American Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War known as the American War of Independence, was an 18th-century war between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia in Concord led to open combat on April 19, 1775.
Militia forces besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, the Americans failed decisively in an attempt to invade Quebec and raise insurrection against the British. On July 2, 1776, the Second Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States.
In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis Cowpens, he retreated to Yorktown, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in America, but the war continued overseas. Britain scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war.
French involvement had proven decisive. Spain failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar; the Dutch were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes. Parliament passed the Stamp Act in 1765 to pay for British military troops stationed in the American colonies after the French and Indian War. Parliament had passed legislation to regulate trade, but the Stamp Act introduced a new principle of a direct internal tax. Americans began to question the extent of the British Parliament's power in America, the colonial legislatures argued that they had exclusive right to impose taxes within their jurisdictions. Colonists condemned the tax because their rights as Englishmen protected them from being taxed by a Parliament in which they had no elected representatives. Parliament argued that the colonies were "represented virtually", an idea, criticized throughout the Empire. Parliament did repeal the act in 1766, but it affirmed its right to pass laws that were binding on the colonies.
From 1767, Parliament began passing legislation to raise revenue for the salaries of civil officials, ensuring their loyalty while inadvertently increasing resentment among the colonists, opposition soon became widespread. Enforcing the acts proved difficult; the seizure of the sloop Liberty in 1768 on suspicions of smuggling triggered a riot. In response, British troops occupied Boston, Parliament threatened to extradite colonists to face trial in England. Tensions rose after the murder of Christopher Seider by a customs official in 1770 and escalated into outrage after British troops fired on civilians in the Boston Massacre. In 1772, colonists in Rhode Island burned a customs schooner. Parliament repealed all taxes except the one on tea, passing the Tea Act in 1773, attempting to force colonists to buy East India Company tea on which the Townshend duties were paid, thus implicitly agreeing to Parliamentary supremacy; the landing of the tea was resisted in all colonies, but the governor of Massachusetts permitted British tea ships to remain in Boston Harbor, so the Sons of Liberty destroyed the tea chests in what became known as the "Boston Tea Party".
Parliament passed punitive legislation. It closed Boston Harbor until the tea was paid for and revoked the Massachusetts Charter, taking upon themselves the right to directly appoint the Massachusetts Governor's Council. Additionally, t
North Carolina is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west, Virginia to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east. North Carolina is the 28th-most extensive and the 9th-most populous of the U. S. states. The state is divided into 100 counties; the capital is Raleigh, which along with Durham and Chapel Hill is home to the largest research park in the United States. The most populous municipality is Charlotte, the second-largest banking center in the United States after New York City; the state has a wide range of elevations, from sea level on the coast to 6,684 feet at Mount Mitchell, the highest point in North America east of the Mississippi River. The climate of the coastal plains is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the state falls in the humid subtropical climate zone. More than 300 miles from the coast, the western, mountainous part of the state has a subtropical highland climate. Woodland-culture Native Americans were in the area around 1000 BCE.
During this time, important buildings were constructed as flat-topped buildings. By 1550, many groups of American Indians lived in present-day North Carolina, including Chowanoke, Pamlico, Coree, Cape Fear Indians, Waxhaw and Catawba. Juan Pardo explored the area in 1566–1567, establishing Fort San Juan in 1567 at the site of the Native American community of Joara, a Mississippian culture regional chiefdom in the western interior, near the present-day city of Morganton; the fort lasted only 18 months. A expedition by Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe followed in 1584, at the direction of Sir Walter Raleigh. In June 1718, the pirate Blackbeard ran his flagship, the Queen Anne's Revenge, aground at Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina, in present-day Carteret County. After the grounding her crew and supplies were transferred to smaller ships. In November, after appealing to the governor of North Carolina, who promised safe-haven and a pardon, Blackbeard was killed in an ambush by troops from Virginia.
