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Brachycephalus leopardus

Brachycephalus leopardus is a species of frog in the family Brachycephalidae. It is tiny and was one of seven new species described by Luiz F. Ribeiro and a team of scientists from the Mater Natura — Instituto de Estudos Ambientais in Brazil. Like all species in its genus, it is found in a small strip of Atlantic Forest in the southeastern coast of the country, has a vibrant colour pattern; the speciation seen in this genus is thought to be a byproduct of the rift between the valley versus mountain terrain and its particular microclimates, to which they are adapted. It might be in population decline due to habitat loss, its name derived from the Latin leopardus, referring to the frog's spotted pattern evocative of the felid genus Leopardus. It differs from its cogenerate species by having a robust and bufoniform body, an adult averaging a size of between 9.7 to 11.9 millimetres. The skin on its dorsum shows no dermal co-ossification; the smooth dorsum of this species is similar to that of B. ferruginus, as opposed to the rugose dorsum of B. olivaceus, for instance.

The species is unique among all Brachycephalus species in the presence of tiny dark spots on the dorsal portion of its head, thorax and arms, while at the same time possessing larger dark spots on the sides of its body. Brachycephalus leopardus lacks the dermal co-ossification characteristic to species in the ephippium group, its shape and larger size distinguish it from species in the didactylus group, which are on average smaller and have a leptodactyliform shape. Brachycephalus leopardus is only known from its type locality, Serra do Araçatuba in the State of Paraná at 1,640 metres above sea level and from the Morro dos Perdidos at 1,410 metres a.s.l. Clemente-Carvalho, Rute BG. "Molecular phylogenetic relationships and phenotypic diversity in miniaturized toadlets, genus Brachycephalus". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 61: 79–89. Doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.05.017. PMID 21693192. Da Silva, Helio Ricardo. "The auditory region of Brachycephalus and its bearing on the monophyly of the genus".

Zootaxa. 1422: 59–68. Doi:10.11646/zootaxa.1422.1.4. Photos from the 7 new species

Women's rights in Tonga

Women's rights in Tonga, as compared to the United Nations goals of CEDAW, fail to comply with the conventions requirements. Although considerations have been made by the Tongan parliament and government, ratification of CEDAW still remains unresolved. Factors determining the non-ratification of CEDAW are related to cultural protectionism of the Anga Fakatonga or "the Tongan way" of Tongan culture. Issues of Women's rights in Tonga include factors of women's land right, violence against women, political participation in parliament, general cultural attitude towards the gender inequalities within Tonga. Many of the issues of gender inequalities within the Tongan culture are reinforced in the home and complex structures of the cultural family hierarchy; the issue of women's rights in Tonga is not ignored within Tongan culture and government, reformations have been considered. Women within Tonga have had the right to vote since the late Majesty Queen Sālote Tupou III amended the constitution allowing this right in 1951.

Other reformations and amendments to the Tongan Constitution have been considered. Violence against women in Tonga has been spotlighted and measures have been taken to better enforce laws protecting women against domestic violence, spousal abuse. According to the 2011 Human Development Report, Tonga ranked 90th out of 187 countries in terms of the Human Development Index. In terms of gender inequalities, a key indicator that stands out in the HDR is that in 2011, Tongan women constituted 3.4% of the elected representatives, which stands in stark contrast to the regional averages for East Asia and Pacific and small island developing countries. Moreover, no woman was elected in the 2010 elections, albeit one, appointed to a cabinet post; this poor political representation does not seem to stem from the low educational achievement of women, according to the 2011 HDR, 84% of women and 87.8% of men in Tonga had at least secondary education, well above the regional averages for East Asia and the Pacific and small island developing countries.

There was disparity in women's labor force participation relative to men's participation rate: half the Tongan women were in the labor force compared to 75% of Tongan men. The population of males and females in the total Tongan population is nearly equal with the total male population at 52,350 male and 52,360 female. By this total population ration data, there is no visible data showing that there is a gender bias for sex selective births. Along with Palau, Tonga is one of two countries in the Pacific region and one of six countries in the world which have yet to ratify the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women. CEDAW is considered by many to be an international bill of rights for women, has aimed to create universal ideals for women's rights and gender equality. In September 2009, the Legislative Assembly voted 18 to 1 with 4 abstentions not to ratify CEDAW. In announcing the decision not to ratify, the Tongan Prime Minister stated that ratification would cut across our cultural and social heritage that makes up the Tongan way of life.

Furthermore, Tonga did not want to ratify with reservations or undertake a'ratification of convenience.' ‘Ofa Likiliki has been an advocate for the ratification of CEDAW for the past 11 years. On 9 March 2015, in a historical decision the Tongan government agreed to ratify the Convention with reservations. Though the signing was to be with reservations, Likiliki saw the move as a positive one which will signify that the government is amenable to making changes. Tonga's rich and ancient culture dates back an estimated 3000 years when the Tongan archipelago was inhabited. Tongan culture and society have evolved over many thousands of years creating the back bone of Tongan culture. Today Tongan culture and the Anga Fakatonga is protected and preserved by lawmakers and monarchy within Tonga. Great respect for the Anga Fakatonga is given by Tongan society in protection of culture and heritage; the Anga Fakatonga has preserved a rich and ancient culture that has codified law and social norms within today's current Tongan society.

