SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

William Wallace

Sir William Wallace was a Scottish knight who became one of the main leaders during the First War of Scottish Independence. Along with Andrew Moray, Wallace defeated an English army at the Battle of Stirling Bridge in September 1297, he was appointed Guardian of Scotland and served until his defeat at the Battle of Falkirk in July 1298. In August 1305, Wallace was captured in Robroyston, near Glasgow, handed over to King Edward I of England, who had him hanged and quartered for high treason and crimes against English civilians. Since his death, Wallace has obtained an iconic status far beyond his homeland, he is the protagonist of Blind Harry's 15th-century epic poem The Wallace and the subject of literary works by Sir Walter Scott and Jane Porter, of the Academy Award-winning film Braveheart. He was first cousin to Roger de Kirkpatrick. Roger himself was a third cousin to Robert the Bruce. William Wallace was a member of the lesser nobility, but little is known of his family history or his parentage.

Blind Harry's late-15th-century poem gives his father as Sir Malcolm of Elderslie. This Alan Wallace may be the same as the one listed in the 1296 Ragman Rolls as a crown tenant in Ayrshire, but there is no additional confirmation. Blind Harry's assertion that William was the son of Sir Malcolm of Elderslie has given rise to a tradition that William's birthplace was at Elderslie in Renfrewshire, this is still the view of some historians, including the historical William Wallace Society itself. However, William's seal has given rise to a counter claim of Ellerslie in Ayrshire. There is no contemporary evidence linking him with either location, although both areas had connections with the wider Wallace family. Records show early members of the family as holding estates at Riccarton and Auchincruive in Kyle, Stenton in East Lothian, they were vassals of James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland as their lands fell within his territory. Wallace's brothers John are known from other sources; the origins of the Wallace surname and its association with southwest Scotland are far from certain, other than the name's being derived from the Old English wylisc, meaning "foreigner" or "Welshman".

It is possible that all the Wallaces in the Clyde area were medieval immigrants from Wales, but as the term was used for local Cumbric-speaking Strathclyde Welsh, it seems likely that the surname refers to people who were seen as being "Welsh" due to their Cumbric language. The identity of Wallace's wife is not known for certain, he fell in love with and married a young woman named Marion Braidfute. Wallace's violent assassination of the High Sheriff of Lanark was carried out as revenge for the killing of his wife according to Blind Harry's 15th century poem; when Wallace was growing up, King Alexander III ruled Scotland. His reign had seen a period of peace and economic stability. On 19 March 1286, Alexander died after falling from his horse; the heir to the throne was Alexander's granddaughter, Maid of Norway. As she was still a child and in Norway, the Scottish lords set up a government of guardians. Margaret fell ill on the voyage to Scotland and died in Orkney on 26 September 1290; the lack of a clear heir led to a period known as the "Great Cause", with several families laying claim to the throne.

With Scotland threatening to descend into civil war, King Edward I of England was invited in by the Scottish nobility to arbitrate. Before the process could begin, he insisted that all of the contenders recognise him as Lord Paramount of Scotland. In early November 1292, at a great feudal court held in the castle at Berwick-upon-Tweed, judgment was given in favour of John Balliol having the strongest claim in law. Edward proceeded to reverse the rulings of the Scottish Lords and summoned King John Balliol to stand before the English court as a common plaintiff. John was a weak king, known as "Toom Tabard" or "Empty Coat". John renounced his homage in March 1296 and by the end of the month Edward stormed Berwick-upon-Tweed, sacking the then-Scottish border town. In April, the Scots were defeated at the Battle of Dunbar in East Lothian and by July, Edward had forced John to abdicate. Edward instructed his officers to receive formal homage from some 1,800 Scottish nobles; some historians, such as Andrew Fisher, believe Wallace must have had some earlier military experience in order to lead a successful military campaign in 1297.

