1910 United States Census
The Thirteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau on April 15, 1910, determined the resident population of the United States to be 92,228,496, an increase of 21.0 percent over the 76,212,168 persons enumerated during the 1900 Census. The 1910 Census switched from a portrait page orientation to a landscape orientation; the 1910 census collected the following information: Full documentation for the 1910 census, including census forms and enumerator instructions, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. The column titles in the census form are as follows: LOCATION. Street, road, etc. House number. 1. Number of dwelling house in order of visitation. 2. Number of family in order of visitation. 3. NAME of each person whose place of abode on April 15, 1910, was in this family. Enter surname first the given name and middle initial, if any. Include every person living on April 15, 1910. Omit children born since April 15, 1910. RELATION. 4. Relationship of this person to the head of the family.
PERSONAL DESCRIPTION. 5. Sex. 6. Color or race. 7. Age at last birthday. 8. Whether single, widowed, or divorced. 9. Number of years of present marriage. 10. Mother of how many children: Number born. 11. Mother of how many children: Number now living. NATIVITY. Place of birth of each person and parents of each person enumerated. If born in the United States, give the state or territory. If of foreign birth, give the country. 12. Place of birth of this Person. 13. Place of birth of Father of this person. 14. Place of birth of Mother of this person. CITIZENSHIP. 15. Year of immigration to the United States. 16. Whether naturalized or alien. 17. Whether able to speak English. OCCUPATION. 18. Trade or profession of, or particular kind of work done by this person, as spinner, laborer, etc. 19. General nature of industry, business, or establishment in which this person works, as cotton mill, dry goods store, etc. 20. Whether as employer, employee, or work on own account. If an employee— 21. Whether out of work on April 15, 1910.
22. Number of weeks out of work during year 1909. EDUCATION. 23. Whether able to read. 24. Whether able to write. 25. Attended school any time since September 1, 1909. OWNERSHIP OF HOME. 26. Owned or rented. 27. Owned free or mortgaged. 28. Farm or house. 29. Number of farm schedule. 30. Whether a survivor of the Union or Confederate Army or Navy. 31. Whether blind. 32. Whether deaf and dumb. Special Notation In 1912 and 1959, New Mexico, Arizona and Hawaii would become the 47th, 48th, 49th and 50th states admitted to the Union; the 1910 population count for each of these areas was 327,301, 204,354, 64,356 and 191,909 respectively. On this basis, the ranking list above would be modified as follows: First 42 ranked states - positions unchanged New Mexico, Arizona, Hawaii, Wyoming and Alaska; the original census enumeration sheets were microfilmed by the Census Bureau in the 1940s. The microfilmed census is available in rolls from the National Records Administration. Several organizations host images of the microfilmed census online, along which digital indices.
Microdata from the 1910 census are available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. 1911 U. S Census Report Contains 1910 Census results Historic US Census data census.gov/population/www/censusdata/PopulationofStatesandCountiesoftheUnitedStates1790-1990.pdf
United States Census Bureau
The United States Census Bureau is a principal agency of the U. S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy; the Census Bureau is part of the U. S. Department of Commerce and its director is appointed by the President of the United States; the Census Bureau's primary mission is conducting the U. S. Census every ten years, which allocates the seats of the U. S. House of Representatives to the states based on their population; the Bureau's various censuses and surveys help allocate over $400 billion in federal funds every year and it helps states, local communities, businesses make informed decisions. The information provided by the census informs decisions on where to build and maintain schools, transportation infrastructure, police and fire departments. In addition to the decennial census, the Census Bureau continually conducts dozens of other censuses and surveys, including the American Community Survey, the U. S. Economic Census, the Current Population Survey.
Furthermore and foreign trade indicators released by the federal government contain data produced by the Census Bureau. Article One of the United States Constitution directs the population be enumerated at least once every ten years and the resulting counts used to set the number of members from each state in the House of Representatives and, by extension, in the Electoral College; the Census Bureau now conducts a full population count every 10 years in years ending with a zero and uses the term "decennial" to describe the operation. Between censuses, the Census Bureau makes population projections. In addition, Census data directly affects how more than $400 billion per year in federal and state funding is allocated to communities for neighborhood improvements, public health, education and more; the Census Bureau is mandated with fulfilling these obligations: the collecting of statistics about the nation, its people, economy. The Census Bureau's legal authority is codified in Title 13 of the United States Code.
