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William Walton

Sir William Turner Walton, OM was an English composer. During a 60 year career, he wrote music in several classical genres and styles, from film scores to opera, his best-known works include Façade, the cantata Belshazzar's Feast, the Viola Concerto, the First Symphony, the British coronation anthems Crown Imperial and Orb and Sceptre. Born in Oldham, the son of a musician, Walton was a chorister and an undergraduate at Christ Church, Oxford. On leaving the university, he was taken up by the literary Sitwell siblings, who provided him with a home and a cultural education, his earliest work of note was a collaboration with Edith Sitwell, Façade, which at first brought him notoriety as a modernist, but became a popular ballet score. In middle age, Walton left Britain and set up home with his wife Susana on the Italian island of Ischia. By this time, he had ceased to be regarded as a modernist, some of his compositions of the 1950s were criticised as old-fashioned, his only full-length opera and Cressida, was among the works to be so labelled and has made little impact in opera houses.

In his last years, his works came back into critical fashion. Walton was a slow worker, painstakingly perfectionist, his complete body of work across his long career is not large, his most popular compositions continue to be performed in the 21st century, by 2010 all his works had been released on CD. Walton was born into a musical family in Oldham, the second son of three boys and a girl of Louisa Maria, a singer before her marriage, Charles Alexander Walton, a musician who had trained at the Royal Manchester College of Music under Charles Hallé, made a living as a singing teacher and church organist. Walton's musical talents were spotted when he was still a young boy and he took piano and violin lessons, though he never mastered either instrument, he was more successful as a singer: he and his elder brother sang in their father's choir, taking part in performances of large-scale works by Handel, Haydn and others. Walton attended a local school, however in 1912 his father saw a newspaper advertisement for probationer choristers at Christ Church Cathedral School in Oxford and applied for his son to be admitted.

Walton and his mother Louisa missed their intended train from Manchester to Oxford because Walton's father had spent the money for the fare in a local public house. His mother had to borrow the money for the train fares from a greengrocer. Although they arrived in Oxford after the entrance trials were over, Louisa Walton pleaded for her son to be heard, he was accepted. Walton remained at the choir school for the next six years; the Dean of Christ Church, Dr Thomas Strong, noted the young Walton's musical potential and was encouraged in this view by Sir Hubert Parry, who saw the manuscripts of some of Walton's early compositions and said to Strong, "There's a lot in this chap. It is sometimes said that he was Oxford's youngest undergraduate since Henry VIII, though this is unsubstantiated, he was, among the youngest, he came under the influence of the dominant figure in Oxford's musical life. Allen introduced Walton to modern music, including Stravinsky's Petrushka, enthused him with "the mysteries of the orchestra".

Walton spent much time in the university library, studying scores by Stravinsky, Sibelius and others. He neglected his non-musical studies, though he passed the musical examinations with ease, he failed the Greek and algebra examinations required for graduation. Little survives from Walton's juvenilia, but the choral anthem A Litany, written when he was 15 years old, anticipates his mature style. At Oxford Walton befriended several poets including Roy Campbell, Siegfried Sassoon and, most for his future, Sacheverell Sitwell. Walton graduated from Oxford in 1920 without any firm plans. Sitwell invited him to lodge in London with him and his literary brother and sister and Edith. Walton took up residence in the attic of their house in Chelsea recalling, "I went for a few weeks and stayed about fifteen years"; the Sitwells looked after their protégé both materially and culturally, giving him not only a home but a stimulating cultural education. He took music lessons with Ferruccio Busoni and Edward J. Dent.

He attended the Russian ballet, met Stravinsky and Gershwin, heard the Savoy Orpheans at the Savoy Hotel and wrote an experimental string quartet influenced by the Second Viennese School, performed at a festival of new music at Salzburg in 1923. Alban Berg heard the performance and was impressed enough to take Walton to meet Arnold Schoenberg, Berg's teacher and the founder of the Second Viennese School. In 1923, in collaboration with Edith Sitwell, Walton had his first great success, though at first it was a succès de scandale. Façade was first performed in public at London, on 12 June; the work consisted of Edith's verses, which she recited through a megaphone from behind a screen, while Walton conducted an ensemble of six players in his accompanying music. The press was condemnatory. Walton's biographer Michael Kennedy cites as typical a contemporary headline: "Drivel That They Paid to Hear"; the Daily Express admitted that it was naggingly memorable. The Manchester Guardian wrote of "relentless cacophony".

The Observer condemned the verses and dismissed Walton's music as "harmless". In The Illustrated London News, Dent was much

FS Class E.330

The FS Class E.330 was a small class of three-phase electric locomotive used in Italy, introduced in the 1910s. In the late 1900s, the success of the three-phase electrification on mountain lines such the Valtellina line, the Simplon Tunnel and the Giovi Pass line, led the newly formed Ferrovie dello Stato, under the direction of Riccardo Bianchi, to extend the electrification to other lines, where electric locomotives gave better performance. For the new lines to be electrified, three batches of electric locomotives were ordered, including the E.330 and the E.550. Unlike the previous electric locomotives used on mountain lines, the new locomotives had to be able to vary their speed, a capability which at the time was difficult to achieve, due to the fact that the three-phase motor spins at constant speed set by the feeding current frequency; the E.330 was designed to have four speeds. The wheel arrangement chosen was 1′C1′, similar to that adopted on the contemporary 685 class of steam locomotives.

