Rinteln is a small town in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is located on the banks of the Weser river above the Porta Westfalica, the town of Rinteln is in the broad valley between the hills of the Weserbergland and the North Lippe Bergland. In relation to some well known places, it is 60 kilometers west of Hanover and it is accessed by the A2 autobahn. The settlement of Rinteln was founded about 1150 on the bank of the Weser. Later, in 1235, the village of Neu-Rinteln was founded on the southern bank and it is the origin of the modern town, since the northern village was abandoned in 1350 due to the plague. The village grew to a town, that served as a southern stronghold of the Counts of Schaumburg. From 1621 until its dissolution in 1810 during the Westphalian rule under Jérôme Bonaparte, when the County of Schaumburg was divided in 1640, Rinteln became the capital of the eastern part, that retained the name Grafschaft Schaumburg hessischen Anteils. The Eulenburg in Rinteln became the seat of the counts, Rinteln remained the capital of the county and of the district, until it was merged with the neighboring district of Schaumburg-Lippe in 1977.
In 1875, the station was opened
Calvinism is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians. The term Calvinism can be misleading, because the tradition which it denotes has always been diverse. The movement was first called Calvinism by Lutherans who opposed it, early influential Reformed theologians include Ulrich Zwingli, John Calvin, Martin Bucer, William Farel, Heinrich Bullinger, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Theodore Beza, and John Knox. In the twentieth century, Abraham Kuyper, Herman Bavinck, B. B, Warfield, J. Gresham Machen, Karl Barth, Martyn Lloyd-Jones, Cornelius Van Til, and Gordon Clark were influential. Contemporary Reformed theologians include J. I, Timothy J. Keller, John Piper, David Wells, and Michael Horton. Reformed churches may exercise several forms of polity, most are presbyterian or congregationalist. Calvinism is largely represented by Continental Reformed and Congregationalist traditions, the biggest Reformed association is the World Communion of Reformed Churches with more than 80 million members in 211 member denominations around the world.
There are more conservative Reformed federations such as the World Reformed Fellowship, Calvinism is named after John Calvin. It was first used by a Lutheran theologian in 1552 and it was a common practice of the Catholic Church to name what they perceived to be heresy after its founder. Nevertheless, the term first came out of Lutheran circles, Calvin denounced the designation himself, They could attach us no greater insult than this word, Calvinism. It is not hard to guess where such a deadly hatred comes from that they hold against me, despite its negative connotation, this designation became increasingly popular in order to distinguish Calvinists from Lutherans and from newer Protestant branches that emerged later. Moreover, these churches claim to be—in accordance with John Calvins own words—renewed accordingly with the order of gospel. Since the Arminian controversy, the Reformed tradition—as a branch of Protestantism distinguished from Lutheranism—divided into two groups and Calvinists.
However, it is now rare to call Arminians a part of the Reformed tradition, some have argued that Calvinism as a whole stresses the sovereignty or rule of God in all things including salvation. First-generation Reformed theologians include Huldrych Zwingli, Martin Bucer, Wolfgang Capito, John Oecolampadius, scripture was viewed as a unified whole, which led to a covenantal theology of the sacraments of baptism and the Lords Supper as visible signs of the covenant of grace. Another Reformed distinctive present in these theologians was their denial of the presence of Christ in the Lords supper. Each of these understood salvation to be by grace alone. Martin Luther and his successor Philipp Melanchthon were undoubtedly significant influences on these theologians, the doctrine of justification by faith alone was a direct inheritance from Luther
Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse
Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse, nicknamed der Großmütige was a leading champion of the Protestant Reformation and one of the most important of the early Protestant rulers in Germany. Philip was the son of Landgrave William II of Hesse and his second wife Anna of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. His father died when Philip was five years old, and in 1514 his mother, after a series of struggles with the Estates of Hesse, the struggles over authority continued, however. To put an end to them, Philip was declared of age in 1518, the power of the Estates had been broken by his mother, but he owed her little else. His education had been imperfect, and his moral and religious training had been neglected. Despite all this, he developed rapidly as a statesman, the first meeting of Philip of Hesse with Martin Luther took place in 1521, at the age of 17, at the Diet of Worms. There he was attracted by Luthers personality, though he had at first little interest in the elements of the gathering. Philip embraced Protestantism in 1524 after a meeting with the theologian Philipp Melanchthon.
