made them unassailable except by water, were hard pressed to retain territory; the poorly supplied English forces, sent by Elizabeth I, were duly defeated by the Duke's. In 1586, Alexander Farnese became Duke of Parma through the death of his father.
He applied for leave to visit his paternal territory, but Philip would not permit him as there was no replacement in the Netherlands. However, while retaining him in his command at the head of a formidable army, the king would not give his sanction to his great general's desire to use it for the conquest of England, at the time a supporter of the rebels. Farnese at first believed it possible to invade England with a force of 30,000 troops, without significant naval protection, relying on the hope of a native Catholic insurrection. Philip overruled him, began the work that led to the Spanish Armada; as part of the general campaign preparations, Farnese moved against Sluis. Sluis was taken in August 1587; the plan was. The Armada reached the area a year but poor communication between Parma a
Renata of Lorraine
Renata of Lorraine, was by birth a member of the House of Lorraine and by marriage Duchess of Bavaria. Born in Nancy, she was the second child and eldest daughter of Francis I, Duke of Lorraine and Christina of Denmark, her paternal grandparents were Antoine, Duke of Lorraine and Renée of Bourbon-Montpensier and her maternal grandparents were Christian II of Denmark and Isabella of Austria. Renata was described as a desirable match. In 1558, after the death of his first wife Prince William of Orange expressed a desire to marry Renata, her mother, liked the idea, it was further cemented after the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis. This match was however prevented by King Philip of Spain. Christina declined the plan of Cardinal of Lorraine to arrange a marriage between Renata and the prince of Joinville, a match proposed by the Spanish king to marry Renata to Juan d'Austria. In 1561, Renata's mother planned to marry her to king Frederick II of Denmark. However, the outbreak of the Nordic Seven Years' War between Denmark and Sweden in 1563, interrupted these plans.
From 1565 to 1567, Christina negotiated with King Eric XIV of Sweden to create an alliance between Sweden and Denmark through his marriage to Renata. The plan was for Christina to conquer Denmark with the support of Sweden, a plan Eric supported. However, Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand opposed the plan due to the destructive effect it could have on the balance of power among the German nations, if Saxony opposed Christina's claims. Neither did; the planned marriage alliance between Lorraine and Sweden was ended when Eric XIV married his non-noble lover Karin Månsdotter in 1567. On 22 February 1568, Renata married her paternal second, but maternal first cousin William, hereditary prince of Bavaria, in a large, elaborate ceremony and celebration in Munich that lasted 18 days; the event was described in detail by Massimo Troiano in his Dialoghi. 5,000 riders took part in it, the music was composed by Orlande de Lassus. Despite their large wedding and status, along with her husband, led a life of charity and humility.
They lived in the Jesuit Kollegienbau west of Munich. Renata took care of the poor and religious pilgrims. In this task, she was supported by her husband. After he inherited the duchy in 1579 as William V of Bavaria, Renata spent much of her time in the Herzogspitalkirche in Munich, founded in 1555 by her father-in-law. Renata died in Munich, aged 58, her grave is located in the St. Michael's Church in Munich, the consecration of, the last high point in both her and her husband's lives, she was revered as a saint by the people, but never canonized. Her husband, who abdicated in 1597, survived her twenty-four years, dying in 1626. All current monarchs of the three Scandinavian countries are Renata's direct blood descendants. Other direct descendants included Josephine of Leuchtenberg, who married the future King Oscar I of Sweden and Norway in 1823. Christoph. Christine. Maximilian I, future Duke and Elector of Bavaria. Maria Anna, married on 23 April 1600 to Ferdinand, Archduke of Inner Austria and future Holy Roman Emperor.
Philipp Wilhelm, Bishop of Regensburg from 1595, Cardinal from 1597. Ferdinand and prince-elector of Cologne. Eleonore Magdalene. Karl. Albert VI, Landgrave of Leuchtenberg by marriage. Magdalene, married on 11 November 1613 married Count Palatine of Neuburg. Anna de Crignis-Mentelberg: Herzogin Renata. Die Mutter Maximilians des Großen von Bayern. Freiburg im Breisgau 1912. Helmut Dotterweich: Der junge Maximilian. Jugend und Erziehung des bayerischen Herzogs und späteren Kurfürsten Maximilian I. von 1573 bis 1593. München 1962. Andrea Rueth: Renata von Lothringen, Herzogin von Bayern. In: Wurst, Jürgen und Langheiter, Alexander: Monachia. München: Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus, 2005. P. 142