Burr Oak Cemetery
Burr Oak Cemetery is a cemetery located in Alsip, United States, a suburb southwest of Chicago, Illinois. Established in 1927, Burr Oak was one of the few early Chicago cemeteries focused on the needs of the African-American community, it is the final resting place of many black celebrities, including Chicago blues musicians and other notables; the origins of Burr Oak Cemetery date back to when Ellis Stewart, secretary of the black-owned Supreme Liberty Life Insurance company, joined with Earl B. Dickerson, a prominent Chicago lawyer, to develop a cemetery that would meet the needs of the burgeoning African-American population in Chicago, a demographic change brought about by the great migration of blacks from the South during the early decades of the 20th century. Stewart had located a possible site for the cemetery just outside the Chicago city limits near Alsip, Illinois; the owners of the land sold 40 acres for $50,000, $40,000 of, loaned by the Roosevelt State Bank and the remainder raised by subscription.
The new group was incorporated as the Burr Oak Cemetery Association, a suitable corpse was found in the morgue to dedicate the cemetery. The Alsip townsfolk did not approve of a black cemetery next to the village and, "with the assistance of armed police", drove the burial party away; the burial party returned, with a deputy sheriff and was able to dedicate Burr Oak. During the Great Depression, the Burr Oak Cemetery Association defaulted on the mortgage. Dickerson again stepped in to help arrange for the black-owned Supreme Liberty Life Insurance company to buy the mortgage at 10 cents to the dollar; the re-constituted Chicago Burr Oak Cemetery Association paid off the mortgage. Dickerson said that "saving that cemetery was one of the great achievements as a lawyer". On July 11, 2009, Cook County Sheriff Tom Dart alleged that four workers at Burr Oak cemetery dug up more than 200 graves, dumped the bodies into unmarked mass graves, resold the plots in a scheme that went back at least five years.
The three men and one woman were charged with one count each of dismembering a human body and face up to 30 years in prison. Two men were sentenced to six and three year prison terms; because of the investigation, the entire cemetery was declared a crime scene by the Cook County Sheriff's Office and temporarily closed to the public. The court-assigned receiver managing the cemetery had hoped to reopen it in September, but on October 13, 2009, visiting families found the cemetery still closed, with no statement on when it would reopen; the sheriff's office set up a searchable database with photographs of most headstones. The cemetery records were in great disarray, but the usable ones were computerized and turned over to the receiver for integration into the database. A study of the records indicated that between 147,568 people were buried at Burr Oak. However, the cemetery has space for a maximum of 130,000 graves, some areas appear never to have been used for burials. After burials resumed in November 2009, some human remains were found in areas that no one knew had been used.
On May 24, 2011, a federal judge approved a plan to place the cemetery into a trust that would use about $2.6 million of a $7 million insurance settlement to renovate and run the cemetery. The judge set aside at least $50,000 for a memorial to honor those whose graves were lost or desecrated; those who can prove they buried relatives in the cemetery will receive $100 per grave. Those whose relatives' graves were destroyed may apply for more money. List of United States cemeteries Official Burr Oak Cemetery site
Hoochie Coochie Man
"Hoochie Coochie Man" is a blues standard written by Willie Dixon and first recorded by Muddy Waters in 1954. The song makes reference to hoodoo folk magic elements and makes novel use of a stop-time musical arrangement, it became one of Waters' most popular and identifiable songs and helped secure Dixon's role as Chess Records' chief songwriter. The song is one of Waters' first recordings with a full backing band. Dixon's lyrics build on Waters' earlier use of braggadocio and themes of sex appeal; the stop-time riff was "soon absorbed into the lingua franca of blues, R&B, rock and roll", according to musicologist Robert Palmer, is used in several popular songs. When Bo Diddley adapted it for "I'm a Man", it became one of the most recognizable musical phrases in blues. After the song's initial success in 1954, Waters recorded several new studio versions; the original appears on the 1958 The Best of many compilations. Numerous musicians have recorded "Hoochie Coochie Man" in a variety of styles, making it one of the most interpreted Waters and Dixon songs.
