Clemson–South Carolina rivalry
The Clemson–South Carolina rivalry called the Carolina–Clemson rivalry, is an American collegiate athletic rivalry between the University of South Carolina Gamecocks and the Clemson University Tigers. Since 2015, the two compete in the Palmetto Series, an athletic, head-to-head competition between both schools, not just in football, but more than a dozen competitions throughout each school year. Both institutions are public universities supported by the state of South Carolina, their campuses are separated by only 132 miles. UofSC and Clemson have been bitter rivals since 1896, a heated rivalry continues to this day for a variety of reasons, including the historic tensions regarding their respective charters and the passions surrounding their athletic programs. Much like the Alabama–Auburn Rivalry, the Georgia-Georgia Tech Rivalry, the Kentucky–Louisville rivalry and the North Carolina-NC State Rivalry, the Clemson–South Carolina rivalry is an in-state collegiate rivalry; this is one of a handful of rivalries where the teams are in different premier conferences: South Carolina is in the Southeastern Conference.
Since 1960, the game has been held in late November on Thanksgiving weekend. In 2014, the annual football game between the two schools was dubbed the Palmetto Bowl. Unlike most major college rivalries, the Carolina–Clemson rivalry did not start innocently and because of competitive collegiate sports; the deep-seated bitterness began between the two schools long before Clemson received its charter and became a college. The two institutions were founded eighty-eight years apart: South Carolina College in 1801 and Clemson Agricultural College in 1889. South Carolina College was founded in 1801 to unite and promote harmony between the Lowcountry and the Backcountry, it closed during the Civil War when its students aided the Southern cause, but the closure gave politicians an opportunity to reorganize it to their liking. The Radical Republicans in charge of state government during Reconstruction opened the school to blacks and women while appropriating generous funds to the university, which caused the white citizens of the state to withdraw their support for the university and view it as a symbol of the worst aspects of Reconstruction.
The Democrats returned to power in 1877 following their decisive electoral victory over the Radical Republicans and promptly proceeded to close the university. Sentiment in the state favored opening an agriculture college, so the university was reorganized as the South Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. In 1882, the college was renamed to its antebellum name, South Carolina College, which infuriated the farmers who felt that the politicians had frustrated the will of the people by de-emphasizing agriculture education though the school still retained the department of agriculture. Clemson, from its beginning, was an all-white male military school; the school remained this way until 1955 when it changed to "civilian" status for students and became a coeducational institution. Benjamin Tillman emerged in the 1880s as a leader of the agrarian movement in South Carolina and demanded that the South Carolina College take agricultural education more by expanding the agriculture department.
In 1885, Tillman was convinced of the superiority of a separate agricultural college by Stephen D. Lee the president of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of the State of Mississippi, subsequently Tillman would accept nothing less than a separate agriculture college in South Carolina, he offered the following reasons why he felt that it was necessary to have a separate agriculture college outside the confines of Columbia: Mississippi A&M featured practical training without unnecessary studying of the liberal arts. Mississippi A&M provided. There were too few students who studied agriculture at the college to justify an agriculture college there; the college was a place "for the sons of lawyers and of the well-to-do" who sneered at the agriculture students as if they were hayseeds. The students at the college lived a life of luxury as compared with the sweat and toil endured by students at Mississippi A&M. There was not enough farm land near the college to allow for proper agriculture study.
The Conservatives, who held the reins of power in South Carolina from 1877 to 1890, replied to each point made by Tillman: The most advanced agriculture educational research was being conducted at the University of California and at Cornell University, both of which combined agriculture colleges with liberal arts colleges. Additionally, a separate agriculture college would be more expensive and result in an inferior product; the work scholarships attracted the lowest quality of students who only cared about obtaining a college degree, not about an education in agriculture or mechanical studies. Furthermore, there was little advantage of attending a college only to pitch grub stumps; the constant attacks by Tillman on the college caused many to doubt whether state support for the institution would continue. As a result, the enrollment numbers were not impressive, although the numbers of students taking agriculture and mechanical classes increased from 34 in 1887 to 83 in 1889. Over half of the students at the college were the sons of farmers, though most did not study agriculture as Tillman wished.