He helped suppress the German Peasants War by defeating Thomas Müntzer at the Battle of Frankenhausen, Philip refused to be drawn into the anti-Lutheran league of George, Duke of Saxony, in 1525. At the same time, he united political motives with his religious policy, as early as the spring of 1526, he sought to prevent the election of the Catholic Archduke Ferdinand as Holy Roman Emperor. Although there was no strong popular movement for Protestantism in Hesse, the University of Marburg was founded in the summer of 1527 to be, like the University of Wittenberg, a school for Protestant theologians. Their activities, along with other circumstances, including rumors of war and his suspicions were confirmed to his own satisfaction by a forgery given him by an adventurer who had been employed in important missions by George of Saxony, one Otto von Pack. Both Luther and the chancellor, Gregor Brück, though convinced of the existence of the conspiracy. Nevertheless, he took a part in uniting the Protestant representatives.
Before leaving the city he succeeded in forming, on 22 April 1529, Philip was especially anxious to prevent division over the subject of the Eucharist. Through him Huldrych Zwingli was invited to Germany, and Philip thus prepared the way for of the celebrated Marburg Colloquy, the result was that Philip was suspected of a tendency toward Zwinglianism. Philip eagerly embraced Zwinglis plan of a great Protestant alliance to extend from the Adriatic to Denmark to keep the Holy Roman Emperor from crossing into Germany, the arrival of the emperor put an end to these disputes for the time being. Moreover, Bucer fully agreed with the landgrave on the importance of compromise measures in treating the controversy surrounding the Eucharist and this effort resulted in the foundation of, the League of Gotha, the League of Torgau, and finally the Schmalkaldic League
A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family, usually in the context of a feudal or monarchical system but sometimes appearing in elective republics. The dynastic family or lineage may be known as a house, historians periodize the histories of many sovereign states, such as Ancient Egypt, the Carolingian Empire and Imperial China, using a framework of successive dynasties. As such, the dynasty may be used to delimit the era during which the family reigned and to describe events, trends. The word dynasty itself is often dropped from such adjectival references, until the 19th century, it was taken for granted that a legitimate function of a monarch was to aggrandize his dynasty, that is, to increase the territory and power of his family members. The longest-surviving dynasty in the world is the Imperial House of Japan, dynasties throughout the world have traditionally been reckoned patrilineally, such as under the Frankish Salic law. Succession through a daughter when permitted was considered to establish a new dynasty in her husbands ruling house, some states in Africa, determined descent matrilineally, while rulers have at other times adopted the name of their mothers dynasty when coming into her inheritance.
It is extended to unrelated people such as poets of the same school or various rosters of a single sports team. The word dynasty derives via Latin dynastia from Greek dynastéia, where it referred to power, dominion and it was the abstract noun of dynástēs, the agent noun of dynamis, power or ability, from dýnamai, to be able. A ruler in a dynasty is referred to as a dynast. For example, following his abdication, Edward VIII of the United Kingdom ceased to be a member of the House of Windsor. A dynastic marriage is one that complies with monarchical house law restrictions, the marriage of Willem-Alexander, Prince of Orange, to Máxima Zorreguieta in 2002 was dynastic, for example, and their eldest child is expected to inherit the Dutch crown eventually. But the marriage of his younger brother Prince Friso to Mabel Wisse Smit in 2003 lacked government support, thus Friso forfeited his place in the order of succession, lost his title as a Prince of the Netherlands, and left his children without dynastic rights.