The Blues Foundation and the Grammy Hall of Fame recognize the song for its influence in popular music and the US Library of Congress' National Recording Registry selected it for preservation in 2004. Between 1947 and 1954, Muddy Waters charted a number of hits recording for Chess Records and its Artistocrat predecessor. One of his first singles was "Gypsy Woman", recorded in 1947; the song shows Delta blues guitar-style roots, but the lyrics place "emphasis on supernatural elements—gypsies, fortune telling, luck", according to musicologist Robert Palmer. Waters expanded the theme in "Louisiana Blues", recorded in 1950 with Little Walter accompanying on harmonica, he sings of traveling to New Orleans, Louisiana, to acquire a mojo hand, a hoodoo amulet or talisman. Similar lyrics appeared in "Hoodoo Hoodoo", a 1946 recording by John Lee "Sonny Boy" Williamson: "Well now I'm goin' down to Louisiana, buy me another mojo hand". Although Waters was ambivalent about hoodoo, he saw the music as having its own power: When you're writin' them songs that are coming from down that way, you can't leave out somethin' about that mojo thing.
Because this is what black people believed in at that time... today, when you play the old blues like me, you can't get from around that. From 1946 to 1951, Willie Dixon played bass with the Big Three Trio. After the group disbanded, he worked for Chess Records as bassist. Dixon wrote several songs. In 1953, Chess used two of Dixon's songs: "Too Late", recorded by Little Walter, "Third Degree", recorded by Eddie Boyd. "Third Degree" became Dixon's first composition to enter the record charts. In September, Waters recorded his "Mad Love", which Dixon biographer Mitsutoshi Inaba calls "a test piece for the forthcoming'Hoochie Coochie Man'" because of its shared lyrical and musical elements; the song became Waters' first record chart success in nearly two years. The term "hoochie coochie", with variations in the spelling, is used in different contexts. Appearing in the late 19th century, the hoochie coochie was a sexually provocative dance. Don Wilmeth identifies it as "a precursor of the striptease... from the belly dance but punctuated with bumps and grinds and a combination of exposure, erotic movements, teasing."
By one account, it first appeared at the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition in 1876 and was a popular attraction at the 1893 Chicago World's Fair. The dance is associated with entertainers Little Egypt and Sophie Tucker, but by the 1910s it declined in popularity. "Hoochie coochie" is used to refer to a sexually attractive person or a practitioner of hoodoo. In his autobiography, I Am the Blues, Dixon included "hoochie coochie man" in his examples of a seer or a clairvoyant with a connection to folklore of the American South: "This guy is a hoodoo man, this lady is a witch, this other guy's a hoochie coochie man, she's some kind of voodoo person". Not long after the success of "Mad Love" in November 1953, Dixon approached Leonard Chess with "Hoochie Coochie Man", a new song he felt was right for Waters. Chess responded, "if Muddy likes it, give it to him". At the time, Waters was performing at the Club Zanzibar in Chicago. During an intermission, Dixon showed him the song. According to Dixon, Waters took to the tune because it had so many familiar elements and he was able to learn enough to perform it that night.
Jimmy Rogers, Waters' second guitarist, remembered that it took a little longer: Dixon came to the club and he would hum it to Muddy and write the lyrics out. Muddy would work them around for a while until he got it down where he could understand it and fool around with it, he would be onstage and try it out, do a few licks of it. We were building the arrangement, that's what we were doing. On January 7, 1954, Waters entered the recording studio with his band to record the song. Considered the classic Chicago blues band, music critic Bill Janovitz described Waters' group as "a who's who of bluesmen". Waters sings and plays electric guitar along with Rogers, blues harmonica virtuoso Little Walter, drummer Elgin Evans, all of whom had been performing with Waters since 1951. Pianist Otis Spann, who joined in 1953, Dixon, in his debut on double bass for Waters' recording session, round out the gr
Cary is a village located in Algonquin Township, McHenry County, United States. The population was 17,965 as of 2017. In 1841, William Dennison Cary purchased 82 acres for $1.25 an acre at the location of the current town and built a farm. In 1856, Cary included a train station for the Wisconsin Railway; the site was approved and a post office was added with the designation "Cary Station." The community around Cary Station was incorporated in 1893 as Illinois. The town soon became a winter resort for skiing. Early farmers saw this new railway as an opportunity; the economy relied on selling produce pickles, the farmers utilized the railway to conduct business with more industrialized cities such as St. Louis and Chicago; the success of this enterprise helped transform Cary into the suburban community. Cary is located at 42°12′47″N 88°14′54″W. According to the 2010 census, Cary has a total area of 6.358 square miles, of which 6.27 square miles is land and 0.088 square miles is water. It is located on the Fox River.