The Census Bureau conducts surveys on behalf of various federal government and local government agencies on topics such as employment, health, consumer expenditures, housing. Within the bureau, these are known as "demographic surveys" and are conducted perpetually between and during decennial population counts; the Census Bureau conducts economic surveys of manufacturing, retail and other establishments and of domestic governments. Between 1790 and 1840, the census was taken by marshals of the judicial districts; the Census Act of 1840 established a central office. Several acts followed that revised and authorized new censuses at the 10-year intervals. In 1902, the temporary Census Office was moved under the Department of Interior, in 1903 it was renamed the Census Bureau under the new Department of Commerce and Labor; the department was intended to consolidate overlapping statistical agencies, but Census Bureau officials were hindered by their subordinate role in the department. An act in 1920 changed the date and authorized manufacturing censuses every two years and agriculture censuses every 10 years.
In 1929, a bill was passed mandating the House of Representatives be reapportioned based on the results of the 1930 Census. In 1954, various acts were codified into Title 13 of the US Code. By law, the Census Bureau must count everyone and submit state population totals to the U. S. President by December 31 of any year ending in a zero. States within the Union receive the results in the spring of the following year; the United States Census Bureau defines four statistical regions, with nine divisions. The Census Bureau regions are "widely used...for data collection and analysis". The Census Bureau definition is pervasive. Regional divisions used by the United States Census Bureau: Region 1: Northeast Division 1: New England Division 2: Mid-Atlantic Region 2: Midwest Division 3: East North Central Division 4: West North Central Region 3: South Division 5: South Atlantic Division 6: East South Central Division 7: West South Central Region 4: West Division 8: Mountain Division 9: Pacific Many federal, state and tribal governments use census data to: Decide the location of new housing and public facilities, Examine the demographic characteristics of communities and the US, Plan transportation systems and roadways, Determine quotas and creation of police and fire precincts, Create localized areas for elections, utilities, etc.
Gathers population information every 10 years The United States Census Bureau is committed to confidentiality, guarantees non-disclosure of any addresses or personal information related to individuals or establishments. Title 13 of the U. S. Code establishes penalties for the disclosure of this information. All Census employees must sign an affidavit of non-disclosure prior to employment; the Bureau cannot share responses, addresses or personal information with anyone including United States or foreign government
Early history of Williamsburg, South Carolina
This article discusses the early history of Williamsburg County, South Carolina Williamsburg, named after William of Orange, was one of eleven townships ordered by King George II in 1730 meant to develop the "back country" of the Carolina Province. The township was a part of Craven County, one of the original four counties that encompassed present South Carolina. Williamsburg Township included most of the present Pee Dee region; the township was located in front of the Black River. It was divided and became a number of separate counties, including present Williamsburg County, South Carolina. A white pine tree on the Black River was marked by early surveyor with the King's Arrow to claim it for the King; the tree was referred to as “The King’s Tree,” and became the center of the new township. Kingstree became the chief town of Williamsburg township. In 1732 a colony of forty Scots-Irish led by Roger Gordon came up the river by boat and settled in the vicinity of the King's Tree, they were poor Protestants.
They had settled there seeking a better life than in Scotland, before migrating to America. It was an exceedingly primitive life for the early settlers; the settlers tried to establish farmsteads in the territories of several American Indian peoples: the Wee Nee, Wee Tee, Creek and Pedee, but had few conflicts with them. At first there was considerable trade with the Indians, but their populations fell due to epidemics of new infectious diseases, to which they had no immunity. Hazards for the settlers included venomous snakes and wolves, which were common in the early years; the established church in the colony was Anglican, no churches or schools could be established without the consent of the Lord Bishop or his agent. The Scots-Irish had suffered persecution from the Church of England and settlers established a religious society, Presbyterian, although they did not use the name until later. In 1736 they called The Rev. John Willison from Scotland to be their minister, they built a meeting house.