In historical and monarchist references to formerly reigning families, a dynast is a member who would have had succession rights, were the monarchys rules still in force. Even since abolition of the Austrian monarchy and his descendants have not been considered the rightful pretenders by Austrian monarchists, nor have they claimed that position. The term dynast is sometimes used only to refer to descendants of a realms monarchs. The term can therefore describe overlapping but distinct sets of people, yet he is not a male-line member of the royal family, and is therefore not a dynast of the House of Windsor. Thus, in 1999 he requested and obtained permission from Elizabeth II to marry the Roman Catholic Princess Caroline of Monaco. Yet a clause of the English Act of Settlement 1701 remained in effect at that time and that exclusion, ceased to apply on 26 March 2015, with retroactive effect for those who had been dynasts prior to triggering it by marriage to a Catholic
William V, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel
William V, a member of the House of Hesse, was Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel from 1627 to 1637. Having come to rule in unfavorable circumstances and in the midst of the Thirty Years War, he continued to suffer losses of territory, William was born in Kassel, the son of Landgrave Maurice of Hesse-Kassel and his consort Agnes of Solms-Laubach. His mother died shortly after his birth, and his father subsequently married Countess Juliane of Nassau-Dillenburg, Maurice, of broad education and interests, inherited half of the estates held by the extinct landgraves of Hesse-Marburg in 1604. However, when he converted to Calvinism the next year, he entered into a legal dispute with his Lutheran cousin Landgrave Louis V of Hesse-Darmstadt. Williams first order was to obey the verdict and to stabilise the situation of the landgraviate. He fought against the Kipper und Wipper debasement crisis and aimed at reducing the debt burden, in the Thirty Years War, he allied with his relative King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, whose army disembarked on 6 July 1630 in Pomerania.
As a commander, he drove out the Imperial troops under Aldringen, Williams expectations proved to be false, when Gustavus Adolphus only seized the Rüsselsheim fortress and left Upper Hesse to Landgrave Georg. Williams situation worsened when the king was killed in the 1632 Battle of Lützen, when in 1635 the emperor concluded the Peace of Prague with numerous Protestant princes, William was left offside. Instead he forged an alliance with France, which earned him the invasion of Imperial troops. The landgrave again lost Fulda and his Westphalian conquests and plunged into another debt crisis and he was declared an enemy of the Empire while his cousin Georg was appointed administrator of the Hesse-Kassel estates. In 1636 the forces of William and the Swedish commander Alexander Leslie were able to liberate the fortress of Hanau. Nevertheless, by 1637 whole Hesse-Kassel was under occupation and William was forced to escape. He died in exile in East Frisia, Williams widow, Amalie Elisabeth von Hanau-Münzenberg, served as regent for her son William VI, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel until he came of age in 1650.
Under her leadership many of the lands lost by her father-in-law, in 1650, Williams son, William VI, began his rule as Landgrave, and continued the Hesse-Kassel line, which almost perished under Maurice and William V. One of his daughters, married Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine and was the mother of the famous Duchess of Orléans, another daughter, married Henri Charles de La Trémoille. Encyclopædia Britannica 1905 article - Hesse-Kassel
George II, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt
George II of Hesse-Darmstadt, Georg II von Hessen-Darmstadt was the Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1626 -1661. He was the son of Ludwig V and Magdalene of Brandenburg and he married Sophia Eleonore of Saxony on 1 April 1627. From 1645 to 1648 he led the so-called Hessenkrieg against the Landgravine Amalie Elizabeth of Hesse-Kassel over the inheritance of the line of Hesse-Marburg. This conflict resulted in the loss of Hesse-Marburg to Hesse-Kassel, landgraf von Hessen-Darmstadt Wikisource, Allgemeine Deutsch Biorgaphie Georg II
Haina is a community in Waldeck-Frankenberg in northwest Hesse, Germany. Haina lies in Waldeck-Frankenberg south of Frankenberg and east of Burgwald at the southwest slope of the Kellerwald range and it lies on the river Wohra not far west of the Hohes Lohr. Haina consists of the following 12 centres, Battenhausen, Dodenhausen, Haina, Halgehausen, Hüttenrode, Löhlbach, the former Cistercian monastery in Haina is Hesses most important Gothic building works. Haina Monastery was built by monks from the Altenberg Monastery in the Bergisches Land, in 1188, they had moved to the Aulesburg near Löhlbach, and thirty years they moved again, this time to Haina. Through donations and exchanges, the Haina Cistercians earned themselves a rich estate, in 1527, the monastery was shut down by Philip I, Landgrave of Hesse – known as Philip the Magnanimous – and turned into a state hospital. The Monastery Church, built between 1215 and 1330, is the earliest Gothic building in Germany, the former monastery nowadays houses a psychiatric hospital.
