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Williamson County, Tennessee

Williamson County is a county in the U. S. state of Tennessee. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 183,182; the county seat is Franklin. The county is named after Hugh Williamson, a North Carolina politician who signed the U. S. Constitution. Adjusted for relative cost of living, Williamson County is one of the wealthiest counties in the United States. Williamson County is part of the Nashville-Davidson - Murfreesboro - Franklin, TN Metropolitan Statistical Area; the Tennessee General Assembly created Williamson County on October 26, 1799, from a portion of Davidson County. This territory had long been inhabited by at least five Native American cultures, including tribes of Cherokee, Choctaw and Shawnee, it is home to two Mississippian-period mound complexes, the Fewkes site and the Old Town site, built by a culture that preceded such historic tribes. European-American settlers arrived in the area after the Revolutionary War. Fur traders had preceded them. Scots traders had families with them.

Both sides thought. Most of the settlers were migrants from Virginia and North Carolina, part of a western movement after the American Revolutionary War. Others came after a generation in Kentucky. In 1800, Abram Maury laid out Franklin, the county seat, carved out of part of a land grant he had purchased from Major Anthony Sharp. "The county was named in honor of Dr. Hugh Williamson of North Carolina, a colonel in the North Carolina militia and served three terms in the Continental Congress."Many of the county's early inhabitants were veterans, paid in land grants after the Revolutionary War. Many veterans chose not to settle in the area and sold large sections of their land grants to speculators; these in turn sold off smaller lots. In the antebellum years, the county was the second-wealthiest in the state; as part of the Middle Tennessee region, it had resources of rich soil, which planters developed with slaves for a diversity of crops including rye, oats, hemp, wheat, peas and hay. This diversity, plus timber resources, helped create a stable economy, as opposed to reliance on one cash crop.

Slavery was an integral part of the local economy. By 1850, planters and smaller slaveholders in the county held 13,000 enslaved African Americans, who made up nearly half the population of more than 27,000. Williamson County was affected by the war. Three battles were fought in the county: the Battle of Brentwood, the Battle of Thompson's Station, the Battle of Franklin, which had some of the highest fatalities of the war; the large plantations that were part of the county's economic foundation were ravaged, many of the county's youth were killed. Many Confederate casualties of the Battle of Franklin were buried in the McGavock Confederate Cemetery near the Carnton plantation house. Containing the bodies of 1,481 soldiers, it is the largest private Confederate cemetery in America; the county continued to be rural into the early 1900s. "Most residents were farmers who raised corn, wheat and livestock."In the post-Reconstruction era and the early 20th century, white violence against African Americans increased in an effort to assert dominance.

Five African Americans were lynched by white mobs in Williamson County. Among them was Amos Miller, a 23-year-old black man taken from the courtroom during his 1888 trial as a suspect in a sexual assault case, hanged from the balcony of the county courthouse; the sexual assault victim was a 50 year old woman. In 1924, 15-year-old Samuel Smith was lynched in Nolensville for shooting and wounding a white grocer, he was brought back to the town to be murdered. He was the last recorded lynching victim in the Nashville area. Numerous blacks left Williamson County from 1880 through 1950 as part of the Great Migration to industrial cities in the North and Midwest for work and to escape Jim Crow oppression and violence. County population did not surpass its 1880 level until 1970, when it began to develop suburban housing in response to growth in Nashville. One of the first major manufacturers to establish operations in the county was the Dortch Stove works, which opened a factory in Franklin; the factory was developed as a Magic Chef factory, producing electric and gas ranges.

When the factory was closed due to extensive restructuring in the industry, the structure fell into disuse. The factory complex was restored in the late 1990s in an adaptation for offices, restaurants and event spaces, it is considered a "model historic preservation adaptive reuse project."The completion of the Interstate Highway System contributed to Nashville's rapid expansion in the mid-20th century, stimulating tremendous population growth in Williamson County. As residential suburban population has increased, the rural county has invested in infrastructure and schools, its character is changing. Between 1990 and 2000, the county's population increased 56.3 percent in the northern part, including Franklin and Brentwood. As of census estimates in 2012, Franklin has more than 66,000 residents, is the eighth-largest city in the state, its residents are affluent, with a high median income. The southern part of the county is still rural and used for agriculture. Spring Hill is a growing city in this area.