In 1996 Intersal, Inc. a private firm, discovered the remains of a vessel to be the Queen Anne's Revenge, added to the US National Register of Historic Places. North Carolina became one of the English Thirteen Colonies and with the territory of South Carolina was known as the Province of North-Carolina; the northern and southern parts of the original province separated in 1729. Settled by small farmers, sometimes having a few slaves, who were oriented toward subsistence agriculture, the colony lacked cities or towns. Pirates menaced the coastal settlements. Growth was strong in the middle of the 18th century, as the economy attracted Scots-Irish, Quaker and German immigrants. A majority of the colonists supported the American Revolution, a smaller number of Loyalists than in some other colonies such as Georgia, South Carolina, New York. During colonial times, Edenton served as the state capital beginning in 1722, New Bern was selected as the capital in 1766. Construction of Tryon Palace, which served as the residence and offices of the provincial governor William Tryon, began in 1767 and was completed in 1771.
In 1788 Raleigh was chosen as the site of the new capital, as its central location protected it from coastal attacks. Established in 1792 as both county seat and state capital, the city was named after Sir Walter Raleigh, sponsor of Roanoke, the "lost colony" on Roanoke Island; the population of the colony more than quadrupled from 52,000 in 1740 to 270,000 in 1780 from high immigration from Virginia and Pennsylvania plus immigrants from abroad. North Carolina made the smallest per-capita contribution to the war of any state, as only 7,800 men joined the Continental Army under General George Washington. There was some military action in 1780–81. Many Carolinian frontiersmen had moved west over the mountains, into the Washington District, but in 1789, following the Revolution, the state was persuaded to relinquish its claim to the western lands, it ceded them to the national government so that the Northwest Territory could be organized and managed nationally. After 1800, cotton and tobacco became important export crops.
The eastern half of the state the Tidewater region, developed a slave society based on a plantation system and slave labor. Many free people of color migrated to the frontier along with their European-American neighbors, where the social system was looser. By 1810, nearly 3 percent of the free population consisted of free people of color, who numbered more than 10,000; the western areas were dominated by white families Scots-Irish, who operated small subsistence farms. In the early national period, the state became a center of Jeffersonian and Jacksonian democracy, with a strong Whig presence in the West. After Nat Turner's slave uprising in 1831, North Carolina and other southern states reduced the rights of free blacks. In 1835 the legislature withdrew their right to vote. On May 20, 1861, North Carolina was the last of the Confederate states to declare secession from the Union, 13 days after the Tennessee legislature voted for secession; some 125,000 North Carolinians served in the military.
The Chickasaw are an indigenous people of the Southeastern Woodlands. Their traditional territory was in the Southeastern United States of Mississippi and Tennessee, they are federally recognized as the Chickasaw Nation. Sometime prior to the first European contact, the Chickasaw migrated from western regions and moved east of the Mississippi River, where they settled in present-day northeast Mississippi and into Lawrence County, Tennessee; that is where they encountered European explorers and traders, having relationships with French and Spanish during the colonial years. The United States considered the Chickasaw one of the Five Civilized Tribes, as they adopted numerous practices of European Americans. Resisting European-American settlers encroaching on their territory, they were forced by the US to sell their country in the 1832 Treaty of Pontotoc Creek and move to Indian Territory during the era of Indian Removal in the 1830s. Most Chickasaw now live in Oklahoma; the Chickasaw Nation in Oklahoma is the 13th largest federally recognized tribe in the United States.
Its members share a common history with them. The Chickasaw are divided in two groups: the Intcutwalipa, they traditionally followed a system of matrilineal descent, in which children were considered to be part of the mother's clan, whence they gained their status. Some property was controlled by women, hereditary leadership in the tribe passed through the maternal line; the name Chickasaw, as noted by anthropologist John Swanton, belonged to a Chickasaw leader. Chickasaw is the English spelling of Chikashsha, meaning "rebel" or "comes from Chicsa". A documented prior source was when the Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto named them as "Chicaza" when De Soto's expedition came into contact with them in 1540 as the first Europeans that explored the North American south east; the origin of the Chickasaw is uncertain. Twentieth-century scholars, such as the archaeologist Patricia Galloway, theorize that the Chickasaw and Choctaw split into as distinct peoples in the 17th century from the remains of Plaquemine culture and other groups whose ancestors had lived in the Lower Mississippi Valley for thousands of years.
