Bernhard III, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg
Bernhard III, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg was a German prince of the House of Ascania and ruler of the principality of Anhalt-Bernburg. He was the eldest son of Bernhard II, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg, by his wife Helene, daughter of Wizlaw II, Prince of Rügen. Bernhard succeeded his father as ruler of Anhalt-Bernburg after his death in 1323, his two younger brothers renounced their rights in order to become priests, which left Bernhard as sole ruler of Bernburg. Along with his princely title, he used the styles "Count of Askanien" and "Lord of Bernburg". In 1328 Bernhard married Agnes, daughter of Rudolph I, Elector of Saxony and Duke of Saxe-Wittenberg, her paternal grandmother and namesake Agnes of Habsburg was a daughter of Rudolph I, King of the Romans. The spouses were third cousins: Agnes's great-grandfather Albert I, Duke of Saxony, was a brother of Henry I, Count of Anhalt, Bernhard's great-grandfather, they had five children: Bernhard IV, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg Katharina, first married on 6 October 1356 to Magnus II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg secondly on 11 May 1374 to Albert of Saxe-Wittenberg, Duke of Lüneburg Henry IV, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg Albert Sophie, married on 12 March 1346 to William II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg.
In 1339 Bernhard married for a second time to Matilda, daughter of Albert I, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst. Bernhard was more related to his bride: Matilda's grandfather was Siegfried I, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst, younger brother of Bernhard I, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg, Bernhard's grandfather; the marriage was childless. In c. 1343, Bernhard married for a third time to another Matilda, daughter of Magnus I, Duke of Brunswick-Göttingen. Through her mother Sophie of Brandenburg, Matilda was a great-great-great-granddaughter of Otto I, Margrave of Brandenburg, older brother of Bernhard, Count of Anhalt, Bernhard's great-great-great-grandfather, they had two children: Otto III, Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg Gertrude, married before 12 August 1371 to Günther XII, Count of Schwarzburg
The Leine is a river in Thuringia and Lower Saxony, Germany. It is a left tributary of the Aller and the Weser and it is 281 km long; the river's source is located close to the town of Leinefelde in Thuringia. About 40 km downriver, the river runs northwards. Important towns along its course, from upstream to downstream, are Göttingen, Einbeck and Gronau, before the river enters Hanover, the largest city on its banks. Downstream some 40 km north of Hanover, near Schwarmstedt, the river joins the Aller and reaches the North Sea via the Weser, its northern reaches are only navigable today by the smallest commercial carriers, though in the past, it served as an important pre-railway barge transport artery as far upriver as Göttingen. The river is somewhat polluted by industry, so the water is not used for drinking, but the pollution has never been severe enough to prevent fish from living in it. Like many western rivers since the 1960s, it has enjoyed cleaner waters since the implementation of environmental controls.
Sport fishing is enjoyed from small boats and along the banks, although yields are low. At least one point of the river is diverted into a canal that runs more or less parallel to the river. In his 1986 bestseller Red Storm Rising, author Tom Clancy uses the Leine as a major obstacle to the Soviet Union's Red Army drive to the Rhine and the North Sea ports of the Netherlands and Belgium through West Germany. List of rivers of Thuringia List of rivers of Lower Saxony Uwe Schmida: Die Leine - Eine fotografische Reise. ISBN 3-00-020567-5 Gerd Lüttig: Neue Ergebnisse quartärgeologischer Forschung im Raume Alfeld-Hameln-Elze. In: Geologisches Jahrbuch vol. 77, page 337–390. Hannover, June 1960. Media related to Leine at Wikimedia Commons Bundesamt für Naturschutz: Landschaftssteckbrief "Leine-Ilme-Senke" Bundesamt für Naturschutz: Landschaftssteckbrief "Leine-Niederung"
Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg
The Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, or more properly the Duchy of Brunswick and Lüneburg, was a historical duchy that existed from the late Middle Ages to the Early Modern era within the Holy Roman Empire. The duchy was located in, its name came from the two largest cities in the territory: Lüneburg. The dukedom emerged in 1235 from the allodial lands of the House of Welf in Saxony and was granted as an imperial fief to Otto the Child, a grandson of Henry the Lion; the duchy was divided several times during the High Middle Ages amongst various lines of the House of Welf, but each ruler was styled "Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg" in addition to his own particular title. By 1692, the territories had consolidated to two: the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg and the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. In 1714, the Hanoverian branch of the family succeeded to the throne of Great Britain, which they would rule in personal union with Hanover until 1837. For this reason, many cities and provinces in former British colonies are named after Brunswick or Lüneburg.