The production contract was signed in 1913, construction of the new units beginning at Società Italiana Westinghouse, which had designed the locomotive under the direction of Kálmán Kandó. The mechanical parts were co-built with Società Italiana Ernesto Breda; the locomotives were assigned to the Ligurian coast lines. The E.330s became operational in the Spring 1914. They were used in Lombardy on the local three-phase lines, from 1962, the railroads were adapted to the now standard 3,000 V direct current electrification. All the E.330s were phased out during the 1960s

Philadelphia Prison System

The Philadelphia Department of Prisons is operated by the city of Philadelphia in Pennsylvania. The facilities are located on State Road in Northeast Philadelphia. Philadelphia Department of Prisons operates four facilities: Curran-Fromhold Correctional Facility 2,000 male inmates of all custody levels CFCF is named in honor of Warden Patrick N. Curran and Deputy Warden Robert F. Fromhold, who were murdered at Holmesburg Prison on May 31, 1973, they are the only PDP staff known to have been killed in the line of duty. Opening in 1995,CFCF is the largest PDP facility. CFCF consists of an administration / core building; each building has eight housing units, or four on each floor. Each pod consists of 32 cells, divided into two tiers, organized around a common living and dining area. Inmates housed on each pod have access to indoor and outdoor recreation, medical triage, law library, program areas; the core building includes the administrative offices for the Commissioner of Prisons, central administrative staff, the warden, facility staff.

Facilities for intake and reception, along with industrial shops, educational classrooms, program areas are included in the core building. A bail commissioner, court staff, public defenders are on site, lineups are conducted at CFCF. Occupying one full acre of the 25-acre facility is a cook-chill food production facility with the capacity to produce 40,000 meals daily. CFCF serves as a 24-hour intake center for adult males, 30,000 males are processed through the facility´s receiving room on an annual basis. All new inmates undergo an diagnostics process, which includes classification, it is the classification center for adult men. CFCF consists of the administration building. Detention Center 1,200 medium custody male inmates The Detention Center opened in 1963, replacing the defunct Moyamensing Prison as the intake center for the Philadelphia Department of Prisons; the Detention Center served as the PDP' male intake center until the intake function was transferred to CFCF in 1995. Since the facility has housed minimum-custody adult males.

The Detention Center acts as PDP’s Medical Unit. It houses supervision; the Detention Center includes 4 dormitories and 3 cell blocks and a 99-bed Prison Health Services Wing, where inmates requiring medical and behavioral health inpatient treatment are housed and clinics are conducted for PDP inmates. Philadelphia Industrial Correction Center 900 close and medium custody male inmates Opening in 1986, Philadelphia Industrial Correctional Center was the first PDP facility constructed to operate on the basis of unit management. PICC's 13 housing units are arranged around separate yards, laundry facilities, medical triage areas, counseling rooms, staff offices, with easy access to classrooms, vocational training areas, law libraries, chapels. Besides housing system's medium and close custody inmates, PICC has two full housing areas designated as behavioral health transition units. A treatment team consisting of security personnel, city social workers, behavioral health contract staff work together to prepare inmates with behavioral health issues to function in general population settings.

Today, the Philadelphia Industrial Correctional Center confines adult males. Riverside Correctional Facility and Dorms 350 female inmates at RCF, 99 community custody male inmates at the dorms) Opened in June 2004, the facility was designed and operates for the female population of the PDP. RCF operates on the principles of direct unit management; each unit management group includes a lieutenant, who serves as unit manager, a sergeant, as well as treatment and clerical staff. D The facility includes administrative and staff offices, classrooms for educational and vocational training, an intake and discharge area, a gymnasium, in addition to areas for medical and behavioral health treatment, social service, group meeting, food-service, maintenance areas, law and leisure libraries; the medical and behavioral health offices were furnished and include a nurses' station, lab, examination, x-ray, emergency treatment rooms, as well as areas for AIDS counseling, records and other storage. The Dorms at RCF houses minimum and community-custody men and women, inmates serving sentences on weekends, work release inmates and others.

Inmates may be selected by the PDP or ordered by the courts to participate in the work-release program. The goal of this program is to decrease recidivism by fostering employment; some inmates sentenced to the work-release program continue in the jobs they had prior to incarceration, the PDP works to establish employment opportunities for others in a wide variety of professions, including food services and dry cleaning. In addition to allowing inmates to gain valuable work experience and helping to ease their transition back into the community, the work-release program generates revenues for the City as inmates employed in the community are required to contribute 16 percent of their gross pay toward room and board. Psychological and substance abuse treatment services. Through contract provides services including orientation and assessment.