When Europeans first encountered them, the Chickasaw were living in villages in what is now Northeastern Mississippi. The Chickasaw migrated into Mississippi, their oral history says they migrated along with the Choctaw from west of the Mississippi River into present-day Mississippi in prehistoric times. The Mississippian Ideological Interaction Sphere spanned the Eastern Woodlands; the Mississippian cultures emerged from previous moundbuilding societies by 880 CE. They built complex, dense villages supporting a stratified society, with centers throughout the Mississippi and Ohio River Valleys and their tributaries. In the 15th century, proto-Chickasaw people left the Tombigbee Valley after the collapse of the Moundville chiefdom and settled into the upper Yazoo and Pearl River valleys in Mississippi. Historians Arrell Gibson and anthropology John R. Swanton believed the Chickasaw Old Fields were in Madison County, Alabama; these people are the only nation from whom I could learn any idea of a traditional account of a first origin.
Another version of the Chickasaw creation story is that they arose at Nanih Waiya, a great earthwork mound built about 300 CE by Woodland peoples. It is sacred to the Choctaw, who have a similar story about it; the mound was built about 1400 years before the coalescence of each of these peoples as ethnic groups. The first European contact with the Chickasaw ancestors was in 1540 when the Spanish explorer Hernando De Soto encountered them and stayed in one of their towns, most near present-day Tupelo, Mississippi. After various disagreements, the American Indians attacked the De Soto expedition in a nighttime raid, nearly destroying it; the Spanish moved on quickly. The Chickasaw began to trade with the British after the colony of Carolina was founded in 1670. With British-supplied guns, the Chickasaw raided their neighbors and enemies the Choctaw, capturing some members and selling them into Indian slavery to the British; when the Choctaw acquired guns from the French, power between the tribes became more equalized and the slave raids stopped.
Allied with the British, the Chickasaw were at war with the French and the Choctaw in the 18th century, such as in the Battle of Ackia on May 26, 1736. Skirmishes continued until France ceded its claims to the region east of the Mississippi River after being defeated by the British in the Seven Years' War. Following the American Revolutionary War, in 1793-94, Chickasaw fought as allies of the new United States under General Anthony Wayne against the Indians of the old Northwest Territory; the Shawnee and other, allied Northwest Indians were defeated in the Battle of Fallen Timbers on August 20, 1794. The 19th-century historian Horatio Cushman wrote, "Neither the Choctaws nor Chicksaws engaged in war against the American people, but always stood as their faithful allies." Cushman believed the Chickasaw, along with the Choctaw, may have had origins in present-day Mexico and migrated north. That theory does not have consensus. In 1797, a general appraisal of the tribe and its territorial bounds was made by Abraham B
Spring Hill, Tennessee
Spring Hill is a city in Maury and Williamson counties, located 30 miles south of Nashville. Spring Hill's population as of 2018 was 40,436; the first settlers of Spring Hill arrived in 1808 and the city was established in 1809. Albert Russell was the first person to build a home on the land. Spring Hill was the site of a Civil War battle, now known as the Battle of Spring Hill, on November 29, 1864. Spring Hill was the home of a preparatory school and Hughes Military Academy, the campus of which now serves as the main campus of Tennessee Children's Home, a ministry associated with the Churches of Christ. Spring Hill is located at 35°45′9″N 86°54′50″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 17.7 square miles, of which 17.7 square miles is land and 0.04 square mile is water. The official main street of Spring Hill is called US Highway 31, Columbia Pike or Nashville Highway; as of the 2000 census, there were 7,715 people, 2,634 households and 2,159 families residing in the city.
The population density was 435.6 people per square mile. There were 2,819 housing units at an average density of 159.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.33% White, 7.80% African American, 0.32% Native American, 0.49% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 1.81% from other races and 1.17% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.98% of the population. There were 2,634 households out of which 50.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 72.3% were married couples living together, 6.9% had a female householder with no husband present and 18.0% were non-families. 14.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.90 and the average family size was 3.24. In the city, the population was spread out with 32.8% under the age of 18, 6.4% from 18 to 24, 42.0% from 25 to 44, 15.2% from 45 to 64 and 3.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.2 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $60,872 and the median income for a family was $62,643. Males had a median income of $50,819 versus $29,821 for females; the per capita income for the city was $21,688. About 3.1% of families and 4.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 5.0% of those under age 18 and 8.3% of those age 65 or over. The population was 7,715 at the 2000 census. Rapid growth has taken place in recent years with a population of 23,462 in 2007 and a 2010 census population of 29,036 and a population of 31,140 in 2012. In 2018, Spring Hill hit 40,000 residents. In November, 2015, the Spring Hill Board of Mayor and Aldermen approved the ‘Spring Hill Rising: 2040’ comprehensive plan; the plan outlines ways to accomplish that vision. In 2016, the city hired Chicago-based planning and zoning consultant, Camiros Ltd, to oversee the creation of a new zoning code to implement the vision described in ‘Spring Hill Rising: 2040’.