John McLaren McBryde, President of the College predicted that most students of an agriculture college would not go back to work the farm after graduation. While some students at the college were the sons of the well-to-do, the majority were poor; the college farm added 100 acres in 1887, just one mile from campus. Tillman was bolstered
Works Progress Administration
The Works Progress Administration was an American New Deal agency, employing millions of people to carry out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads. It was established on May 6, 1935, by Executive Order 7034. In a much smaller project, Federal Project Number One, the WPA employed musicians, writers and directors in large arts, drama and literacy projects; the four projects dedicated to these were: the Federal Writers’ Project, the Historical Records Survey, the Federal Theatre Project, the Federal Music Project, the Federal Art Project. In the Historical Records Survey, for instance, many former slaves in the South were interviewed. Theater and music groups toured throughout America, gave more than 225,000 performances. Archaeological investigations under the WPA were influential in the rediscovery of pre-Columbian Native American cultures, the development of professional archaeology in the US; every community in the United States had a new park, bridge, or school, constructed by the agency.
The WPA's initial appropriation in 1935 was for $4.9 billion. Headed by Harry Hopkins, the WPA provided jobs and income to the unemployed during the Great Depression in the United States, while developing infrastructure to support the current and future society. Above all, the WPA hired workers and craftsmen who were employed in building streets. Thus, under the leadership of the WPA, more than 1 million km of streets and over 10,000 bridges were built, in addition to many airports and much housing; the largest single project of the WPA was the Tennessee Valley Authority, which provided the impoverished Tennessee Valley with dams and waterworks to create an infrastructure for electrical power. Camp David, the presidential estate in Maryland used for international meetings, San Francisco's Golden Gate Bridge were both constructed by the WPA. At its peak in 1938, it provided paid jobs for three million unemployed men and women, as well as youth in a separate division, the National Youth Administration.
Between 1935 and 1943, when the agency was disbanded, the WPA employed 8.5 million people. Most people who needed a job were eligible for employment in some capacity. Hourly wages were set to the prevailing wages in each area. Full employment, reached in 1942 and emerged as a long-term national goal around 1944, was not the goal of the WPA. "Millions of people needed subsistence incomes. Work relief was preferred over public assistance because it maintained self-respect, reinforced the work ethic, kept skills sharp."The WPA was a national program that operated its own projects in cooperation with state and local governments, which provided 10–30% of the costs. The local sponsor provided land and trucks and supplies, with the WPA responsible for wages. WPA sometimes took over state and local relief programs that had originated in the Reconstruction Finance Corporation or Federal Emergency Relief Administration programs, it was liquidated on June 30, 1943, as a result of low unemployment due to the worker shortage of World War II.
The WPA had provided millions of Americans with jobs for eight years. A joint resolution introduced January 21, 1935, the Emergency Relief Appropriation Act of 1935 was passed by the United States Congress and signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on April 8, 1935. On May 6, 1935, FDR issued executive order 7034; the WPA superseded the work of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration, dissolved. Direct relief assistance was permanently replaced by a national work relief program—a major public works program directed by the WPA; the WPA was shaped by Harry Hopkins, supervisor of the Federal Emergency Relief Administration and close adviser to Roosevelt. Both Roosevelt and Hopkins believed that the route to economic recovery and the lessened importance of the dole would be in employment programs such as the WPA. Hallie Flanagan, national director of the Federal Theatre Project, wrote that "for the first time in the relief experiments of this country the preservation of the skill of the worker, hence the preservation of his self-respect, became important."The WPA was organized into the following divisions: The Division of Engineering and Construction, which planned and supervised construction projects including airports, dams and sanitation systems.
The Division of Professional and Service Projects, responsible for white-collar projects including education programs, recreation programs, the arts projects. It was named the Division of Community Service Programs and the Service Division; the Division of Finance. The Division of Information; the Division of Investigation, which succeeded a comparable division at FERA and investigated fraud, misappropriation of funds and disloyalty. The Division of Statistics known as the Division of Social Research; the Project Control Division, which processed project applications. Other divisions including the Employment, Safety and Training and Reemployment; these ordinary men and women proved to be extraordinary beyond all expectation. They
University of South Carolina
The University of South Carolina is a public research university in Columbia, South Carolina. It has seven satellite campuses throughout the state and its main campus covers over 359 acres in downtown Columbia not far from the South Carolina State House; the university is categorized by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching as having "highest research activity." It has been ranked as an "up-and-coming" university by U. S. News & World Report, its undergraduate and graduate International Business programs have ranked among the top three programs in the nation for over a decade, it houses the largest collection of Robert Burns and Scottish literature materials outside Scotland, the world's largest Ernest Hemingway collection. Founded in 1801 as South Carolina College, USC is the flagship institution of the University of South Carolina System and offers more than 350 programs of study, leading to bachelor's, master's, doctoral degrees from fourteen degree-granting colleges and schools.