The Hanoverians never ruled Brunswick while they held the British throne, as the city was part of neighboring Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. After the Congress of Vienna in 1814/15, the Brunswick-Lüneburg territories became the Kingdom of Hanover and the Duchy of Brunswick; when the imperial ban was placed on Henry the Lion in 1180, he lost his titles as Duke of Saxony and Duke of Bavaria. He went into exile for several years, but was allowed to stay on the estates inherited from his mother's side until the end of his life. At the Imperial Diet of 1235 in Mainz, as part of the reconciliation between the Hohenstaufen and Welf families, Henry's grandson, Otto the Child, transferred his estates to Emperor Frederick II and was enfeoffed in return with the newly created Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, formed from the estates transferred to the Emperor as well as other large areas of the imperial fisc. After his death in 1252, he was succeeded by his sons, Albert the Tall and John, who ruled the dukedom jointly.
In 1269 the duchy was divided, Albert receiving the southern part of the state around Brunswick and John the northern territories in the area of Lüneburg. The towns of Lüneburg and Brunswick remained in the overall possession of the House of Welf until 1512 and 1671 respectively. In 1571 the Amt of Calvörde became an exclave of the Duchy; the various parts of the duchy were further divided and re-united over the centuries, all of them being ruled by the Welf or Guelph dynasty, who maintained close relations with one another—not infrequently by marrying cousins—a practice far more common than is the case today among the peasantry of the Holy Roman Empire, for the salic inheritance laws in effect, encouraged the practice of retaining control of lands and benefits. The seats of power moved in the meantime from Brunswick and Lüneburg to Celle and Wolfenbüttel as the towns asserted their independence; the subsequent history of the dukedom and its subordinate principalities was characterised by numerous divisions and reunifications.
The subordinate states that were created, which had the legal status of principalities, were named after the residence of their rulers. The estates of the different dynastic lines could be inherited by a side line when a particular family died out. For example, over the course of the centuries there were the Old and New Houses of Brunswick, the Old and New Houses of Lüneburg; the number of reigning dynastic lines varied from two to five. In 1269 the Principality of Brunswick was formed following the first division of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. In 1432, as a result of increasing tensions with the townsfolk of Brunswick, the Brunswick Line moved their Residence to Wolfenbüttel, into the water castle, expanded into a Schloss, whilst the town was developed into a royal seat; the name Wolfenbüttel was given to this principality. From 1546 Wolfenbüttel became the residence of the senior prince of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Prince Henry, Duke of Brunswick-Dannenberg. With sole rights to the duchy Brunswick-Lüneburg, he provided a conditional lease of the principality of Lüneburg to the princes of Calenburg with the conditions of payment to Wolfenbüttel heirs, together with the guarantee that only his descendants would inherit this senior principality of Wolfenbüttel.
Not until 1753/1754 was the Residence moved back to Brunswick, into the newly built Brunswick Palace. In 1814 the principality became the Duchy of Brunswick, with its own subordinate principalities that are all apart from the Calenburg principality from which sprang the de facto Kingdom of Hanover, a Kingdom, declared a usurpation by the head of house, Charles II of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, in his edict of May 10, 1827. In 1866 Prussia refused to recognize the Kingdom of Hanover. Prince Charles II of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel protested the violent annexation from his places of exile in Paris, as well as Geneva Switzerland and sealed the 12th of April 1873. In 1432 the estates gained by the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel between the Deister and Leine split away as the Principality of Calenberg. To the north this new state bordered on the County of Hoya near Nienburg and extended from there in a narrow, winding strip southwards up the River Leine through Wunstorf and Hanover where it reached the Principality of Wolfenbüttel.
