Mt. SAC Relays
The Mt. SAC Relays are an annual track and field festival held at Hilmer Lodge Stadium on the Mt. San Antonio College campus in Walnut, California; the Relays are held in mid-April each year since the first edition held on April 24-25, 1959. The meet was started by Mt. San Antonio College track coach Hilmer Lodge, flourished under his direction until his retirement in 1963; the meet attracts all disciplines of the sport of Track and Field. They claim to have had as many as 9,000 competitors participate in a single year; because of the stature of the meet, the stadium and most meet literature contains the phrase "Where the world's best athletes compete". While the relays are most famous for the elite division, where many notable athletes have used this event as an early season test of their fitness, there are races for small children from the community, Youth teams, Masters athletes. A full day is devoted to High School events, attracting the top Southern California talent as well as others from out of town.
International High School athletes from as far away as Australia and New Zealand have competed here, Mexico is represented regularly. There is a "Distance Carnival" which provides a rare opportunity to run in a competitive track 10,000 metres race; the meet. Seven world records in throwing events alone, including four in the Discus have been set at the Mt. SAC Relays. A full multiple event competition associated with the meet. Racewalking events are held earlier in the month, with occasional elite races held on the day of the elite competition, and with this meet being held at a Community College, there is a full competition for that level. While the relays started in 1959, the first women weren't allowed to participate until 1961, with one race, a 440-yard dash, out of a 113 event schedule. Past Directors of the Mt. Sac Relays include Hilmer Lodge, Don Ruh, John Norton, Scott Davis and current director, Doug Todd. Due to construction of a new Hilmer Lodge Stadium at Mt. San Antonio College, the 2016 edition was held at Cerritos College in Norwalk and the 2017 and 2018 editions were held at El Camino College in Torrance.
Over the course of its history, numerous national records in athletics and world records have been set at the Mt. SAC Relays including the world record in the 4x200 Relay that lasted over 20 years. Mt. SAC Relays official site Mt. SAC Relays Records
Find a Grave
Find A Grave is a website that allows the public to search and add to an online database of cemetery records. It is owned by Ancestry.com. It receives and uploads digital photographs of headstones from burial sites, taken by unpaid volunteers at cemeteries. Find A Grave posts the photo on its website; the site was created in 1995 by Salt Lake City resident Jim Tipton to support his hobby of visiting the burial sites of famous celebrities. He added an online forum. Find A Grave was launched as a commercial entity in 1998, first as a trade name and incorporated in 2000; the site expanded to include graves of non-celebrities, in order to allow online visitors to pay respect to their deceased relatives or friends. In 2013, Tipton sold Find A Grave to Ancestry.com, saying that the genealogy company had "been linking and driving traffic to the site for several years. Burial information is a wonderful source for people researching their family history." In a September 30, 2013, press release, Ancestry.com officials said they would "launch a new mobile app, improve customer support, introduce an enhanced edit system for submitting updates to memorials, foreign-language support, other site improvements."As of October 2017, Find A Grave contained over 165 million burial records and 75 million photos.
In March 2017, a beta website for a redesigned Find A Grave was launched at gravestage.com. Public feedback was mixed. Sometime between May 29 and July 10 of that year, the beta website was migrated to new.findagrave.com, a new front end for it was deployed at beta.findagrave.com. In November 2017, the new site became the old site was deprecated. On August 20, 2018, the original Find; the website contains listings of graves from around the world. American cemeteries are organized by state and county, many cemetery records contain Google Maps and photographs of the cemeteries and gravesites. Individual grave records may contain dates and places of birth and death, biographical information and plot information and contributor information. Interment listings are added by individuals, genealogical societies, other institutions such as the International Wargraves Photography Project. Contributors must register as members to submit listings, called memorials, on the site; the submitter may transfer management.