In 1789, the Abbot of the Haina Monastery Friedrich von Stamford built the Stamfordscher Garten in Haina, dolly p. David, painter – called dolly Psychiatry museum Tischbeinhaus Parish homepage with virtual monastery tour Haina Monastery history Haina at DMOZ
Frederick I of Prussia
Frederick I, of the Hohenzollern dynasty, was Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia in personal union. The latter function he upgraded to royalty, becoming the first King in Prussia, from 1707 he was in personal union the sovereign prince of the Principality of Neuchâtel. He was the grandfather of Frederick the Great. His maternal cousin was King William III of England, upon the death of his father on 29 April 1688, Frederick became Elector Frederick III of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia. Right after ascending the throne Frederick founded a new city southerly adjacent to Dorotheenstadt and named it after himself, Frederick was noted for his opposition to France, in contrast to his father who had sought an alliance with Louis XIV. Frederick took Brandenburg into the League of Augsburg against France and in 1689 led military forces into the field as part of the allied coalition and that year an army under his command besieged and captured Bonn. Despite this opposition to France he was fond of French culture, the Hohenzollern state was known as Brandenburg-Prussia.
The familys main possessions were the Margraviate of Brandenburg within the Holy Roman Empire, although he was the Margrave and Prince-elector of Brandenburg and the Duke of Prussia, Frederick desired the more prestigious title of king. However, according to Germanic law at that time, no kingdoms could exist within the Holy Roman Empire, Frederick persuaded Leopold I, Archduke of Austria and Holy Roman Emperor, to allow Prussia to be elevated to a kingdom. This agreement was given in exchange for an alliance against King Louis XIV in the War of the Spanish Succession. Frederick argued that Prussia had never been part of the Holy Roman Empire, therefore, he said, there was no legal or political barrier to letting him rule it as a kingdom. Frederick was aided in the negotiations by Charles Ancillon, Frederick crowned himself on 18 January 1701 in Königsberg. Therefore, out of deference to the historic ties to the Polish crown. His royalty was, in any case, limited to Prussia, in other words, while he was a king in Prussia, he was still only an elector under the suzerainty of the Holy Roman Emperor in Brandenburg.
Legally, the Hohenzollern state was still a personal union between Brandenburg and Prussia and his grandson, Frederick the Great, was the first Prussian king to formally style himself King of Prussia. Frederick was a patron of the arts and learning, Frederick appointed Jacob Paul von Gundling as Professor of History and Law at the Berlin Knights Academy in 1705, and as historian at the Higher Heralds Office in 1706. Frederick was married three times, first to Elizabeth Henrietta of Hesse-Kassel, with whom he had one child, Louise Dorothea, born 1680, to Sophia Charlotte of Hanover, with whom he had Frederick August Frederick William I, born in 1688, who succeeded him. In 1708, he married Sophia Louise of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, who survived him but had no children by him, Frederick died in Berlin in 1713 and is entombed in the Berliner Dom