The University of South Carolina has a total enrollment of 50,000 students, with over 34,000 on the main Columbia campus as of fall 2017 - making it the largest university in the Carolinas. USC has several thousand future students in feeder programs at surrounding technical colleges. Professional schools on the Columbia campus include business, law, medicine and social work; the university was founded as South Carolina College on December 19, 1801, by an act of the South Carolina General Assembly initiated by Governor John Drayton in an effort to promote harmony between the Lowcountry and the Backcountry. On January 10, 1805, having an initial enrollment of nine students, the college commenced classes with a traditional classical curriculum; the first president was theologian Reverend Jonathan Maxcy. He was an alumnus of Brown University, with an honorary degree from Harvard University. Before coming to the college, Maxcy had served as the second president of Brown and the third president of Union College.
Maxcy's tenure lasted from 1804 through 1820. When South Carolina College opened its doors in 1801, the building now known as Rutledge College was the only building on campus. Located one block southeast of the State Capitol, it served as an administrative office, academic building, residence hall, chapel. However, the master plan for the original campus called for a total of eleven buildings, all facing a large lush gathering area. In 1807, the original President's House was the next building to be erected; the building now known as DeSaussure College followed shortly thereafter, the remaining eight buildings were constructed over the next several decades. When completed, all eleven buildings formed a U-shape open to Sumter Street; this modified quadrangle became known as the Horseshoe. As with other southern universities in the antebellum period, the most important organizations for students were the two literary societies, the Clariosophic Society and the Euphradian Society; these two societies, which arose from a split in an earlier literary society known as the Philomathic, grew to encapsulate the majority of the student body from the 1820s onward.
The College became a symbol of the South in the antebellum period as its graduates were on the forefront of secession from the Union. With the generous support of the General Assembly, South Carolina College acquired a reputation as the leading institution of the South and attracted several noteworthy scholars, including Francis Lieber, Thomas Cooper, Joseph LeConte. Seventy-two students were present for classes in January 1862 and the college functioned as best it could until a call by the Confederate government for South Carolina to fill its quota of 18,000 soldiers. A system of conscription would begin on March 20 for all men between the ages of eighteen and forty-five, so on March 8 all of the students at the college volunteered for service in order to avoid the dishonor of having been conscripted. Despite the depletion of students, the professors issued a notice that the college would temporarily close and would reopen to those under eighteen; when the college reopened on March 17, only nine students showed up for classes and it became quite apparent to all that the college would not last past the end of the term in June.
On June 25 with the consent of the state government, the Confederate authorities took possession of the college buildings and converted them into a hospital. After many unsuccessful attempts to reopen the college, the trustees passed a resolution on December 2, 1863, that closed the college. By February 1865, Sherman's army had reached the outskirts of Columbia and the college was spared from destruction by the Union forces because of its use as a hospital. In addition, a company of the 25th Iowa Volunteer Infantry Regiment was stationed at the campus on February 17 to protect it from harm and to thwart off pillaging Yankee soldiers; the Union army took possession of the college on May 24, 1865, although the future for the college appeared bleak with it under military control, General John Porter Hatch sent a letter on June 19 to the remaining professors at the college that it should reopen as soon as possible. The appointment of Benjamin Franklin Perry as provisional governor of South Carolina on June 30 by President Andrew Johnson restored civilian rule to the state.