The resulting'Spring Hill Unified Development Code', updates the previous code created in 1987. The number of building permits issued has climbed since a sharp decline that started in 2007 and hit a low in 2009. In 2017, permits were issued at a rate of 2.2 per day totaling 812 for the year. 2018 is on pace to match the previous year. Spring Hill was the site of the Saturn Corporation production facility, which operated from 1990 to 2007; the Saturn S-Series, Saturn ION, Saturn VUE were produced there. In 2007, General Motors Corporation, the parent company of Saturn, shut down the facility to retool it for production of other GM vehicles and renamed it Spring Hill Manufacturing; the plant became the assembly point for the new Chevrolet Traverse. However, after a battle among plants in Spring Hill, Orion Township and Janesville, Wisconsin, GM announced on June 26, 2009 that they had chosen to build a new small car in Orion Township. Nearly 2,500 Spring Hill auto workers were faced with buy-out and early retirement.
The vehicle assembly part of the Spring Hill plant was idled in late 2009 when production of the Traverse was moved to Lansing, while production of power trains and metal stamping continued. In November 2011, GM announced plans for retooling of the vehicle assembly portion of the plant for use as an "ultra-flexible" plant which will be used to build the Chevy Equinox and GMC Terrain but will be designed for rapid retooling to other vehicles of similar size. Spring Hill has gone through rapid development and growth in recent years, causing General Motors to reopen their auto plant and begin hiring locally again, which will hire 1,000 new people. In Addition to this, companies such as Ryder and Goodwill have announced new facilities in the Spring Hill area. Mars, Inc. has opened a facility in nearby Thompson's Station, TN. Rippavilla Plantation, located at 5700 Main Street, offers educational activities and an annual corn maze among other attractions. Columbia Academy Marvin Wright Elementary School Spring Hill Elementary School Spring Hill High School Spring Hill Middle School Allendale Elementary Bethesda Elementary Chapmans Retreat Elementary Heritage Elementary Heritage Middle Hillsboro Elementary Middle Independence High Longview Elementary Spring Hill Academy Spring Station Middle Summit High Thompson's S
Battle of Franklin (1864)
The Battle of Franklin was fought on November 30, 1864, in Franklin, Tennessee, as part of the Franklin–Nashville Campaign of the American Civil War. It was one of the worst disasters of the war for the Confederate States Army. Confederate Lt. Gen. John Bell Hood's Army of Tennessee conducted numerous frontal assaults against fortified positions occupied by the Union forces under Maj. Gen. John M. Schofield and was unable to break through or to prevent Schofield from executing a planned, orderly withdrawal to Nashville; the Confederate assault of six infantry divisions containing eighteen brigades with 100 regiments numbering 20,000 men, sometimes called the "Pickett's Charge of the West", resulted in devastating losses to the men and the leadership of the Army of Tennessee—fourteen Confederate generals and 55 regimental commanders were casualties. After its defeat against Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas in the subsequent Battle of Nashville, the Army of Tennessee retreated with half the men with which it had begun the short offensive, was destroyed as a fighting force for the remainder of the war.