In 1495 it was expanded in 1584 went back to the Wolfenbüttel Line. In 1634, as a result of inheritance distributions, it went to the House of Lüneburg, before becoming an independent principality again in 1635, when it was given to George, younger brother of Prince Ernest I
Frederick I, Elector of Saxony
Frederick I, the Belligerent or the Warlike, a member of the House of Wettin, ruled as Margrave of Meissen from 1407 and Elector of Saxony from 1423 until his death. He is not to be confused with his cousin Landgrave Frederick IV of Thuringia, the son of Landgrave Balthasar, he was the eldest son of Frederick III, Landgrave of Thuringia, Catherine of Henneberg. After the death of his uncle William I, Margrave of Meissen in 1407, he governed the Margraviate of Meissen together with his brother William II as well as with his cousin Frederick IV, until their possessions were divided in 1410 and 1415. In the German town war of 1388 he assisted Frederick V of Hohenzollern, burgrave of Nuremberg, in 1391 did the same for the Teutonic Order against Wladislaus II of Poland, he supported Rupert III, Elector Palatine of the Rhine, in his struggle with King Wenceslaus for the German throne because Wenceslaus refused to fulfill a promise to give him his sister Anna in marriage. The danger to Germany from the Hussites induced Frederick to ally himself with Emperor Sigismund.
For his victory at the Battle of Brüx in 1421, Frederick was granted the ranks of Elector. In the prosecution of this enterprise Frederick spent large sums of money, for which he received various places in Bohemia and elsewhere in pledge from Sigismund, who further rewarded him on 6 January 1423 with the vacant electoral Duchy of Saxony-Wittenberg, thus ascended Frederick IV, who called himself Frederick I now as duke and elector. Thus spurred to renewed efforts against the Hussites, the elector was endeavouring to rouse the German princes to aid him in prosecuting this war when the Saxon army was annihilated at Aussig on the 16 August 1426. After the death of his brother William Frederick became ruler over the entire possession of The House of Wettin except Thuringia. Frederick died in 1428 at Altenburg, he was buried as the first Wettin in the princely chapel in Meissen Cathedral. In 1409, Frederick and his brother William founded the University of Leipzig, for the benefit of German students who had left the University of Prague after the events relating to the Western Schism.
Frederick I married Catherine of Brunswick-Lüneburg, daughter of Henry the Mild, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg on 7 February 1402 and had 7 children: Catherine, died young. "Frederick I. Elector of Saxony". Encyclopædia Britannica. 11. Cambridge University Press. P. 59
Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
The Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel was a subdivision of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, whose history was characterised by numerous divisions and reunifications. Various dynastic lines of the House of Welf ruled Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel until the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806; as a result of the Congress of Vienna, its successor state, the Duchy of Brunswick, was created in 1815. After Otto the Child, grandchild of Henry the Lion, had been given the former allodial seat of his family by Emperor Frederick II on 21 August 1235 as an imperial enfeoffment under the name of the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg, the dukedom was divided in 1267/1269 by his sons. Albert I was given the regions around Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, Einbeck-Grubenhagen and Göttingen-Oberwald, he thus founded the Old House of Brunswick and laid the basis for what became the Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. His brother John founded the Old House of Lüneburg; the town of Brunswick remained under joint rule.
The area of Brunswick was further subdivided in the succeeding decades. For example, the lines of Grubenhagen and Göttingen were split for a while. In a similar way, in 1432 the estates between the Deister hills and the Leine river, gained in the meantime from the Middle House of Brunswick, split away to form the Principality of Calenberg. There were further divisions. In the meanwhile the dukes became weary of the constant disputes with the citizens of the town of Brunswick and, in 1432, moved their Residenz to the water castle of Wolfenbüttel, which lay in a marshy depression of the river Oker about 12 kilometres south of Brunswick; the castle built here for the Brunswick-Lüneburg dukes - together with the ducal chancery, the consistory, the courts and the archives - became the nerve centre of a giant region, from which the Wolfenbüttel-Brunswick part of the overall dukedom was ruled. For a long time it governed the principalities of Calenberg-Göttingen and Grubenhagen, the Prince-Bishopric of Halberstadt, large parts of the Prince-Bishopric of Hildesheim, the counties of Hohnstein and Regenstein, the baronies of Klettenberg and Lohra and parts of Hoya on the Lower Weser.