Perry reinstated the trustees to their positions and the board met on September 20 to authorize the college to reopen on the first Monday of January in 1866. In a message to the legislature in October, Perry sought to convert the college into a university because with the state in an impoverished situation, it would provide a more practical education. Little opposition deve
The Carolina Panthers are a professional American football team based in Charlotte, North Carolina. The Panthers compete in the National Football League, as a member club of the league's National Football Conference South division; the team is headquartered in Bank of America Stadium in uptown Charlotte. They are one of the few NFL teams to own the stadium they play in, registered as Panthers Stadium, LLC; the Panthers are supported throughout the Carolinas. The team hosts its annual training camp at Wofford College in South Carolina; the head coach is Ron Rivera. The Panthers were announced as the league's 29th franchise in 1993, began play in 1995 under original owner and founder Jerry Richardson; the Panthers played well in their first two years, finishing 7–9 in 1995 and 12–4 the following year, winning the NFC West before losing to the eventual Super Bowl champion Green Bay Packers in the NFC Championship Game. They did not have another winning season until 2003, when they won the NFC Championship Game and reached Super Bowl XXXVIII, losing 32–29 to the New England Patriots.
After recording playoff appearances in 2005 and 2008, the team failed to record another playoff appearance until 2013, the first of three consecutive NFC South titles. After losing in the divisional round to the San Francisco 49ers in 2013 and the Seattle Seahawks in 2014, the Panthers returned to the Super Bowl in 2015, but lost to the Denver Broncos; the Panthers have reached the playoffs seven times, advancing to four NFC Championship Games and two Super Bowls. They have won one in the NFC West and five in the NFC South; the Carolina Panthers are registered as Panther Football, LLC. and are controlled by David Tepper, whose purchase of the team from founder Jerry Richardson was unanimously approved by league owners on May 22, 2018. The club is worth US$2.3 billion, according to Forbes. On December 15, 1987, entrepreneur Jerry Richardson announced his bid for an NFL expansion franchise in the Carolinas. A North Carolina native, Richardson was a former wide receiver on the Baltimore Colts who had used his 1959 league championship bonus to co-found the Hardee's restaurant chain becoming president and CEO of TW Services.
Richardson drew his inspiration to pursue an NFL franchise from George Shinn, who had made a successful bid for an expansion National Basketball Association team in Charlotte, the Charlotte Hornets. Richardson founded Richardson Sports, a partnership consisting of himself, his family, a number of businessmen from North and South Carolina were recruited to be limited partners. Richardson looked at four potential locations for a stadium choosing uptown Charlotte. To highlight the demand for professional football in the Carolinas, Richardson Sports held preseason games around the area from 1989 to 1991; the first two games were held at Carter–Finley Stadium in Raleigh, North Carolina, Kenan Memorial Stadium in Chapel Hill, North Carolina, while the third and final game was held at Williams-Brice Stadium in Columbia, South Carolina. The matchups were between existing NFL teams. In 1991, the group formally filed an application for the open expansion spot, on October 26, 1993, the 28 NFL owners unanimously named the Carolina Panthers as the 29th member of the NFL.
The Panthers first competed in the 1995 NFL season. The Panthers were put in the NFC West to increase the size of that division to five teams. Former Pittsburgh Steelers defensive coordinator Dom Capers was named the first head coach; the team finished its inaugural season 7–9, the best performance from a first-year expansion team. They performed better in their second season, finishing with a 12–4 record and winning the NFC West division, as well as securing a first-round bye; the Panthers beat the defending Super Bowl champions Dallas Cowboys in the divisional round before losing the NFC Championship Game to the eventual Super Bowl champions, the Green Bay Packers. The team managed only a 7–9 finish in 1997 and slipped to 4–12 in 1998, leading to Capers' dismissal as head coach; the Panthers hired former San Francisco 49ers head coach George Seifert to replace Capers, he led the team to an 8–8 record in 1999. The team finished 7–9 in 2000 and fell to 1–15 in 2001, winning their first game but losing their last 15.