The 1864 Battle of Franklin was the second military action in the vicinity. Following his defeat in the Atlanta Campaign, Hood had hoped to lure Maj. Gen. William T. Sherman into battle by disrupting his railroad supply line from Chattanooga to Atlanta. After a brief period in which he pursued Hood, Sherman decided instead to cut his main army off from these lines and "live off the land" in his famed March to the Sea from Atlanta to Savannah. By doing so, he would avoid having to defend hundreds of miles of supply lines against constant raids, through which he predicted he would lose "a thousand men monthly and gain no result" against Hood's army. Sherman's march left the aggressive Hood unoccupied, his Army of Tennessee had several options in attacking Sherman or falling upon his rear lines; the task of defending Tennessee and the rearguard against Hood fell to Maj. Gen. George H. Thomas, commander of the Army of the Cumberland; the principal forces available in Middle Tennessee were IV Corps of the Army of the Cumberland, commanded by Maj. Gen. David S. Stanley, XXIII Corps of the Army of the Ohio, commanded by Maj. Gen. John Schofield, with a total strength of about 30,000.
Another 30,000 troops under Thomas's command were in or moving toward Nashville. Rather than trying to chase Sherman in Georgia, Hood decided that he would attempt a major offensive northward though his invading force of 39,000 would be outnumbered by the 60,000 Union troops in Tennessee, he would move north into Tennessee and try to defeat portions of Thomas's army in detail before they could concentrate, seize the important manufacturing and supply center of Nashville, continue north into Kentucky as far as the Ohio River. Hood expected to pick up 20,000 recruits from Tennessee and Kentucky in his path of victory and join up with Robert E. Lee's army in Virginia, a plan that historian James M. McPherson describes as "scripted in never-never land." It should be noted here that Hood had recovered from but was affected by a couple of serious physical battle wounds to a leg and arm, which caused him pain and limited his mobility. Hood spent the first three weeks of November supplying the Army of Tennessee in northern Alabama in preparation for his offensive.
The Army of Tennessee marched north from Florence, Alabama, on November 21, indeed managed to surprise the Union forces, the two halves of which were 75 miles apart at Pulaski and Nashville. With a series of fast marches that covered 70 miles in three days, Hood tried to maneuver between the two armies to destroy each in detail, but Union general Schofield, commanding Stanley's IV Corps as well as his own XXIII Corps, reacted with a rapid retreat from Pulaski to Columbia, which held an important bridge over the Duck River on the turnpike north. Despite suffering losses from Maj. Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest's cavalry along the way, the Federals were able to reach Columbia and erect fortifications just hours before the Confederates arrived on November 24. From November 24 to 29, Schofield managed to block Hood at this crossing, the "Battle of Columbia" was a series of bloodless skirmishes and artillery bombardments while both sides re-gathered their armies. On November 28, Thomas directed Schofield to begin preparations for a withdrawal north to Franklin.
He was incorrectly expecting that Maj. Gen. A. J. Smith's XVI Corps arrival from Missouri was imminent and he wanted the combined force to defend against Hood on the line of the Harpeth River at Franklin instead of the Duck River at Columbia. Meanwhile, early on the morning of November 29, Hood sent Cheatham's and Stewart's corps north on a flanking march, they crossed the Duck River at Davis's Ford east of Columbia, while two divisions of Lee's corps and most of the army's artillery remained on the southern bank to deceive Schofield into thinking a general assault was planned against Columbia. Now that Hood had outflanked him by noon on November 29, Schofield's army was in critical danger, his command was split at that time between his supply wagons and artillery and part of the IV Corps, which he had sent to Spring Hill nearly ten miles north of Columbia, the rest of the IV and XXIII corps marching from Columbia to join them. In the Battle of Spring Hill that afternoon and night, Hood had a golden opportunity to intercept and destroy the Union troops and their supply wagons, as his forces had reached the turnpike separating the Union forces by nightfall.
However, because of a series of command fa
Carnton is a historic plantation house and museum in Franklin, Williamson County, United States. The sprawling farm and its buildings played an important role during and after the Battle of Franklin during the American Civil War, it is managed by the non-profit organization The Battle of Franklin Trust. Carnton is a red brick Federal-style 11-room residence, completed in 1826 by Randal McGavock using slave labor. Built on a raised limestone foundation, the southern facing entrance façade is a two-story, five-bay block with a side-facing gabled roof, covered in tin, with two dormer windows, projecting end chimneys. A central two-story pedimented portico in the Greek Revival-style was added in 1847 by McGavock's son John McGavock; the two-story portico contains four, square Ionic columns with beveled recessed panels, a simple vase shape balustrade on each level. The balustrade encloses the second-story balcony. Decorative corbels and scrollwork are found on the fascia above the first level, the columns at the corners of the portico are matched by pilasters on the front façade.