Only the current manager of a listing may edit it, although any member may use the site's features to send correction requests to the listing's manager. Managers may add links to other listings of deceased spouses and siblings for genealogical purposes. Any member may add photographs and notations to individual listings. Members may post requests for photos of a specific grave. Although it does not ask permission from immediate family members before uploading the photos, it will remove and take down photos or a URL for a deceased loved one at the request of an immediate family member. Find A Grave maintains lists of memorials of famous persons by their "claim to fame", such as Medal of Honor recipients, religious figures, educators. Find A Grave exercises editorial control over these listings. Canadian Headstones Interment.net United States National Cemetery System's nationwide gravesite locator Random Acts of Genealogical Kindness Tombstone tourist Official website
United States at the 1896 Summer Olympics
Fourteen competitors from the United States competed in three sports at the 1896 Summer Olympics in Athens, Greece. The Americans were the most successful athletes in terms of gold medals, beating host nation Greece, 11 to 10, despite fielding only 14 competitors compared to an estimated 169 Greek entrants. However, the Greeks' 46 total medals dwarfed the Americans' 20; the United States team had 27 entries in 16 events, with 20 of the 27 resulting in top-three finishes. Most of the American competitors were students at Harvard University or Princeton University or members of the Boston Athletic Association; the team trained at The Pennington School, in Pennington, New Jersey, while preparing in secret for the first modern Olympic Games. Of the 14 Americans at the Athens Games, 12 won medals. Charles Waldstein, a shooter, Gardner Williams, a swimmer, were the two who did not win any medals; the United States squad won nine gold medals in the twelve athletics events, with contributions from six different athletes.
Six silver medals and two bronze medals went to the Americans in athletics. Track & Road Field Events The Paine brothers contested only two events, taking the top two spots in the event in which they both competed, the military pistol. Sumner was the only one of the two to enter the free pistol. Waldstein was the third member of the American shooting contingent, competing in the military rifle event. Williams competed in two swimming events. Men Lampros, S. P.. G.. J. & Anninos, C.. The Olympic Games: BC 776 – AD 1896. Athens: Charles Beck. Mallon, Bill & Widlund, Ture; the 1896 Olympic Games. Results for All Competitors in All Events, with Commentary. Jefferson: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0379-9. Smith, Michael Llewellyn. Olympics in Athens 1896; the Invention of the Modern Olympic Games. London: Profile Books. ISBN 1-86197-342-X
United States at the 1912 Summer Olympics
The United States competed at the 1912 Summer Olympics in Stockholm, Sweden. 174 competitors, took part in 68 events in 11 sports. Out of the 174 athletes who had participated, 63 won medals. Two divers, both men, represented the United States, it was the nation's third appearance in diving, appearing in each edition of the diving competition. Both men competed in all three events. Gaidzik, the defending bronze medalist in the springboard, advanced to the final in that event and placed eighth. Neither diver advanced to the final in either of the other two events. Rankings given are within the diver's heat. Seven swimmers competed for the United States at the 1912 Games, it was the nation's fifth appearance in swimming, a sport in which the United States had competed at each Olympic Games. The American men finished with two gold medals and the corresponding Olympic records, as well as a bronze medal, in individual events; the relay team added a silver medal, held the world record after winning its semifinal heat.
Ranks given for each swimmer are within the heat. Men 109 athletes represented the United States, it was the fifth appearance of the nation in athletics. The Americans won gold medals in 16 of the 30 events and finished with 42 of the 94 total medals awarded, they swept the medals in 4 events, as well as taking the top three spots in the pole vault. Ranks given are within that athlete's heat for running events. Nine cyclists represented the United States, it was the fourth appearance of the nation in cycling, which it had not appeared in only in 1896. The American cyclists won both bronze medals in the cycling competitions, with Carl Schutte taking third place in the individual competition and the fastest four Americans posting a combined time placing third in the team competition. DressageEventing Thirteen fencers represented the United States, it was the third appearance of the nation in fencing. No American fencer reached the finals; the United States had one competitor in the first Olympic pentathlon competition.