The importance of this court was signified by the number of craftsmen needed. Hundreds of timber-framed buildings were built for the court, for its citizens and for ducal facilities randomly designed to ducal requirements and for fire protection. In the heyday of the town's development its districts were named after various dukes: the Auguststadt in the west, the Juliusstadt in the east and the Heinrichstadt. Following the twelfth division of the duchy in 1495, whereby the Principality of Brunswick-Calenberg-Göttingen was re-divided into its component territories, Duke Henry the Elder was given the land of Brunswick, to which the name of the new Residenz at Wolfenbüttel was added. From on the name of the principality became "Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel"; the reigns of dukes Henry the Younger and Henry Julius followed, under whose lordship the Residenz of Wolfenbüttel was expanded and the principality gained a Germany-wide standing. In 1500 Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel became part of the Lower Saxon Circle within the Holy Roman Empire.
From 1519 to 1523 the principality went to war with the principalities of Hildesheim and Lüneburg in the Hildesheim Diocesan Feud which, despite a resounding defeat in the Battle of Soltau resulted in large territorial gains accruing to Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel. In the Thirty Years War Wolfenbüttel was the strongest fortress in North Germany, but survived the war damaged; the Wolfenbüttel line died out during the war. In 1571 the castle and village of Calvörde became part of the principality thanks to Duke Julius of Brunswick. In 1635 Duke Augustus the Younger, from the collateral line of Lüneburg-Dannenberg, took over the reins of power in the principality and founded the New House of Brunswick. Under his rule Wolfenbüttel reached its cultural zenith. One of his greatest achievements was the building of the Wolfenbüttel Library, the largest in Europe in its day. In 1671 an old pipe dream of the House of Welf dukes came true when the joint armies of the different dynastic lines were able to capture the town of Brunswick and add it to their domain.
In 1735 when the dynastic line died out another collateral line emerged: the Brunswick-Bevern line founded in 1666. In 1753/1754 the residence of the dukes of Wolfenbüttel returned to Brunswick, to the newly built Brunswick Palace; the town thus lost the independence. In the process, the duke followed the trend and did not interfere with anything, including work on the new castle, begun in 1718 by Hermann Korb on the Grauer Hof, still not finished; the effect on Wolfenbüttel was catastrophic, as can be seen from the timber-framed houses built on. 4,000 townsfolk followed the ducal family and Wolfenbüttel's population sank from 12,000 to 7,000. Only the archives, the ecclesiastical office and the library remained as a link to earlier times. From Brunswick there were jibes that Wolfenbüttel had deteriorated into a "widows' residence"; the extensive gardens in front of the three town gates were leased to the former gardeners as an emphyteusis. As a consequence jam factories were established which were characteristic of Wolfenbüttel until the 20th century.
In front of the Herzogtor the number of gardens grew, until they reached the Lechlum Wood. Its southern edge was graced by the little Lustschloss
Bernard II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Bernard II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, was the Bishop of Hildesheim from 1452 to 1457, as well as Prince of Lüneburg from 1457 to 1464. Bernard was the son of his wife Magdalene of Brandenburg. In 1452, Bernard was elected at the request of the Bishop of Hildesheim to be his coadjutor and became his successor when the bishop died. However, the bishop's aspiration that in selecting a Welf the bishopric would strengthen its position vis-a-vis the Welf Principality of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel proved elusive because Bernard felt obliged to support the interests of his family first. At the request of his father, he left the bishopric in 1457 to take over the Principality of Lüneburg, which he ruled jointly with his brother, Otto the Victorious, until his death on 9 Feb 1464, he married Matilda of Holstein-Schauenburg, daughter of Otto II, Count of Schauenburg-Pinneberg, in 1463, but the marriage was childless. Matilda went on to be the second wife of Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg Principality of Lüneburg Prince-Bishopric of Hildesheim Die Diözese Hildesheim.
In Vergangenheit und Gegenwart von Thomas Scharf-Wrede ISBN 3-7954-1721-X Geckler, Christa. Die Celler Herzöge: Leben und Wirken 1371–1705. Celle: Georg Ströher. ISBN 3-921744-05-8. OCLC 255990175. Ferdinand Spehr, "Bernhard von Braunschweig-Lüneburg", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 2, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 418– The House of Welf Bishopric of Hildesheim
Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg
The Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg was an Electorate of the Holy Roman Empire, located in northwestern Germany. It was colloquially known after its capital city of Hanover. For most of its existence, the electorate was ruled in personal union with Great Britain; the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg had been split in 1269 between different branches of the House of Welf. The Principality of Calenberg, ruled by a cadet branch of the family, emerged as the largest and most powerful of the Brunswick-Lüneburg states. In 1695, the Holy Roman Emperor elevated the Prince of Calenberg to the College of Electors, creating the new Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg; the fortunes of the Electorate were tied to those of Great Britain by the Act of Settlement 1701 and Act of Union 1707, which settled the succession to the British throne on Queen Anne's nearest Protestant relative, the Electress Sophia of Hanover, her descendants. The Prince-Elector of Hanover became King of Great Britain in 1714; as a consequence, a reluctant Britain was forced time and again to defend the King's German possessions.