This performance tied the NFL record for most losses in a single season and it broke the record held by the winless 1976 Buccaneers for most consecutive losses in a single season, leading the Panthers to fire Seifert. After the NFL's expansion to 32 teams in 2002, the Panthers were relocated from the NFC West to the newly created NFC South division; the Panthers' rivalries with the Falcons and Saints were maintained, they would be joined by the Tampa Bay Buccaneers. New York Giants defensive coordinator John Fox was hired to replace Seifert and led the team to a 7–9 finish in 2002. Although the team's defense gave up few yards, ranking the second-best in the NFL in yards conceded, they were hindered by an offense that ranked as the second-worst in the league in yards gained; the Panthers improved to 11–5 in the 2003 regular season, winning the NFC South and making it to Super Bowl XXXVIII before losing to the New England Patriots, 32–29, in what was immedia
Faith No More
Faith No More is an American rock band from San Francisco, formed in 1979. Before settling on their current name in 1982, the band performed under the names Sharp Young Men and Faith No Man. Bassist Billy Gould and drummer Mike Bordin are the longest-remaining members of the band, having been involved with Faith No More since its inception; the band underwent several lineup changes early in their career, along with some major changes on. The current lineup of Faith No More consists of Gould, keyboardist/rhythm guitarist Roddy Bottum, lead guitarist Jon Hudson and vocalist/lyricist Mike Patton. After releasing six studio albums, including their best-selling records The Real Thing and Angel Dust, Faith No More announced their breakup on April 20, 1998, they have since reunited, embarked on The Second Coming Tour from 2009 to 2012, released their seventh studio album, Sol Invictus, in May 2015. Faith No More was formed as Sharp Young Men in 1979 by bassist Billy Gould, drummer Mike Bordin, vocalist Mike Morris, keyboardist Wade Worthington.
Mike Morris described the name as "a piss-take on all the ‘elegant’ groups at the time." On, Morris proposed the name Faith In No Man, but the band settled on Bordin's suggestion Faith No Man. They recorded "Quiet in Heaven/Song of Liberty", released in 1983; the songs were recorded in Matt Wallace's parents' garage, where Wallace had set up and been running a recording studio while the band was still recording under the name Sharp Young Men, with Mike Morris, Billy Gould, Mike Bordin and Wade Worthington. Worthington left shortly thereafter, they changed their name to Faith No Man for the release of the single, which featured two of the three songs recorded in Wallace's garage, hired Roddy Bottum to replace Worthington. Bottum and Bordin quit the band shortly after and formed Faith No More, they chose the name to accentuate the fact that "The Man" was "No More". The band played with several vocalists and guitarists, including a brief stint with Courtney Love, until they settled on vocalist Chuck Mosley in 1983 and guitarist Jim Martin.
After the name change, the band started recording We Care a Lot without backing from a record label and, after pooling their money, recorded five songs. This gained the attention of Ruth Schwartz, forming the independent label Mordam Records, under which the band, after getting the necessary financial support and released the album, it was the first official release for the label. In late 1986, Faith No More was signed to Los Angeles label Slash Records by Anna Statman; the label had been sold to the Warner Music Group subsidiary London Records, ensuring a widespread release for the band's following albums. Introduce Yourself was released in 1987, a revamped version of their debut album's title track "We Care a Lot" saw minor success on MTV. Mosley's behaviour had started to become erratic during a troubled tour of Europe in 1988. Incidents include him punching Billy Gould on stage, the release party for the album Introduce Yourself — during which he fell asleep on stage — and one of Mosley's roadies getting into a fist fight with guitarist Jim Martin during the European tour.
Mosley was fired after the band returned home from Europe. Billy Gould reflected "There was a certain point when I went to rehearsal, Chuck wanted to do all acoustic guitar songs, it was just so far off the mark. The upshot was that I walked out and quit the band. I just said: ‘I’m done – I can’t take this any longer. It’s just so ridiculous’; the same day, I talked to Bordin, he said: ‘Well, I still want to play with you’. Bottum did the same thing, it was another one of these ‘firing somebody without firing them’ scenarios." Chuck Mosley was replaced with singer Mike Patton in 1988. Patton, singing with his high school band, Mr. Bungle, was recruited at Martin's suggestion after he heard a demo of Mr. Bungle. According to Patton, he first met the band during a 1986 gig at "a pizza parlor" in his hometown of Eureka, California. Two weeks after joining Faith No More, he had written all the lyrics for the songs that would make up the Grammy award-nominated The Real Thing, released in June 1989. "Epic" was a top 10 hit.
The music video for "Epic" received extensive airplay on MTV in 1990, despite anger from animal rights activists for a slow motion shot of a fish flopping out of water at the end of the video. That same year, Faith No More performed at the 1990 MTV Video Music Awards and on the 293rd episode of Saturday Night Live "From Out of Nowhere" and "Falling to Pieces" saw releases as singles, a cover of Black Sabbath's "War Pigs" was produced for non-vinyl releases. In 1990, the band went on an extensive U. S. tour, sending The Real Thing to Platinum status in Canada, the U. S. and South America. The album had big sales numbers in Australia, U. K. and the rest of Europe, pushing the total sales well above 4 million worldwide. In February 1991, Faith No More released their only official live album, Live at the Brixton Academy; the album included two unreleased studio tracks, "The Grade" and "The Cowboy Song". That same year, the band contributed a track for the motion picture soundtrack to Bill & Ted's Bogus Journey with the song "The Perfect Crime".