In addition, Williamson County's overall affluence is attributed to the sheer number of country musicians and other celebrities that have part-time or full time residences throughout the county. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the count

Hein Kever

Jacob Simon Hendrik Kever, known as Hein was a Dutch genre and still-life painter. He was born into a wealthy family, he showed little ability for practical pursuits, but his mother was a good friend of Jozef Israëls and was able to obtain him positions in the workshops of some well-known lithographers, notably Petrus Franciscus Greive. After Greive's death in 1872, he studied with his nephew, Johan Conrad Greive set himself up as an independent painter in Eemnes, where he worked en plein aire, he sometimes painted interiors without figures. In 1878, he took a course at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Antwerp with Charles Verlat, he settled in Blaricum, but kept a small apartment in Oosterpark, where he spent the winters. Except for short periods in Nunspeet and Brabant, he travelled little. In 1887, he was married and bought a house in Laren, near the "Villa Ariette" of Anton Mauve, who he admired; when Mauve came to visit, he would hide what he was working on, claiming that it had been sold and shipped, because he was afraid that Mauve would not like it.

He is considered to be a member of the Laren School. Although known for simple, peasant interiors, he did landscapes and portraits, his canvases brightened up in life, when he appears to have become more confident of success. A street in Laren is named after him. Carole Denninger-Schreuder: Schilders van Laren, Bussum, 2003. ISBN 978-90-686-8327-1 C. W. H. Verster: "J. S. H. Kever", Elsevier's Geïllustreerd Maandschrift, vol.22, #43, 1912. ArtNet: More works by Kever

Lac à la Chute

Lac à la Chute is a freshwater body on the hydrographic side of rivière à la Chute, located in the unorganized territory of Lac-Jacques-Cartier, in the MRC La Côte-de-Beaupré Regional County Municipality, in administrative region of Capitale-Nationale, in province of Quebec, in Canada. Lac à la Chute is located in Jacques-Cartier National Park, its southern half is located in the canton of Cauchon. The Lac à la Chute watershed is served on the east side by the route 175 which links the cities of Quebec and Saguenay. A few secondary roads serve this area for forestry and recreational tourism activities. Forestry is the main economic activity in the sector; the surface of Lac de la Chute is frozen from the beginning of December to the end of March. Lac à la Chute has a length of 3.3 kilometres, a width of 0.7 kilometres and its surface is at an altitude of 653 metres. This lake sunk between the mountains is made in length, resembling a woolen sock whose part of the toes is oriented towards the northeast.

The course of the Sautauriski River is located at 2.9 kilometres on the east side of the lake. From the mouth of Lac à la Chute, the current goes consecutively first to the outlet of the lake over 4.8 kilometres towards the southwest in a deep valley. The lake has an area of 1.4 square kilometres. It is the second largest of the 216 bodies of water in Jacques-Cartier National Park; the toponym "lac à la Chute" is directly linked to the rivière à la Chute into which the outlet of the lake flows. This denomination appears on cartographic documents at least since the end of the XIXth century, in particular - in the form "L. at the Fall" - on the map of "Parc National des Laurentides" dating from April 30, 1896. The toponym lac de la chute was formalized on December 5, 1968 by the Commission de toponymie du Québec. Jacques-Cartier National Park La Côte-de-Beaupré Regional County Municipality Lac-Jacques-Cartier, an unorganized territory Rivière à la Chute Sautauriski River Jacques-Cartier River List of lakes of Canada Corporation du bassin de la Jacques-Cartier.

Plan directeur de l'eau de la zone de gestion intégrée de l'eau de la Jacques-Cartier. P. 391.. Jacques-Cartier National Park web site

Journey to Mars

Journey to Mars the Wonderful World: Its Beauty and Splendor. The book has attracted increased contemporary attention as a precedent and possible source for the famous Barsoom novels of Edgar Rice Burroughs. A sequel, Journey to Venus, followed in 1895. Pope's novel is the story of a Lt. Frederick Hamilton, USN. On a voyage to Antarctica, his ship is wrecked. Though near the end of his endurance, Hamilton rescues a strange-looking man before he loses consciousness, he awakens three weeks aboard a spaceship traveling to Mars. On Pope's Mars there are three human-like races: red and blue Martians, they have attained a sophisticated technology while preserving a feudal society, much as in Burroughs's books. The Martians travel in anti-gravity aircraft. Pope provides a Martian magician, telepathic, invokes spirits, reads the hero's future. Hamilton has various adventures, including a romance with the yellow-complexioned Princess Suhlamia; the Martians need to relocate from their world because of impending planetary catastrophe: meteors bombard the planet, the moons Phobos and Deimos threaten to crash to the surface.