George S. Patton, who would become a famous general during World War II, excelled in the military-influenced set of events. Patton finished in fifth place. Twenty six shooters represented the United States, it was the nation's third appearance in shooting. The Americans won a total of 14 medals. Only the host nation, did better. A single tennis player represented the United States at the 1912 Games, it was the nation's third appearance in tennis. Pell advanced to the round of 16 before being defeated in the men's outdoor singles. Men The United States was represented by two wrestlers at its third Olympic wrestling appearance. Both men competed in the featherweight class and lost each of their first two bouts to be eliminated from competition
Rodney "Rod" Milburn Jr. was an American athlete who won gold at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich in the 110m hurdles. During the early 1970s, Milburn dominated the 110m hurdles, tying or breaking the world record for the 110 m hurdles/120 yards five times. 1971, as a sophomore at Southern University, was when Milburn announced himself on the national and world stage. Amongst his achievements that year was his first world record. In a semi-final of the USA Championships he broke the record for 120 y with 13.0 s. Milburn went on to win the title, in 13.1 s. Milburn was to remain undefeated in 1971, including winning the 110m hurdles event t the 1971 Pan-American Games, he showed his versatility by winning a bronze as a member of the United States sprint relay team at the Pan-American Games. With these performances, Milburn earned the nickname "Hot Rod", was awarded the Track and Field News Athlete of the Year Award, his home state, Louisiana recognised him by awarding him the James J. Corbett Award as the outstanding male athlete from the state in 1971.
He was to receive the same award a second time in 1973. The overwhelming favourite to qualify for the 1972 Munich Olympics. Milburn in fact did qualify in 3rd place at the USA Olympic Trials. In the final he hit hurdles due to the pressure of the world-record holder Willie Davenport running alongside him and only managed to hold the vital third and last qualifying place by a foot. In Munich Milburn won the gold medal in the 110m hurdles, tying the world record of 13.2 seconds, finishing ahead of Guy Drut and Thomas Hill. This time, recorded as 13.24 to the hundredth of a second, would become the first world record when only automatically recorded times would be ratified as world records. Milburn's triumph was overshadowed by other events; the qualifying rounds for the 110 m hurdles event was delayed by the suspension of the games following the terrorist attack in the Olympic Village. The final itself was overlooked due to the furor over the behaviour of the American 400 meter runners Vince Matthews and Wayne Collett on the medal rostrum at their medal award ceremony.
In 1973 Milburn continued to demonstrate he was the world's pre-eminent high-hurdler by breaking the world record for the 110 m hurdles with a 13.1 s, knocking 0.1 s off a record that had lasted for 14 years, equalling his own world record for 120 y hurdles of 13.0 s. The record-breaking times in the 110 m hurdles happened on July 6 in Zurich, Switzerland and on July 22 in Sienna, Italy. After this season, with no prospect of playing American football professionally and not able to endorse commercial products as an amateur athlete, Milburn joined the fledgling professional athletics tour run by the International Track Association, he was to remain unbeaten in their 1974 season. The ITA folded in 1976. By running as a professional, Milburn was ineligible to compete at the Olympics and defend his title. In 1975, Milburn tried to become an American footballer with the fledgling World Football League team the Shreveport Steamer, his try out was unsuccessful. Milburn returned as a hurdler in 1980 in time for an attempt at an Olympic comeback.
However, the boycott of the Olympics denied him that possibility. He did, run as an amateur for two seasons with some success against the new generation of high hurdlers. Sporting commentators note that Milburn was important in the history of hurdling for introducing two innovations: the double-armed lead and the dime on the hurdle practice technique. Milburn turned to the hurdles under the tutelage of his high school coach Claude Paxton at J. S. Clark High School in Opelousas, Louisiana. By his senior year, he was the outstanding high school hurdler in the United States and broke the national age record for the 120 y hurdles at 13.5 s. Acknowledgments of his achievements at high school included being voted on the Louisiana Sports Writers Association All-State track and field team in both his junior and senior years. Following high school, he went to Southern University in Baton Rouge, with an athletics scholarship. Here he met Willie Davenport, the 1968 110 m hurdles champion, who recognised his potential as a future Olympic champion and mentored the young athlete.