Soon new daughter churches were established at Black Mingo. In 1780 John Witherspoon, a grandson of one of the early settlers, who were all deceased by wrote: "...they were servers of God, were well acquainted with the Scriptures, were much engaged in prayer, were strict observers of the Sabbath, in a word, they were a stock of people that studied outward piety as well as inward purity of life." They prospered. The wilderness abounded in deer, wild turkeys and muscadine grapes; as the colony grew, they established plantations. Wheat from Europe grew poorly. Flax was grown for cloth it was replaced by cotton; the cattle and hogs which they brought with them found abundant forage. About 1750 settlers adopted the newly introduced crop of indigo, many of the plantation owners became wealthy from it, they grew rice in modified wetlands along the river. A large naval store industry developed, followed by timbering; the latter has continued into modern times. In 1759 during the French and Indian War, the French enlisted the large Cherokee tribe as allies.
Though the Cherokee lived to the northwest of Williamsburg, they could threaten the entire colony. Two companies of volunteer militia were organized to fight for the English king. Together with other companies from coastal Carolina, a regiment was formed, which mustered and drilled at Kingstree, they built a stockade for the residents in case of Indian attack. When the American Revolution broke out, some of the young men joined the army and were sent for the defense of Charleston. After Charleston surrendered to the British in early 1780, the soldiers were paroled and returned home, expecting to remain neutral from on; the British established garrisons throughout South Carolina, including a fort at nearby Georgetown on the coast. In the upstate were a larger number of Tories, who joined the British forces; the Williamsburg Presbyterians were inclined to sit out the war, until the British made a tactical error. The colonial governor ordered; the people took this to be a unilateral violation of the terms of their parole.
They sent a local militia officer, to the fort at Georgetown for clarification. He was mistreated by the commander, Captain Ardesoif, on his return, James raised a militia of four companies, they were put under the command of French Huguenot descent. Marion was one of the most effective military officers of the Revolution, he had the complete loyalty of this militia, who served with no pay and no promise of pay, who provided their own weapons and horses, or secured them whenever they defeated the British. The only area of South Carolina, not occupied by the British was that of Williamsburg; the British tried to establish a garrison at Willtown, but Marion's men defeated and drove them off in the Battle of Mingo Creek. Marion not only won tactical victories against superior forces with small cost, but won a moral victory which turned the tide in the Revolution in South Carolina, he did this in two ways, first by holding a section of the colony that the British could not penetrate, which raised morale of Patriot forces elsewhere.
Secondly he gave residents receipts for horses, boats and food supplies that were commandeered, or were destroyed to keep from
1940 United States Census
The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7.3 percent over the 1930 population of 123,202,624 people. The census date of record was April 1, 1940. A number of new questions were asked including where people were 5 years before, highest educational grade achieved, information about wages; this census introduced sampling techniques. Other innovations included a field test of the census in 1939; this was the first census in which every state had a population greater than 100,000. The 1940 census collected the following information: In addition, a sample of individuals were asked additional questions covering age at first marriage and other topics. Full documentation on the 1940 census, including census forms and a procedural history, is available from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Following completion of the census, the original enumeration sheets were microfilmed; as required by Title 13 of the U.
S. Code, access to identifiable information from census records was restricted for 72 years. Non-personally identifiable information Microdata from the 1940 census is available through the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series. Aggregate data for small areas, together with electronic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. On April 2, 2012—72 years after the census was taken—microfilmed images of the 1940 census enumeration sheets were released to the public by the National Archives and Records Administration; the records are indexed only by enumeration district upon initial release. Official 1940 census website 1940 Census Records from the U. S. National Archives and Records Administration 1940 Federal Population Census Videos, training videos for enumerators at the U. S. National Archives Selected Historical Decennial Census Population and Housing Counts from the U. S. Census Bureau Snow, Michael S. "Why the huge interest in the 1940 Census?"