Hamilton returns to Earth to try to find space for them. A Martian revolution disrupts his plans, however. Gustavus W. Pope was a physician based in Washington DC, who wrote several books on a range of subjects. Pope followed his Journey to Mars with Journey to Venus the Primeval World. Journey to Mars has been reprinted in two modern editions, from Hyperion Press in 1974 and from Wildside Press in 2008; the Hyperion edition features an Introduction by Sam Moskowitz. Free downloadable PDF copy, hosted by Toronto Public Library

Russian cruiser Novik

Novík was a protected cruiser in the Imperial Russian Navy, built by Schichau shipyards in Elbing near Danzig, Germany. Novik was ordered as a part of a program to bolster the Russian Pacific Fleet with a 3000-ton class reconnaissance cruiser. Shipbuilders from several countries offered designs, the German shipbuilders Schichau-Werke, better known for its torpedo boats was selected; the new cruiser was launched on 2 August 1900 and her trials began on 2 May 1901. Some initial vibration problems were experienced with her screws, but testing was completed on 23 April 1902 with five test runs at an average speed of 25.08 knots. This made Novik one of the fastest cruisers in the world at the time, which so impressed the Russian naval leadership that a near copy was made in the Russian Izumrud class. On 15 May 1902, Novik was assigned to the Russian naval base at Kronstadt. On 14 September 1902, Novik departed Kronstadt for the Pacific, via the Kiel Canal, stopping at Brest, Cadiz and Piraeus, where she rendezvoused with the battleship Imperator Nikolai I.

She departed Greece for Port Said on 11 December, but was forced to turn back due to severe weather, only transiting the Suez Canal on 20–21 December. Afterwards, she called on Jeddah, Aden and Sabang, reaching Singapore on 28 February 1903, Manila and arriving at Port Arthur on 2 April 1903, she was assigned to accompany the cruiser Askold to Japan from 26–29 May 1903 on a diplomatic mission, conveying Russian Minister of War Aleksey Kuropatkin to Kobe and Nagasaki, returning to Port Arthur from 12–13 June. She was sent to Vladivostok over overhaul and dry-dock inspection from 23 July; as with other ships in the Pacific Fleet, she received. She returned to Port Arthur in early September. Novik suffered minor damage from an 8-inch shell, after she single-handedly pursued the attacking Japanese destroyers for nearly 30 miles on 9 February 1904, during the Battle of Port Arthur. Novik's commander, Captain Nikolai von Essen was one of the few ships in the Russian fleet to offer combat, the only one to pursue the enemy, closing to within 3,000 yards of the Japanese squadron to deliver a torpedo, without effect.

Novik's damage required nine days to repair. On 10 March 1904, Admiral Makarov sortied in Novik as his flagship, from Port Arthur, along with the cruiser Bayan to rescue one his destroyers in hot combat with a Japanese destroyer, just outside of shore battery range. After three attempts, withdrawing each time to within shore battery protection, coupled with the arrival of Japanese Armored Cruisers, the Russian destroyer sank, Makarov and Novik returned to Port Arthur. On 13 April 1904, a similar incident occurred, the Torpedo Boat Destroyer Strashni was fighting Japanese Torpedo Boat Destroyers, was in sinking condition, when the Russian cruiser Bayan showed up, which caused the enemy destroyers to leave the area, but the Bayan knew that the retreating Japanese destroyers were headed to their own Armored Cruisers. Bayan picked up some survivors just outside of Port Arthur met with Admiral Makarov aboard his flagship Petropavlovsk, along with cruisers the Novik, Askold and the battleship Poltova just coming out of Port Arthur.