He was coached at college by Dick Hill who had coached amongst others Bob Hayes the 1964 100 m Olympic champion. Milburn retired from athletics in 1983. Milburn was appointed the head track coach at Southern University in Baton Rouge, Louisiana in 1984 by his old college coach, Dick Hill; when Hill left Southern University in 1987, his replacement did not renew Milburn's contract. Milburn struggled after this and took a job as a utility crewman at a paper and pulp mill of the Georgia-Pacific Corporation in Port Hudson, Louisiana, it was while working at this plant that Milburn died after falling into a tank containing a sodium chlorate solution. His death came as a huge shock to a track and field community that vividly remembered his achievements on the track. At his funeral, a message of condolence from President Bill Clinton and his wife, Hillary Clinton, was read out. For Milburn it was a great misfortune that his best years came at a time when it was impossible for an Olympic champion to earn a good living from track and further that by running professionally he made himself ineligible to defend his Olympic title in 1976, was denied a chance to run in the 1980 Olympics by the 1980 Olympics boycott when his eligibility for entry was reinstated.(In the end, a court injunction allowing the former professional athletes to run at the Olympic Trials
110 metres hurdles
The 110 metres hurdles, or 110-meter hurdles, is a hurdling track and field event for men. It is included in the athletics programme at the Summer Olympic Games; the female counterpart is the 100 metres hurdles. As part of a racing event, ten hurdles of 1.067 metres in height are evenly spaced along a straight course of 110 metres. They are positioned. Fallen hurdles do not carry a fixed time penalty for the runners, but they have a significant pull-over weight which slows down the run. Like the 100 metres sprint, the 110 metres hurdles begins in the starting blocks. For the 110 m hurdles, the first hurdle is placed after a run-up of 13.72 metres from the starting line. The next nine hurdles are set at a distance of 9.14 metres from each other, the home stretch from the last hurdle to the finish line is 14.02 metres long. The Olympic Games have included the 110 metre hurdles in their program since 1896; the equivalent hurdles race for women was run over a course of 80 metres from 1932 to 1968. Starting with the 1972 Summer Olympics, the women's race was set at 100 metres.
In the early 20th century, the race was contested as 120 yard hurdles, thus the imperial units distances between hurdles. The fastest 110 metre hurdlers run the distance in around 13 seconds. Aries Merritt of the United States holds the current world record of 12.80 seconds, set at the Memorial Van Damme meet on 7 September 2012 in Belgium. For the first hurdles races in England around 1830, wooden barriers were placed along a stretch of 100 yards; the first standards were attempted in 1864 in Oxford and Cambridge: The length of the course was set to 120 yards and over its course, runners were required to clear ten 3 foot 6 inch high hurdles. The height and spacing of the hurdles have been related to Imperial units since. After the length of the course was rounded up to 110 metres in France in 1888, the standards were pretty much complete; the massively constructed hurdles of the early days were first replaced in 1895 with somewhat lighter T-shaped hurdles that runners were able to knock over.
However, until 1935 runners were disqualified if they knocked down more than three hurdles, records were only recognized if the runner had left all hurdles standing. In 1935 the T-shaped hurdles were replaced by L-shaped ones that fall forward if bumped into and therefore reduce the risk of injury; however those hurdles are weighted. The current running style where the first hurdle is taken on the run with the upper body lowered instead of being jumped over and with three steps each between the hurdles was first used by the 1900 Olympic champion, Alvin Kraenzlein; the 110 metre hurdles have been an Olympic discipline since 1896. Women ran it in the 1920s but it never became accepted. From 1926 on, women have only run the 80 metre hurdles, increased to 100 metres starting in 1961 on a trial basis and in 1969 in official competition. In 1900 and 1904, the Olympics included a 200-metre hurdles race, the IAAF recognized world records for the 200 metre hurdles until 1960. Don Styron held the world record in the event for over 50 years until Andy Turner broke the record in a specially arranged race at the Manchester City Games in 2010.
Styron still holds the world record in the 220 yard low hurdles. The sprint hurdles are a rhythmic race because both men and women take 3 steps between each hurdle, no matter whether running 110/100 meters outdoors, or the shorter distances indoors. In addition, the distance from the starting line to the first hurdle - while shorter for women - is constant for both sexes whether indoors or outdoors, so sprint hurdlers do not need to change their stride pattern between indoor and outdoor seasons. One difference between indoor and outdoors is the shorter finishing distance from the last hurdle indoors, compared to longer distance from the last hurdle outdoors to the finish line. Top male hurdlers traditionally took 8 strides from the starting blocks to the first hurdle; the 8-step start persisted from the 1950s to the end of the 20th century and included such World- and Olympic champions as Harrison Dillard, Rod Milburn, Greg Foster, Renaldo Nehemiah, Roger Kingdom, Allen Johnson, Mark Crear, Mark McCoy, Colin Jackson.
