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William Williams Pantycelyn

William Williams, Pantycelyn known as William Williams, Williams Pantycelyn, Pantycelyn, is seen as Wales's premier hymnist. He is considered today as one of the great literary figures of Wales as a writer of poetry and prose. In religion he was among the leaders, with the evangelists Howell Harris and Daniel Rowland, of the 18th-century Welsh Methodist revival. Williams was born at Cefn-coed farm in the parish of Llanfair-ar-y-bryn, near the town of Llandovery, in 1717, the son of John and Dorothy Williams. John died in 1742, Dorothy moved to the nearby farm of Pantycelyn and he himself is referred to as Pantycelyn; the family were Nonconformists and he was educated locally and at a nonconformist academy near Talgarth. He had intended to become a doctor, but this changed in 1737/38, when he was converted by the preaching of the evangelical Methodist revivalist Howell Harris in Talgarth. For much of his life, Williams lived in the parish of Llanfair-ar-y-bryn, near the town of Llandovery, he died at Pantycelyn in January 1791, at the age of 74, is buried in Llanfair-ar-y-bryn churchyard.

He is commemorated by a memorial chapel in Llandovery. William Williams felt called to the priesthood, his first appointment was as curate to Theophilus Evans in the parishes of Llanwrtyd, Llanfihangel Abergwesyn and Llanddewi Abergwesyn. Around this time he became involved in the Methodist movement and in June 1742 his disapproving parishioners reported his activities to the Archdeacon's Court in Brecon. Methodism was a reformist faction within the Church of England and was not intended to be a separatist movement or church, it was seen as a threat to the Anglican establishment and in 1743, when Williams duly applied for ordination as a priest, his application was refused because of his Methodist connexion. His choice was between a comfortable but conformist career in the Anglican Church or the financially precarious, but spiritually richer life of a Methodist preacher outside of the Church, he chose the latter. The key years in the foundation of English Methodism were between 1739, when the brothers Charles and John Wesley, both themselves Anglican priests, broke with the Moravian church and set up their own first chapel in Bristol, 1743, when they drew up their General Rules.

This was the time that Williams was beginning his own career in the Church and explains the hostility he experienced from his congregation and from the hierarchy. Williams paid a higher price for his beliefs. Williams was shut out of the Establishment at the start of his career, whilst the Wesleys had been ordained. Welsh Methodism predates 1739 and can be traced back to the conversions of the two main leaders of the Welsh Methodists, Howell Harris and Daniel Rowland, in 1735, it was an indigenous, parallel movement to its sister movement in England, the Welsh Methodists were Calvinists, who worked much more with George Whitefield than they did with John Wesley. Charles Wesley declared that his own Methodism was not incompatible with his Anglicanism, he was buried as an Anglican. John Wesley's doctrine was more favourable to Arminianism than to Calvinism. In Wales, most Methodists followed Calvinist teaching, this led to great tensions between the Welsh Calvinistic Methodists and the Wesleyan Methodists after the Wesleyan Methodists began evangelising in Welsh-speaking Wales from 1800 onward.

In 1811, the Welsh Calvinist Methodists, who are now called the Presbyterian Church of Wales, seceded from the Anglican Church and ordained their own ministers. Had he lived a little longer, Williams Pantycelyn would no doubt have approved these moves because, as a Methodist, he himself became a firm advocate of Calvinist Reformation doctrine and invoked stern warnings against Arminianism, Socinianism and other teachings.. Williams Pantycelyn travelled throughout Wales preaching the doctrine of Calvinistic Methodism, he needed to be not only a theologian and an advocate for the new Connexion, but an organiser and administrator. His converts gathered in seiadau. Williams had to organise, maintain, these seiadau as he went around the country; each successful visit to a new locality in turn required a new seiat. Although he was not alone in his mission, the workload and mental burden must have been considerable. By the same token, it must have been rewarding to see the community grow and thrive over the years and to reflect on the alternative life he had forsaken, as the priest of some obscure rural Anglican parish in mid-Wales.