Several minutes the flagship struck three mines just outside the entrance to Port Arthur, sank with great loss of life. The fleet returned to the safe confines of Port Arthur. On 23 June, Novik was again part of an unsuccessful attempted sortie from Port Arthur, this time under Makarov's successor, Admiral Wilgelm Vitgeft. On 10 August, the Russian fleet once more attempted to run the Japanese blockade of Port Arthur. In the resulting Battle of the Yellow Sea, most of the Russian ships returned to port but several managed to escape to be interned in various neutral ports. Novik was damaged by three hits and two crewmen were killed. Novik reached the neutral German port of Tsingtao. Novik was pursued by the Japanese cruiser Tsushima, joined by Chitose. Spotted by a Japanese transport ship while coaling at Sakhalin, Novik was trapped in Aniva Bay, forced into the battle of Korsakov by Tsushima. Realizing that he was hopelessly outgunned and after sustaining five hits, three of them under the water line, von Schultz ordered Novik scuttled, intending to make salvage impossible.

The Imperial Japanese Navy had been impressed with the speed of Novik, despite the considerable damage inflicted during the Battle of Korsakov, sent an engineering crew to salvage the vessel as a prize of war in August 1905. The operation took a year to accomplish; the wreck was repaired at the Yokosuka Naval Arsenal, commissioned in the Imperial Japanese Navy as Suzuya on 20 August 1906. Her new name came from the Suzuya River near where Novik was captured. During the repair work, her original boilers were replaced by eight Miyabara boilers, her three smokestacks were reduced to two, her lateral engines were removed and power output was reduced to 6,000HP. Suzuya's bow and stern main guns were replaced with 120-mm guns and her four 120-mm guns amidships were replaced by 76-mm guns, she retained her six 47mm Hotchkiss guns and two 37mm guns. All repairs were complete by December 1908, she was designated as an aviso rather than as a cruiser. Indeed, she served with the IJN for high speed reconnaissance and as a dispatch vessel.

Brandywine School

The Brandywine School was a style of illustration—as well as an artists colony in Wilmington, Delaware and in Chadds Ford, near the Brandywine River—both founded by artist Howard Pyle at the end of the 19th century. The works produced there were published in adventure novels and romances in the early 20th century. Pyle, one of the foremost illustrators in the United States at the time, began teaching art classes at Drexel University in 1895. However, he was dissatisfied with the confines of formal art education, beginning in 1898, he began teaching students during the summers at the Turner Mill in Chadds Ford; the mill, alongside the Brandywine, provided views of a scenic landscape to inspire the artists. In 1900, Pyle opened his own school attached to his personal art studio. Pyle created this school so that he might train a generation of illustrators who were artistically and financially successful, he hoped that through this, he would foster an American style of painting, something he felt the country lacked.

In order to develop that intrinsically American style, Pyle believed that his students must spend time outdoors, taking in the scenery and the history of their country. To help facilitate this, Pyle brought his students to Chadds Ford, where he would tell his students stories about the area’s revolutionary history while they painted landscapes. Pyle advocated against studying in Europe, hoping that his students would find fame and success through an American education; the school and studio, which are still standing, are located a short walk from the Brandywine Park, a stretch of riverside park designed by Frederick Law Olmsted. Of the 500 students who applied to attend Pyle's school in its first year, only twelve were accepted, it was through the absorption of Pyle's particular style and teaching that the tradition known as the "Brandywine School" emerged. Pyle continued to operate the school until 1910, during which time he was mentor to such successful artists as N. C. Wyeth, Frank E. Schoonover, Stanley M. Arthurs, William James Aylward, Thornton Oakley, Violet Oakley, Clifford Ashley, Anna Whelan Betts, Ethel Franklin Betts, Ellen Bernard Thompson Pyle, Jessie Willcox Smith, Olive Rush, Blanche Grant, Philip R. Goodwin, Allen Tupper True, Harvey Dunn.

In all, 75 artists were trained by Pyle during the ten years. The Brandywine School continued on in Pyle's students after his death in 1911. Several of his students, inspired by Pyle's example, taught the next generation of the school's students. In 1905, Wilmington philanthropist Samuel Bancroft constructed a set of buildings to house and provide studios for four of Pyle's most successful students: Wyeth, Schoonover and Ashley. Schoonover remained in his studio for the next 63 years, in 1942 he used it to open his own school, where he taught artists such as Ellen du Pont Wheelwright. After Pyle's death, Arthurs purchased the Pyle studio and continued the school from 1912 to 1950. Wyeth stayed in his Wilmington studio for a time before moving to Chadds Ford, where he taught his own children, including artist Andrew Wyeth; the style was a source of inspiration for, used extensively by Disney previsualization artists for the animated film, Treasure Planet. Brandywine River Museum Delaware Art Museum