The Anga Fakatonga has been culturally protected and is open to outside influence and intervention. In regards to women's rights and ratification of CEDAW the Anga Fakatonga has clashed with some of CEDAW reformation measures and has been a factor in the current non-ratification of CEDAW. Issues with Tonga's current laws and the Anga Fakatonga's adherence include women's land rights and loose enforcement of violence against women laws. Despite the perceived oppression of women in Tonga due to the non-ratification of CEDAW, women do have an important place in Tongan society. Traditional Tongan culture has ancient traditions including a "kin-based stratification", or allocation of power based on age, sexual orientation, birth order; the Api, or basic order of Tongan society, is based at the root of oldest male control over a family group. This control, or leadership, is a responsibility with the family group, but it gives power over decision making of things such as resource allocation, family labor duties, discipline.

Decision making traditionally has been made by the father/husband. Imbedded in the Tongan cultural framework, this patriarchal, or'Ulumotu'a leadership places decisions final say with the male leader of any given Tongan family; the fahu, the highest female in social structure, or oldest sister in the family structure, has title given but traditionally does not have any decision making power. It could be argued that an increase in

Offense-Defense All-American Bowl

The Offense-Defense All-American Bowl is an annual high school football all-star game held in early January, created to spotlight the nation's top high-school seniors. The game was hosted in the U. S. state of Florida. The inaugural game was played on January 2007, at Lockhart Stadium in Fort Lauderdale, Florida; the next year the game moved to the Orange Bowl in Miami. The demolition of the Orange Bowl started in March 2008 so the 2009 edition was moved to Brooks Stadium, the campus stadium of Coastal Carolina University in Conway, South Carolina; the game is in an East versus West format, with each team made up of 40 of the best high school seniors from across the nation as determined by Rivals.com. A national player of the year award is presented the night prior to the game; the game was broadcast nationally to a prime-time audience thanks to broadcast partner ESPNU. The 2009 edition was increased to 88 total players, as selected from the Offense-Defense Top 100 list, a national recruit ranking system published by Sports Illustrated.

Participants included 15 players ranked in the top-100 list. The other big high school all-star games are the U. S. Army All-American Bowl played in San Antonio and the Under Armour All-America Game played in Orlando, Florida; because all of these games host their events during the same week, they are in competition for players. A number of marquee players have participated in the O-D competition, including Cam Newton, Dez Bryant, Aaron Corp, Kodi Burns, Jarrett Lee, et al. Official website Athlon Sports feature

Carlos Lemos (fighter)

Carlos "Escorrega" Lemos, Jr. is a multiple World Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu champion, a Brazilian Jiu Jitsu Pioneer in Scandinavia, as well as the first Brazilian to teach martial arts in South Korea. Carlos is the Regional Director of Gracie Barra in the Chicago area, is a fourth-degree black belt in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu under Master Carlos Gracie, Jr, he became a World Champion for the first time in the World Jiu-Jitsu Championship as a purple belt in 1999, followed by his second Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu world champion as a black belt in 2002. Carlos repeated the feat after 13 years of success in tournaments, leading up to the victory of another World Championships of Masters in 2015 and again winning the title in 2018 earning him his fourth world title, he won and medaled in countless Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu and grappling competitions around the World, including multiple Brazilian National titles, two Pan-American titles, the European title in 2004, three National American Grappling Association divisional titles, one National Absolute title, an American National Jiu-Jitsu No-Gi championship and, most the Black Belt Absolute champion of the Chicago International Open IBJJF Championship.

He is the head instructor of Gracie Barra Downers Grove in Downers Grove, Illinois. Carlos Lemos BJJ Heroes Profile Page Official website

Prowers County, Colorado

Prowers County is one of the 64 counties in the U. S. state of Colorado. As of the 2010 census, the population was 12,551; the county seat is Lamar. The county is named in honor of John W. Prowers, a leading pioneer in the lower Arkansas valley region. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,644 square miles, of which 1,638 square miles is land and 5.9 square miles is water. Kiowa County Greeley County, Kansas Hamilton County, Kansas Stanton County, Kansas Baca County Bent County American Discovery Trail Santa Fe Trail National Scenic Byway Prowers County is home of the Antipode of the Indian Ocean island of Île Amsterdam and that island's settlement, La Roche Godon, making it one of the few places in the continental United States with a non-oceanic antipode; the center of Ile Amsterdam is at 37.8332° S, 77.5505° E. As of the census of 2010, there were 12,551 people, 4,935 households, 3,351 families living in the county; the population density was 7.6 people per square mile.

There were 5,942 housing units at an average density of 3.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 81.0% White, 0.5% Black or African American, 0.9% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.0% Pacific Islander, 14.7% from other races, 2.6% from two or more races. 35.2 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 4,935 households of which 49.5% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.1% were non-families. 28.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.04. In the county, the population was spread out with 27.1% under the age of 18, 9.3% from 18 to 24, 22.7% from 25 to 44, 26.3% from 45 to 64, 14.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.7 years. For every 100 females there were 97.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.1 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,969, the median income for a family was $47,052.

Males working full-time and year-round had a median income of $32,359 versus $28,727 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,429. About 18.7% of families and 22.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 30.8% of those under age 18 and 13.1% of those age 65 or over. Like all of the High Plains, Prowers County is majority Republican, it has not been carried by a Democratic Presidential nominee since Jimmy Carter in 1976. Lamar Granada Hartman Holly Wiley Bristol Granada Relocation Center National Historic District Santa Fe National Historic Trail Camp Amache Lamar station Outline of Colorado Index of Colorado-related articles National Register of Historic Places listings in Prowers County, Colorado Prowers County Government website Colorado County Evolution by Don Stanwyck Colorado Historical Society