Jim Martin made a brief cameo in the film as "Sir James Martin" as the head of the "Faith No More Spiritual and Theological Center". Mike Patton's original band Mr. Bungle would go on to sign with Slash and Reprise Records' parent label Warner Bros. Records in 1991, following the
Johnson C. Smith University
Johnson C. Smith University is a private black university in Charlotte, North Carolina, it is affiliated with the Presbyterian Church and is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education, Association of Collegiate Business Schools and Programs, Council on Social Work Accreditation. The school awards Bachelor of Science, Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Social Work, Master of Social Work degrees. Johnson C. Smith University was established on April 7, 1867 as the Biddle Memorial Institute at a meeting of the Catawba Presbytery in the old Charlotte Presbyterian Church. Mary D. Biddle, a churchwoman, donated $1,400 to the school. In appreciation of this first contribution, friends requested that Mrs. Biddle name the newly established school. Samuel C. Alexander and Willis L. Miller, saw the need for a school in the south and after the birth of the school, they were elected as some of the first teachers, its corresponding women's school was Scotia Seminary.
In 1876, the charter was changed by the legislature of the State of North Carolina and the name became Biddle University, under which name the institution operated until 1923. In 1891, Biddle University elected Daniel J. Sanders as the first African-American as President of a four-year institution in the south. From 1921 to 1922, Jane Berry Smith donated funds to build a theological dormitory, a science hall, a teachers' cottage, a memorial gate, she provided an endowment for the institution in memory of her late husband, Johnson C. Smith. Up until her death, she donated funds for a campus church. In recognition of these generous benefactions, the Board of Trustees voted to change the name of the institution to Johnson C. Smith University; the charter of the school, was amended on March 1, 1923, by the legislature of the State of North Carolina. In 1924, James B. Duke established the Duke Endowment. While the largest share of that the endowment's earnings are allocated to support Duke University, Duke's donation required that 4% of its earnings be given to the university.
Over the years, this share of the Endowment's distributions has exceeded $90 million. In 1932, the university's charter was amended; the 65-year-old institution for men became coeducational. The first residence hall for women, named in memory of James B. Duke, was dedicated in 1940. In 1941, women were admitted to the freshman class. In 1942, the university was a coeducational institution. JCSU joined the United Negro College Fund in 1944 as a founding member; this fund was organized to help church-related schools of higher learning to revamp their training programs, to expand their physical plants, to promote faculty growth and to create new areas of service. Biddle Memorial Hall is on the National Register of Historic Places. Johnson C. Smith University offers 24 degree options for one graduate degree. Students earn their degree through one of three colleges – the College of Arts and Letters, the College of STEM and the College of Professional Studies; the Robert L. Albright Honors College is available to qualified high-achieving undergraduate students at JCSU.
The college is named after the 11th president of the university. Metropolitan College offers undergraduate adult degree programs for adults that enhance their opportunities for career advancement and success. Metropolitan College provides adults with flexible, convenient schedules and a variety of course styles including on-campus and online courses, as well as our Flex-Option for courses that include both online and in-class instruction. Metropolitan College offers evening programs for adults in Criminology, Social Work and Business Administration; the university is organized into three colleges: College of Arts and Letters College of Science, Technology and Mathematics College of Professional Studies Due to its location near downtown Charlotte, NC, there are many social and cultural activities for JCSU students and faculty to enjoy, including professional sporting events, theater/movies, art exhibits, chorale, poetry readings, dance, among others. All of the National Pan-Hellenic Council organizations have chapters at Johnson C. Smith University.