Campaigns like Edward I of England's wars in Wales might have provided a good opportunity for a younger son of a landholder to become a mercenary soldier. Wallace's personal seal bears the archer's insignia, so he may have fought as an archer in Edward's army. Walter Bower states that Wallace was "a tall man with the body of a giant... with lengthy flanks... broad in the hips, with strong arms and legs... with all his limbs strong and firm". Blind Harry's Wallace reaches seven feet; the first act known to have been carried out by Wallace was his assassination of William de Heselrig, the English High Sheriff of Lanark, in May 1297. He joined with William the Hardy, Lord of Douglas, they carried out the raid of Scone; this was one of several rebellions taking place across Scotland, including those of several Scottish nobles and Andrew Moray in the north. The uprising suffered a blow. Wallace and Moray were not involved, continued their rebellions

Ernst Pepping

Ernst Pepping was a German composer of classical music and academic teacher. He is regarded as an important composer of Protestant sacred music in the 20th century. Pepping taught at the Berliner Hochschule für Musik, his music includes works for instruments, the church, collections including the Spandauer Chorbuch and the three volume Großes Orgelbuch, which provides pieces for the entire liturgical year. Born Ernst Heinrich Franz Pepping in Duisburg, Pepping first studied to be a teacher. From 1922 to 1926 he studied composition at the Berliner Hochschule für Musik with Walter Gmeindl, a pupil of Franz Schreker. Pepping composed instrumental music until 1928. In 1926 his works Kleine Serenade für Militärorchester and Suite für Trompete, Saxophon und Posaune were premiered at the Donaueschinger Musiktage, he received the composition award of the Mendelssohn Foundation. In 1929 his Choralsuite was first well received. In 1934, Pepping accepted a position as teacher of harmony and counterpoint at the Spandauer Kirchenmusikschule of the Protestant Johannesstift Berlin in Spandau, where he lived until his death.

Among his many students were Erhard Egidi. Pepping taught at the Berliner Hochschule from 1935 to 1938 as a professor of church music and composition, he wrote a great deal of music on German texts. In 1938, after a 1937 Church Music Festival in which he participated, he composed a German mass, Deutsche Messe: Kyrie Gott Vater in Ewigkeit, which stressed the German nation, which followed the Party line. During World War II during its final phase, the Gottbegnadeten list exempted him from military service. Pepping taught again at the Berliner Hochschule from 1947 to 1968, he retired in 1968 and stopped composing. He is buried in Berlin's Friedhof Heerstraße Cemetery. Pepping is regarded as one of the most important composers of Protestant church music in the 20th century, his sacred works for choir a cappella included masses such as the Missa Dona nobis pacem and chorales, for example the collection Spandauer Chorbuch. He composed secular vocal music, organ music, orchestral works including three symphonies, chamber music.

Pepping based his church music on Protestant hymns, the vocal polyphony of the 16th and 17th century and modal keys. Pepping first wrote severe works with "uncompromising dissonance". In the 1930s he wrote more compromising music, including a Deutsche Choralmesse in 1931, a setting not of the Order of Mass, but a series of chorales related to the functions in the liturgy of the service, comparable to Schubert's Deutsche Messe and in 1938 a German mass, Deutsche Messe: Kyrie Gott Vater in Ewigkeit for a six-part mixed choir. On October 30, 1943 his Symphony No.2 in F minor was performed to great acclaim by the Berlin Philharmonic orchestra, conducted by Wilhelm Furtwangler, in Berlin. Pepping composed no more church music until 1948, when he wrote the Missa Dona nobis pacem as a "personal plea"; the musicologist Sven Hiemke who analyzed the work in a book on Pepping's mass compositions notes that the work can be understood as Bekenntnismusik if the composer would disagree. Pepping's works were published by Schott.

They are kept in the archive of the Berliner Akademie der Künste. His Nachlass is held by the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin. Pepping received honorary doctorates from the Freie Universität Berlin and the Kirchliche Hochschule Berlin, he was a member of the Academy of Arts and the Bavarian Academy of Fine Arts, Munich.11043 Pepping, minor planet. Three symphonies 1932, 1942, 1944 A piano concerto Variations for orchestra Zwei Orchesterstücke über ein Chanson des Binchois Masses and other works for liturgical use including Deutsche Choralmesse Und ist ein Kind geboren, motet Ein jegliches hat seine Zeit, three motets from Leviticus Jesus und Nikodemus, motet on gospel text Deutsche Messe Missa Dona nobis pacem Heut und ewig Liederkreis nach Gedichten von Goethe for a cappella choir A setting of the Te Deum Die Weihnachtsgeschichte des Lukas, a cappella choir Passionsbericht des Matthäus, a cappella choir A setting of the Psalm 23 Organ works Organ Sonata, other works Three Fugues on BACH Großes Orgelbuch I: Advent & Christmas Großes Orgelbuch II: Passion Großes Orgelbuch III: Easter, Pentecost, Michaelmas Kleines Orgelbuch Piano works Sonatine Sonata for piano Songs Liederbuch nach Gedichten von Paul Gerhard for mezzo-soprano & piano Pepping's Symphony No. 2 in F minor was recorded in 1943 by the Berlin Philharmonic conducted by Wilhelm Furtwängler, reissued in 2007 by Melodiya-Edition.