Together with Howell Harris and Daniel Rowland, William Williams "Pantycelyn" is acknowledged as a leader of the Methodist Revival in Wales in the 18th century and he is the "literary voice" par excellence of that movement. William Williams Pantycelyn was not an important figure in the religious life in Wales, he was one of the most important influences on Welsh language culture, not just in his own lifetime, but on into the 19th and 20th centuries, he is known as a hymn writer and his ability earned him the accolade "Y pêr ganiedydd" - echoing the description of King David as "the sweet psalmist of Israel". His literary output has been analys

Shakespeare Ladies Club

The Shakespeare Ladies Club refers to a group of upper class and aristocratic women who petitioned the London theatres to produce William Shakespeare's plays during the 1730s. In the 1700s they were referred to as "the Ladies of the Shakespear’s Club," or more as "Ladies of Quality," or "the Ladies." Known members of the Shakespeare Ladies Club include Susanna Ashley-Cooper, Elizabeth Boyd, Mary Cowper. The Shakespeare Ladies Club was responsible for getting the highest percentage of Shakespeare plays produced in London during a single season in the eighteenth century; the Shakespeare Ladies Club was organized in late 1736 with the expressed goal of persuading "London’s theatrical managers to give Shakespeare a greater share in their repertoires." The Ladies wanted to see more Shakespeare on stage because they preferred his plays to the inappropriate libertine content in Restoration comedies and the Italian operas that were dominating the London stage at the time. Within four years the Ladies’ Club had succeeded: one in every four performances in London during the 1740–41 season was a Shakespeare play.

Shakespearean scholar Michael Dobson points out that this is "a record which during Garrick’s professedly Bardolatrous management of Drury Lane was never challenged."In addition to being responsible for the highest percentage of Shakespeare's plays performed in a single season during the eighteenth century, the Ladies’ Club was responsible for Shakespeare's memorial statue in Poets’ Corner in Westminster Abbey. Fundraising for the memorial statue began in 1738 and the statue was placed in Westminster Abbey in 1741. There were at least two benefit performances of Shakespeare plays done as part of the Ladies' Club's fundraising efforts. One was a performance of Julius Caesar on 28 April 1738 at Drury Lane; the other was a performance of Hamlet on 10 April 1739 at Covent Garden. In January 1737 every performance of a Shakespeare play at Theatre Royal, Drury Lane was done "At the Desire of several Ladies of Quality." While such a heading was not unusual in the early eighteenth century, it is significant that it occurred for every performance that month.

As the Ladies’ gained influence over Drury Lane their popularity and success began to be recognized in prologues to performances of new plays and new adaptations of Shakespeare's plays. For the premiere of The Universal Passion, an adaptation of Much Ado About Nothing by James Miller, the prologue included an "ecstatic eulogy of the Shakespeare Ladies Club": Britannia thus, with Folly’s Gloom overcast,Has slumb’ring lain near half a Cent’ry past, But now what Joy! to find the Night is o’er! To see the Lamp of Science shine once more. ‘Twas this gave Birth to our Attempt to-night, Fond to bring more of his rich Scenes to light: But conscious how unequal to the Task, Our Bard scarce dares your Clemency to ask:.... To You, ye Fair, for Refuge now he flies And as you smile or frown, he lives or dies: You are the ablest Judges of this Play, Since Love’s almighty Pow’r’s his Theme today: To your Protection Shakespear’s Offspring take, And save the Orphan for the Father’s Sake. On 4 March 1737 the manager of the New Haymarket Theater added "a New Prologue in the Characters of Shakespear’s Ghost, the Squire, Mr. Student, Mr. Bays, concluding with an address to the Ladies of the Shakespear’s Club" to a performance of Shakespeare's The Life and Death of King John.