However, Hanover remained a separately ruled territory with its own governmental bodies, the country had to sign a treaty with Great Britain whenever Hanoverian troops fought on the British side of a war. Merged into the Napoleonic Kingdom of Westphalia in 1807, it was re-established as the Kingdom of Hanover in 1814, the personal union with the British crown lasted until 1837. In 1692, Emperor Leopold I elevated Duke Ernest Augustus of the Brunswick-Lüneburg line of Calenberg, to the rank of prince-elector of the Empire as a reward for aid given in the Nine Years' War. There were protests against the addition of a new elector, the elevation did not become official until the approval of the Imperial Diet in 1708. Calenberg's capital Hanover became colloquially eponymous for the electorate; the electorate comprised large parts of the modern German state of Lower Saxony in Northern Germany. Beside the Principality of Calenberg it included the former princely lands of Göttingen and Grubenhagen as well as the territory of the former County of Hoya.
In 1705 Elector George I Louis inherited the Principality of Lüneburg with the Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg upon the death of his uncle Duke George William of Brunswick-Lüneburg. In 1715 he purchased the Duchies of Bremen-Verden from King Frederick IV of Denmark, whereby his former landlocked electorate gained access to the North Sea. In 1700 the territories forming the electorate introduced – like all Protestant territories of imperial immediacy – the Improved Calendar, as it was called by Protestants, in order not to mention the name of Pope Gregory XIII. So Sunday 18 February Old Style was followed by Monday 1 March New Style. In 1714, George Louis became king of Great Britain, so that the electorate and Great Britain were ruled in personal union; the possessions of the electors in Germany grew, as they de facto purchased the Swedish-held duchies of Bremen and Verden in 1719. George Louis died in 1727, was succeeded by his son George II Augustus. In 1728 Emperor Charles VI enfeoffed George II, with the reverted fief of Saxe-Lauenburg, which had de facto been ruled in personal union with Hanover and its one preceding Principality of Lüneburg since 1689.
In 1731 Hanover gained Hadeln. In return, Hanover recognized the Pragmatic Sanction of 1713, it took George II Augustus until 1733 to persuade Charles VI to enfeoff him with the Duchy of Bremen and the Principality of Verden, colloquially called Duchies of Bremen-Verden. At both enfeoffments George II Augustus swore that he would respect the existing privileges and constitutions of the estates in Bremen-Verden and in Hadeln, thus confirming 400-year-old traditions of estate participation in government. In Hanover, the capital of the Electorate, the Privy Council of Hanover installed a new ministry in charge of the Imperial Estates ruled by the Electors in personal union, it was called the Department of Bremen-Verden, Hadeln and Bentheim. However the Electors spent most of their time in England. Direct contact with the Electorate was maintained through the office of the German Chancery, situated in St James's Palace in London. During the Anglo-French and Indian War in the North American colonies, Britain feared a French invasion in Hanover.
George II formed an alliance with his Brandenburg-Prussian cousin Frederick II, "the Great" combining the North American conflict with the Brandenburg-Prusso–Austrian Third Silesian or Seven Years' War. In summer 1757 the French invaded Hanover and defeated George II's son Prince William, Duke of Cumberland, leading the Anglo-Hanoverian army, at the Battle of Hastenbeck and drove him and his army into remote Bremen-Verden, where in the former Zeven Convent he capitulated on 18 September, but George II did not recognise the convention. In the following year the British army, supported by troops from Brandenburg-Prussia, Hesse-Kassel and the ducal Principality of Brunswick and Lunenburg again expelled the occupants. Hanover remained unaffected for the rest of the war. After the war ended, peace prevailed; the War of the First Coalition against France with Great Britain-Hanover and other war allies forming the coalition, did not affect Hanoverian territory, since the first French Republic was fighting on several fronts