However, beginning in the 2000s, some hurdle coaches embraced a transition to a faster 7-step start, teaching the men to lengthen their first few strides out of the starting blocks. Cuban hurdler Dayron Robles set his 2008 world record of 12.87 using a 7-step start. Chinese star Liu Xiang won the 2004 Olympics and broke the world record in 2006 utilizing an 8-step approach, but he switched to 7-steps by the 2011 outdoor season. After the 2010 outdoor season, American Jason Richardson trained to switch to a 7-step start and went on to win the 2011 World Championship. American Aries Merritt trained in Fall 2011 to switch from 8 to 7, had his greatest outdoor season in 2012 - running 8 races in under 13 seconds - capped by winning the London 2012 Olympics and setting a world record of 12.80. Of the 10 men with the fastest 110m hurdle times in 2012, seven used 7-steps, including the top 4: Aries Merritt, Liu Xiang, Jason Richardson, David Oliver. Hurdle technique experts believe the off-season training required to produce the power and speed necessary to reach the first hurdle in 7 steps, yields greater endurance over the last half of the race.
That added endurance allows hurdlers to maintain their top speed to the finish, resulting in a faster time. First official IAAF world
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 nations participating; the Olympic Games are held every four years, with the Summer and Winter Games alternating by occurring every four years but two years apart. Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, which were held in Olympia, from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896; the IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement, with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority. The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games; some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Olympic Games for snow and ice sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with a disability, the Youth Olympic Games for athletes aged 14 to 18, the five Continental games, the World Games for sports that are not contested in the Olympic Games.
The Deaflympics and Special Olympics are endorsed by the IOC. The IOC has had to adapt to a variety of economic and technological advancements; the abuse of amateur rules by the Eastern Bloc nations prompted the IOC to shift away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to allowing participation of professional athletes. The growing importance of mass media created the issue of corporate sponsorship and commercialisation of the Games. World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, 1944 Games. Large boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Games; the Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations, National Olympic Committees, organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, organises and funds the Games according to the Olympic Charter; the IOC determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies.
Over 13,000 athletes compete at the Summer and Winter Olympic Games in 33 different sports and nearly 400 events. The first and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold and bronze, respectively; the Games have grown so much. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, bribery, a terrorist attack in 1972; every two years the Olympics and its media exposure provide athletes with the chance to attain national and sometimes international fame. The Games constitute an opportunity for the host city and country to showcase themselves to the world; the Ancient Olympic Games were religious and athletic festivals held every four years at the sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia, Greece. Competition was among representatives of several kingdoms of Ancient Greece; these Games featured athletic but combat sports such as wrestling and the pankration and chariot racing events. It has been written that during the Games, all conflicts among the participating city-states were postponed until the Games were finished.
This cessation of hostilities was known as truce. This idea is a modern myth; the truce did allow those religious pilgrims who were travelling to Olympia to pass through warring territories unmolested because they were protected by Zeus. The origin of the Olympics is shrouded in legend. According to legend, it was Heracles who first called the Games "Olympic" and established the custom of holding them every four years; the myth continues that after Heracles completed his twelve labours, he built the Olympic Stadium as an honour to Zeus. Following its completion, he walked in a straight line for 200 steps and called this distance a "stadion", which became a unit of distance; the most accepted inception date for the Ancient Olympics is 776 BC. The Ancient Games featured running events, a pentathlon, wrestling and equestrian events. Tradition has it that a cook from the city of Elis, was the first Olympic champion; the Olympics were of fundamental religious importance, featuring sporting events alongside ritual sacrifices honouring both Zeus and Pelops, divine hero and mythical king of Olympia.
Pelops was famous for his chariot race with King Oenomaus of Pisatis. The winners of the events were immortalised in poems and statues; the Games were held every four years, this period, known as an Olympiad, was used by Greeks as one of their units of time measurement. The Games were part of a cycle known as the Panhellenic Games, which included the Pythian Games, the Nemean Games, the Isthmian Games; the Olympic Games reached their zenith in the 6th and 5th centuries BC, but gradually declined in importance as the Romans gained power and influence in Gr