In 1990, organist Wolfgang Stockmeier played Orgelwerke. The Passionsbericht des Matthäus was performed in 1992 by the Danish National Radio Ch

Luke Harangody

Luke Cameron Harangody is an American professional basketball player for Divina Seguros Joventut of the Liga ACB. He completed his college career at the University of Notre Dame in 2010, he is the only men's player in the history of the Big East Conference to average 20 points and 10 rebounds per game in conference play for his career. He was the 2008 Big East Player of the Year, was named to the second team on the 2008 Associated Press All-America team, he is the first Notre Dame men's player to be a three-time first-team All-Big East selection, the first men's player to lead the conference in both scoring and rebounding in consecutive seasons. Harangody considered entering the 2009 NBA draft, but withdrew his name to return to Notre Dame for his senior season. Harangody ended his Notre Dame career as the only player to have over 1000 rebounds. Growing up in Schererville, Harangody, the son of a former Indiana University football player, had an intense sibling rivalry with his brother Ty, 20 months older and was one grade ahead of him in school.

The two began with basketball games on a mini-hoop in Harangody's room, which ended when they were kicked out for shaking the light fixtures. The games moved to a court that their father set up in the basement, from there to the backyard once they outgrew the basement, their father soon banned them from the backyard because their one-on-one games invariably ended in fistfights, but that only moved their rivalry to local parks. Bigger and stronger, Ty won most of their games. To beat him, I'd go all out, all the time." The brothers' athletic paths split. Ty followed in their father's footsteps as a football player earning a scholarship to IU as a tight end. Harangody opted for basketball. Harangody starred at Andrean High School in nearby Merrillville. In his last two high school seasons, he averaged over 20 points and 10 rebounds, was named as the top player in Northwest Indiana by at least one media outlet in each season, received All-State recognition in Indiana in both seasons. Despite Harangody's credentials, he had considerable doubts about his ability to play in the Big East, much of Notre Dame's recruitment consisted of convincing him he was good enough to play in the conference.

After a double-double against Butler in the second game of the season, Irish head coach Mike Brey considered adding Harangody to the starting lineup, but Harangody hesitated and Brey decided to wait until Big East play. Harangody would go on to start the team's final 16 games. Harangody went on to average 11.2 points and 6.2 rebounds that season, was named to the Big East All-Rookie first team. However, conditioning proved to be a problem for him that season, his conditioning caught up with him in the NCAA Tournament. He played only 17 minutes in Notre Dame's first-round loss to Winthrop, finished with 4 points and one rebound. About that game, he would remember that "It was hard to get up and down the court. I hit that wall and there was nothing I could do to get out of it. I never wanted to feel like that again." He had dinner with his parents shortly after the game, an event which his father remembered in an interview the following season: "On the spot, he says,'I've got to do something.' He rededicated himself from the minute they lost that game."

His rededication began with a change in diet. Harangody increased the intensity of his workout regimen, in both cardiovascular work and weight training; the work paid off in his sophomore season. Harangody took more of a leadership role on the team, notably berating several of the team's freshmen for giggling in the locker room after a January 19, 2008 loss to Georgetown. Harangody ended the season averaging 20.4 points and 10.6 rebounds, which made him the Big East's leading scorer and second-leading rebounder. In contrast to his early doubts about his ability to play in the Big East, he had better numbers in Big East play, with averages of 23.3 points and 11.3 rebounds, which led the conference in both categories. This made him one of only five players in the previous decade to average 22 points and 11 rebounds in conference play for a BCS conference team, his scoring and leadership led the Irish to a 14 -- 24 -- 7 regular season record. The Irish became the first team in Big East men's basketball history to go unbeaten at home in conference play in consecutive seasons.

Although the Irish lost in the first round of the Big East tournament to Marquette, Notre Dame earned their second straight NCAA Tournament bid as a #5 seed. The Irish went out in the second to Washington State. After the season, Harangody was named the conference Player of the Year, was named to the 1st Team All Big East squad, he was named to the Associated Press' All-America Second Team on March 31, 2008. Harangody never considered declaring for the 2008 NBA draft. With Harangody and fellow All-Big East first-teamer Kyle McAlarney leading an experienced team, the Irish were expected to make a deep run in the 2009 NCAA Tournament, with Dick Vitale naming the Irish #6 in his preseason rankings and