CNN. Monday April 9, 2012. 1941 U. S Census Report Contains 1940 Census results 1940 Census Questions Hosted at CensusFinder.com
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
Clarendon County, South Carolina
Clarendon County is a county located below the fall line in the Coastal Plain region of U. S. state of South Carolina. As of 2010, its population was 34,971, its county seat is Manning. This area was developed including textile mills. Clarendon County boasts one of the largest man-made lakes in the United States, Lake Marion, completed in 1941 as a New Deal project, it was planned as part of a national rural electrification initiative. Since the late 20th century, the dam's generation of hydroelectric power has stimulated economic development and industry in the region; the South Carolina state legislature established racial segregation of public facilities by state law in the late 19th century. During the Civil Rights Movement, Clarendon County was the site of the Briggs v. Elliott trial challenging segregation of public schools; this case was one of five combined with what came to be known as Brown v. Board of Education, under which the United States Supreme Court ruled in 1954 that racial segregation of public schools was unconstitutional.
Clarendon County was established in 1785, shortly after the American Revolutionary War, when the legislature divided Camden District into seven counties. One was Clarendon County, it was named after Edward Hyde, a Lord Proprietor and earl of Clarendon. During the American Revolutionary War, the Battle of Half Way Swamp was fought in December 1780; that was one of the many Revolutionary battles. Others in this area were the following battles: Richbourg’s Mill, Nelson’s Ferry, Fort Watson/Santee Indian Mound, Tearcoat; the Swamp Fox Murals Trail has been established as an historical landmark depicting the American Revolution and General Francis Marion, the "Swamp Fox". The first European settlers in Clarendon County were ethnic French Huguenots, who traveled by boat up the Santee River, their ancestors had earlier settled in Charleston after leaving France in the late 17th century to escape religious persecution. Transportation of goods by land was difficult, so canals were constructed to carry boat traffic around rapids in the river.
The first notable canal was the Santee Canal, constructed in 1793. But due to the development of the railroads in the mid-1800s and construction linking major markets, the canal was superseded and ended operations some years later. In 1798, the state legislature combined three counties - Clarendon and Salem - to form Sumter District for ease of administration. On December 19, 1855, a legislative act was passed establishing the Clarendon District, with the same boundaries as defined for the county in 1785. During the antebellum period, the county was developed as large plantations to cultivate commodity crops short-staple cotton, by the labor of enslaved African Americans. Cultivation of this crop was made profitable by development of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney, which made processing more labor-efficient. By the time of the Civil War, the population of the county was majority black. In 1855, Captain Joseph C. Burgess was selected to determine the geographical center of the county, the preferred location for the county seat, so that a courthouse village could be built.
The commissioners decided on the site. Manning was developed as the county seat. Captain Burgess deeded six acres to the state, providing sites for the courthouse and jail, in addition to streets 75-feet-wide on four sides. In 1865, toward the end of the American Civil War, a body of General Sherman's Union troops under command of General Potter raided Clarendon county, they destroyed a large portion of Manning, including the court house. The raid took place a few days before Gen. Robert E. Lee´s surrender at Appomattox; the county recovered from the Civil War due to its reliance on agriculture, which suffered a long depression. The State Constitution of 1868 renamed the districts as counties. Agriculture continued as the mainstay of the economy through much of the 19th century, planters had to adjust to a free labor economy, they relied on a system of African-American tenant farmers and sharecroppers. Lumber and related mills and industries became important, with towns developed along railroad lines in the aarea.
Following Reconstruction, white Democrats regained control of the state legislature, passing laws for segregation of public facilities, Jim Crow and a new constitution of 1895 that disfranchised most blacks in the state. This exclusion from the political system was not ended until after decades of activism by African Americans, who gained passage of federal civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s to enforce their constitutional rights. In November 1941, Lake Marion was created as a reservoir by construction of the Santee Dam by the United States Corps of Engineers; the dam was built across the Santee River to generate hydroelectric power for rural electrification, one of the major infrastructure projects initiated under President Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal federal investments during the Great Depression. Lake Marion and the Santee Dam were part of the Santee-Cooper Navigation Project. Two notable court cases in Clarendon County in the mid-20th century were part of challenges by the Civil Rights Movement to racial segregation of public facilities.