The doorway is flanked with a semi-circular fanlight above. A two-level Greek Revival gallery with seven two-story Doric columns, using the same balustrade as seen on the front portico, is located on the rear of the house; the gallery runs the length of the house, extending at one end to take advantage of southerly breezes. The interior has Greek Revival touches due to the remodeling done by John McGavock in 1847, including then-fashionable wallpapers, faux-painting and carpets in most every room. Three distinct wallpaper patterns have been discovered on the third floor; the central passage downstairs appears. The wallpaper design, though a reproduction, is based on a popular design for the time; the parlor saw a Greek Revival upgrade in the form of a fireplace mantel, new wallpaper and carpeting. The working clock on the parlor mantel and the 200-piece china set in the dining room is original to the McGavock family, as well as a rocking chair given by President Andrew Jackson. Many of the floors in Carnton are stained due to the house being used as Confederate hospital after the Battle of Franklin.
The heaviest stains are found in one of the southern facing bedrooms, used as an operating room, as a result of the blood soaking through the carpets and seeping into the wood floors. Randal McGavock planted cedars along the driveway leading up to the house, while his son extended the planting of cedars and boxwood along the herringbone patterned brick walkway that he had installed between the portico and the driveway. In preparation for his marriage in 1847 to Carrie Winder, John McGavock created a 1-acre garden to the west of the house based on the writings of Andrew Jackson Downing, the "father of American landscape architecture." The working garden had vegetable squares, each surrounded by ornamental borders, but the presence of a large Osage orange tree in the center of the southeast quadrant suggests that vegetable growing was discontinued in garden plots nearest the house. The garden was surrounded by a white picket fence as well as a high board fence on the north side, to protect the plants from animals and severe weather.
The fence gave a degree of privacy to the occupants of the house from the outbuildings and the many slaves moving about on the grounds. The garden was neglected throughout the 20th-century, but enough physical evidence remained through archeological research and letters to indicate its extent and layout, that the garden was recreated in 1996-97 to how it looked in 1869; the daffodil and peony collection is composed of varieties available in Middle Tennessee prior to 1869. Carnton Plantation is believed to house the largest historic daffodil collection in the South, representing 40 varieties in use before 1869. To the northwest of the house on a 2-acre section of the plantation is the McGavock Confederate Cemetery, the largest owned military cemetery in the United States. Donated by the McGavock family as a permanent burial ground for the soldiers killed in the Battle of Franklin, the cemetery is organized by state resulting in thirteen sections separated by a 14-foot pathway; the cemetery is maintained by The Franklin Chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy.
Randal McGavock, migrated from Virginia and settled in Nashville, Tennessee becoming a prominent local politician. He served as Mayor of Nashville for a one-year term in 1824 and was acquainted with President James K. Polk and good friends with President Andrew Jackson, who resided at The Hermitage near Nashville. Jackson was a guest of the McGavocks on more than one occasion. McGavock named his property near Franklin after his father's birthplace in Ireland; the name "Carnton" was derived from the Gaelic word cairn which means "a pile of stones." A cairn sometimes marks a burial site. The first construction at Carnton was a smokehouse constructed in 1815, adjoined to the main house built in 1826 by a two-story kitchen wing; the mansion sat on 1,400 acres. Among the crops the McGavocks grew in the mid-19th century in middle Tennessee were wheat, oats and potatoes; the McGavocks were involved in raising and breeding livestock and thoroughbred horses. Randal McGavock's daughter, married William Giles Harding of Belle Meade Plantation that became an internationally renowned thoroughbred farm.