The benefit performance of Julius Caesar on 28 April 1738 included an epilogue from James Noel which echoed "Miller's metaphor of the Ladies' Club as mothers" responsible for the birth of Shakespeare as the nation's Poet: But here what humble thanks, what praise is due,Ow'd to such gen'rous virtue, ow'd to you! With grief you saw a bard neglected lie. With grief you saw your Shakespeare's slighted state. Let others boast they smile on living worth. In addition to prologues the Shakespeare Ladies Club was recognized in the daily newspapers. On 3 March 1737 the Grub Street Journal printed a letter from the ghosts of Shakespeare, Ben Jonson, John Dryden, Nicholas Rowe to the theatre going public praising the Shakespeare Ladies Club for encouraging common sense and setting a good example for the gentlemen; the next day, 4 March 1737, the Daily Advertiser published a letter from Shakespeare's ghost "to the Fair Supporters of Wit and Sense, the Ladies of Great Britain." In this letter Shakespeare's ghosts praises the Ladies Club for their good taste and thanks them for forming the club and reviving "the Memory of the forsaken Shakespear."

David Garrick, the famous actor and theatre manager of Theatre Royal, Drury Lane is cited as the man responsible for Shakespeare's popularity in the 18th Century. Garrick himself acknowledged the importance of the Ladies’ Club in a speech delivered at the Shakespeare Jubilee in 1769. In the speech Garrick said "It was You Ladies that restor’d Shakespeare to the Stage you form’d yourselves into a Society to protect his Fame, Erected a Monument to his and your own honour in Westminster Abbey." From April 1744 to May 1746 Eliza Haywood anonymously published The Female Spectator, a monthly periodical, the first magazine by and for women. While discussing the arguments for and against attending theatre in The Female Spectator, Haywood references the Shakespeare Ladies’ Club's effort

Pilatus B-4

The Pilatus B4-PC11 is an all-metal intermediate glider built by Pilatus Aircraft of Switzerland. The B4-PC11 is designed to Standard Class specifications, meaning that it has a 15-metre wingspan and no flaps. Air brakes are provided on the top surface of each wing for glidepath control. Construction is aluminium, with foam ribs in the mainplane and tailplane; the design of this glider originated in the 1960s, when the company Firma Rheintalwerke G. Basten manufactured the first two prototypes; the designers were Manfred Küppers and Rudolf Reinke. The first flight of the first prototype took place on 7 November 1966. However, no series production was started. In 1972 Pilatus bought the manufacturing licence for the B-4 and renamed it the B4-PC11. In the spring of the same year the first production example made its first flight. A total of 322 B4-PC11s of all versions were built by Pilatus by 1980, when the license to manufacture the craft was sold to Nippi Aircraft of Japan, who built only 13 examples, plus a two-seater designated the Nippi B4T.

Subsequently, in 1994, EWMS Technomanagement bought the rights to produce and service the B4-PC11. This company specializes in renovating and upgrading older B4-PC11 craft. In addition, it manufactures a motorized B4-PC11. B4-PC11 permitted to fly a number of aerobatic manoeuvres, it was not permitted to do inverted loops or flick/snap/quick maneuvers; the B4-PC11 was available with either retractable landing gear. B4-PC11A developed to perform inverted loops and was able to handle higher g-forces. B4-PC11AF released with full aerobatic capabilities. Lynch B4M1 a motor glider conversion in Australia by John F. Lynch, powered by a 17.9 kW König SC 430 engine. The changes in construction from B4-PC11 through A and AF variants were to add extra ribs through the fuselage section, to modify the control column stops and shorten the rudder, giving greater control surface deflection. General characteristics Crew: one Length: 6.57 m Wingspan: 15 m Height: 1.57 m Wing area: 14 m2 Aspect ratio: 16 Airfoil: NACA 64-618 Empty weight: 230 kg Gross weight: 350 kg Performance Never exceed speed: 240 km/h g limits: PC-11 +5.3 -3 PC-11A +6.5 -4 PC-11AF +7 -5Maximum glide ratio: 35:1 Rate of sink: 0.63 m/s Aircraft of comparable role and era Celair GA-1 Celstar Start & Flug Salto Related lists List of gliders Hardy, M. Gliders & Sailplanes of the World.

Ian Allan, 1982