This was concluded in law by the United States Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education, which declared that separate but equal schools were unconstitutional; the court learned that the separate school were underfunded in most Southern states and equal. These cases were Levi Pearson v. Clarendon County Board of Education, Briggs v. Elliott. Clarendon
Georgetown County, South Carolina
Georgetown County is a county located in the U. S. state of South Carolina. As of the 2010 census, the population was 60,158, its county seat is Georgetown. The county was founded in 1769, it is named for George III of the United Kingdom. Georgetown County comprises the Georgetown, SC Micropolitan Statistical Area, included in the Myrtle Beach-Conway, SC-NC Combined Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,035 square miles, of which 814 square miles is land and 221 square miles is water. Georgetown County has several rivers, including the Great Pee Dee River, the Waccamaw River, Black River, Sampit River, all of which flow into Winyah Bay; the Santee River, which forms the southern boundary of the county, empties directly into the Atlantic. The Intracoastal Waterway crosses Winyah Bay; the rivers and the bay have had a decisive effect on human development of the area as the city of Georgetown has an excellent seaport and harbor. Georgetown County is a diverse county with four distinct areas: 1.
The Atlantic coastline called Waccamaw Neck, including the communities of Murrells Inlet, Pawleys Island and DeBordieu, is part of "The Grand Strand", which includes Myrtle Beach to the north. The Georgetown County part of the Grand Strand used to be rural, but is exploding with development today. Condos line the shoreline at Litchfield, many of the old cottages at Pawleys are being demolished for larger houses. DeBordieu is a gated community. Empty beachfront has disappeared and wild areas are vanishing. A few wilder areas are being saved, as these provide critical habitat as part of the Atlantic Flyway for migratory birds. Huntington Beach State Park preserves some of the coastline and coastal marshes in the northern section, with nearby Brookgreen Gardens preserving a historical rice plantation and some forest. Brookgreen Gardens, with a nature center and many outdoor sculptures, is a popular tourist spot; the University of South Carolina and Clemson University maintain the Belle W. Baruch research site at Hobcaw Barony on Waccamaw Neck.
The islands around the outlet of Winyah Bay are designated as the "Tom Yawkey Wildlife Center Heritage Preserve". This area is home to the northernmost occurring hammocks of South Carolina's signature sabal palmetto tree. 2. The riverfronts have had little recent development; such properties were once used for rice plantations. After the Civil War, the loss of slave labor, the plantations ceased production. Today they are wild areas, accessible only by boat. In some areas, the earthworks, such as dikes and water gates used for rice culture, still exist, as well as a few of the plantation houses. Litchfield Plantation has been redeveloped as a country inn. Great blue herons, an occasional bald eagle can be seen along the waterways. Fishing is a popular activity. A tiny community accessible only by boat is in the Pee Dee River. Residents are descendants of slaves who worked plantations on the island, they are trying to keep out development; the Federal government began buying land along the rivers for the new Waccamaw Wildlife Refuge, intended to protect such wild areas.
The headquarters of the refuge will be at Yauhannah in the northern part of the county. 3. Georgetown is a small historic city founded in colonial times, it is a port for shrimp boats. Yachting "snowbirds" are seen at the docks in spring and fall. 4. The inland rural areas are thinly populated; some upland areas are good for forestry. Several Carolina bays are thought to be craters from a meteor shower; these areas are rich in biodiversity. Carvers Bay, the largest, was extensively damaged by use as a practice bombing range by US military forces during World War II. Draining of the bay has further damaged its environment. Horry County - northeast Marion County - north Williamsburg County - northwest Berkeley County - west Charleston County - southwest Waccamaw National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 55,797 people, 21,659 households, 15,854 families residing in the county; the population density was 68 people per square mile. There were 28,282 housing units at an average density of 35 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 59.69% White, 38.61% Black or African American, 0.14% Native American, 0.23% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.81% from other races, 0.49% from two or more races. 1.65% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 21,659 households out of which 30.20% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.10% were married couples living together, 15.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.80% were non-families. 23.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.01. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.20% under the age of 18, 7.70% from 18 to 24, 25.90% from 25 to 44, 26.20% from 45 to 64, 15.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $35,312, the median income for a family was $41,554.
Males had a median income of $31,110 versus $20,910 for females. The per capita income for the county was $19,805. About 13.40% of families and 17.10% of the popula