Randal McGavock died in 1843. In December 1848, John married his cousin Carrie Winder of Ducros Plantation in Thibodaux, Louisiana, wh
Franklin is a city in, the county seat of, Williamson County, United States. About 21 miles south of Nashville, it is one of the principal cities of the Nashville metropolitan area and Middle Tennessee; as of 2017, its estimated population was 78,321, it is the seventh-largest city in Tennessee. Williamson County was rural into the late 20th century, with an economy based on traditional commodity crops and livestock. In the 19th century, part of its economy depended on slavery, after the American Civil War racial violence, designed to suppress the black vote, claimed lives; the Ku Klux Klan is believed to have perpetrated the first lynching of a Jewish man in the United States in 1868, Franklin was the site of more lynchings of black men, including one in 1888 of a man, taken from the courtroom and hanged from the balcony of the courthouse. Since 1980, the northern part of the county has begun to be developed for residential and related businesses, in addition to modern service industries; the community of Franklin was founded October 26, 1799, by Abram Maury, Jr..
A state senator, he is buried with his family in Founders Pointe. Maury named the town after national founding father Benjamin Franklin. Ewen Cameron built the first by a European-American in the town of Franklin. Cameron was born February 23, 1768, in Bogallan, Scotland, he immigrated to Virginia in 1785 and traveled into Tennessee along with other migrants after the American Revolutionary War. Cameron died on February 1846, having lived 48 years in the same house, he and his second wife, were buried in the old City Cemetery. Some of his descendants continue to live in Franklin; this area is part of Middle Tennessee, white planters prospered in the antebellum years, with cultivation of tobacco and hemp as commodity crops, raising of livestock. Farmers depended on numerous slaves as workers. During the Civil War, Franklin was the site of a major battle in the Franklin–Nashville Campaign; the Battle of Franklin was fought on November 30, 1864, resulting in 10,000 casualties. 44 buildings were temporarily converted to use as field hospitals.
The Carter and the Lotz homes from this era are still standing and are among the city's numerous examples of historic architecture. After the war, the Franklin area saw considerable violence as whites attempted to dominate the majority-black population and assert white supremacy. In 1866 the Ku Klux Klan, a secret organization of insurgent white Confederate veterans, was founded in Pulaski, Tennessee. Soon it had chapters in many towns, including Franklin, as well as chapters in other states. After Tennessee authorized African Americans to vote in February 1867, well before the Fifteenth Amendment was passed, most freedmen and free people of color joined the Republican Party, which whites and Democrats struggled to suppress. On July 6, 1867, a political rally of Union League black Republicans in Franklin was disrupted by Conservatives, who were white but included some blacks; that evening, what became known as the "Franklin Riot" took place. Black Union League men returned fire. An estimated 25 to 39 men were wounded, most of them black.
One white man was killed outright, at least three black people died soon after. On August 15, 1868, in Franklin, Samuel Bierfield became the first Jewish man to be lynched in the United States, when he was shot by a large group of masked men believed to be KKK members. Bowman, a black man who worked for him and was with him at his store, was fatally wounded in the attack. After Reconstruction, white violence continued against African Americans. Five African Americans were lynched in Williamson County from 1877 to 1950, most during the decades around the turn of the century, a time of high social tensions and legal oppression in the South; some of these murders took place in Franklin after the men were taken from the courthouse or county jail before trial. For example, on August 10, 1888, Amos Miller, a 23-year-old African-American, was lynched before his trial, taken from the courtroom and hanged from the balcony of the Williamson County Courthouse. On April 30, 1891, Jim Taylor, another African-American man, was lynched on Murfreesboro Road in Franklin.
Population growth slowed noticeably from 1910 to 1940, as many African Americans left the area in the Great Migration to escape Jim Crow conditions and the decline in agricultural work. A suburb of Nashville, Franklin has benefited from regional growth in the economy since the late 20th century, its population has increased more than fivefold since 1980, when its population was 12,407. In 2010, it had a population of 62,487; as of 2017 Census estimates, it is the state's seventh-largest city. Many of its residents commute to businesses in Nashville; the regional economy has expanded, with considerable growth in businesses and jobs in Franklin and the county. The city began to grow after the historic preservation movement started, it has worked to identify and preserve historic assets. Five historic districts are listed on the National Register of Historic Places, as are many individual buildings. In the early morning of Christmas Eve of 1988, one person died. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 41.4 square miles, of which 41.2 square miles are land and 0.2 square miles, or 0.52%, are covered by water.
Since the late 20th century, the city has grown in population, attracting many businesses. As of the census of 2010, 62,487 people (Williamson County's population was 193