These organizations are: Other organizations include: Student-athletes compete in intercollegiate and intramural athletics. JCSU is a member of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, Division II and the Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association, its intercollegiate sports programs include basketball, cross-country, golf, volleyball and track and field. Its teams are nicknamed the Golden Bulls. Official website Johnson C. Smith Athletics website
Columbia, South Carolina
Columbia is the capital and second largest city of the U. S. state of South Carolina, with a population estimate of 134,309 as of 2016. The city serves as the county seat of Richland County, a portion of the city extends into neighboring Lexington County, it is the center of the Columbia metropolitan statistical area, which had a population of 767,598 as of the 2010 United States Census, growing to 817,488 by July 1, 2016, according to 2015 U. S. Census estimates; the name Columbia is a poetic term used for the United States, originating from the name of Christopher Columbus. The city is located 13 miles northwest of the geographic center of South Carolina, is the primary city of the Midlands region of the state, it lies at the confluence of the Saluda River and the Broad River, which merge at Columbia to form the Congaree River. Columbia is home to the University of South Carolina, the state's flagship university and the largest in the state, is the site of Fort Jackson, the largest United States Army installation for Basic Combat Training.
Columbia is located 20 miles west of the site of McEntire Joint National Guard Base, operated by the U. S. Air Force and is used as a training base for the 169th Fighter Wing of The South Carolina Air National Guard. Columbia is the location of the South Carolina State House, the center of government for the state. In 1860, the city was the location of the South Carolina Secession Convention, which marked the departure of the first state from the Union in the events leading up to the Civil War. At the time of European encounter, the inhabitants of the area that became Columbia were a people called the Congaree. In May 1540, a Spanish expedition led by Hernando de Soto traversed what is now Columbia while moving northward; the expedition produced the earliest written historical records of the area, part of the regional Cofitachequi chiefdom. From the creation of Columbia by the South Carolina General Assembly in 1786, the site of Columbia was important to the overall development of the state; the Congarees, a frontier fort on the west bank of the Congaree River, was the head of navigation in the Santee River system.
A ferry was established by the colonial government in 1754 to connect the fort with the growing settlements on the higher ground on the east bank. Like many other significant early settlements in colonial America, Columbia is on the fall line from the Piedmont region; the fall line is the spot where a river becomes unnavigable when sailing upstream and where water flowing downstream can power a mill. State Senator John Lewis Gervais of the town of Ninety Six introduced a bill, approved by the legislature on March 22, 1786, to create a new state capital. There was considerable argument over the name for the new city. According to published accounts, Senator Gervais said he hoped that "in this town we should find refuge under the wings of COLUMBIA", for, the name which he wished it to be called. One legislator insisted on the name "Washington", but "Columbia" won by a vote of 11–7 in the state senate; the site was chosen as the new state capital in 1786, due to its central location in the state.
The State Legislature first met there in 1790. After remaining under the direct government of the legislature for the first two decades of its existence, Columbia was incorporated as a village in 1805 and as a city in 1854. Columbia received a large stimulus to development when it was connected in a direct water route to Charleston by the Santee Canal; this canal connected the Cooper rivers in a 22-mile-long section. It was first chartered in 1786 and completed in 1800, making it one of the earliest canals in the United States. With increased railroad traffic, it ceased operation around 1850; the commissioners designed a town of 400 blocks in a 2-mile square along the river. The blocks were sold to speculators and prospective residents. Buyers had to build a house at least 30 feet long and 18 feet wide within three years or face an annual 5% penalty; the perimeter streets and two through streets were 150 feet wide. The remaining squares were divided by thoroughfares 100 feet wide; the commissioners comprised the local government until 1797 when a Commission of Streets and Markets was created by the General Assembly.
Three main issues occupied most of their time: public drunkenness and poor sanitation. As one of the first planned cities in the United States, Columbia began to grow rapidly, its population was nearing 1,000 shortly after the start of the 19th century. In 1801, South Carolina College was founded in Columbia; the original building survives. The city was chosen as the site of the institution in part to unite the citizens of the Upcountry and the Lowcountry and to discourage the youth from migrating to England for their higher education. At the time, South Carolina sent more young men to England; the leaders of South Carolina wished to monitor the development of the school. Columbia received its first charter as a town in 1805. An intendant and six wardens would govern the town. John Taylor, the first elected intendant served in both houses of the General Assembly, both houses of Congress, as governor. By 1816, there were a population of more than one thousand. Columbia became chartered with an elected mayor and six aldermen.
Two years Columbia had a police force consisting of a full-time chief and nine patrolmen. The city continued to grow at a rapid