The population of Cary, IL was 17,965 as of 2017. The racial makeup of the village was 86.50% White, 0.6% African American, 0.1% Native American, 2.4% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.1% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races/ethnicities. Hispanic or Latino/Latina of any race were 8.9% of the population. There were 6045 households out of which 2838 had children under the age of 18 living with them; the median income for a household in the village was $96,894, the median income for a family was $105,770. Cary is served by Community High School District 155 for high school students by Cary-Grove High School and Prairie Ridge High School, School District 26 for elementary and middle school students; some portions of Cary are served by Crystal Lake Community Consolidated School District 47 and Community Unit School District 300. Trinity Oaks Christian Academy, a non-denominational Christian school, is located in Cary, as well as Saints Peter and Paul, a Roman Catholic school and parish; the interior of the bed and breakfast room that Bill Murray's character stays in, in the 1993 film Groundhog Day, was built in a warehouse in Cary.
Suzanne Evenson of Cary was featured on HGTV's show House Hunters International on December 8, 2010, showcasing her family's move from Cary to Dubai. Students from the class of 2004 were featured in the MTV show High School Stories, they concocted a senior prank. In the summer of 2016, Burger King opened its first drive-thru only restaurant in Cary. A Cary resident was a contestant on TLC's "Spouse House," airing in July 2017. U. S. Route 14, locally known as Northwest Highway, passes through Cary between its northwest and southeast borders. Illinois Route 31 is near Cary's western border. Metra's Union Pacific/Northwest Line has a station in Cary, operates daily service to Ogilvie Transportation Center in downtown Chicago. Lake in the Hills Airport is two miles west of Cary's west border. Drew Conner, professional soccer player. A. J. Raebel, Canadian football player. Michael Glasder, Ski Jumper XXIII Olympic Winter Games Official website
Columbia Records is an American record label owned by Sony Music Entertainment, a subsidiary of Sony Corporation of America, the North American division of Japanese conglomerate Sony. It was founded in 1887, evolving from the American Graphophone Company, the successor to the Volta Graphophone Company. Columbia is the oldest surviving brand name in the recorded sound business, the second major company to produce records. From 1961 to 1990, Columbia recordings were released outside North America under the name CBS Records to avoid confusion with EMI's Columbia Graphophone Company. Columbia is one of Sony Music's four flagship record labels, alongside former longtime rival RCA Records, as well as Arista Records and Epic Records. Artists who have recorded for Columbia include Harry Styles, AC/DC, Louis Armstrong, Tony Bennett, Beyoncé, Dave Brubeck, The Byrds, Johnny Cash, Mariah Carey, The Chainsmokers, The Clash, Miles Davis, Rosemary Clooney, Neil Diamond, Celine Dion, Bob Dylan, Wind & Fire, Duke Ellington, 50 Cent, Erroll Garner, Benny Goodman, Adelaide Hall, Billy Joel, Janis Joplin, John Mayer, George Michael, Billy Murray, Pink Floyd, Lil Nas X, Frank Sinatra and Garfunkel, Bessie Smith, Bruce Springsteen, Barbra Streisand, Andy Williams, Pharrell Williams, Bill Withers, Paul Whiteman, Joe Zawinul The Columbia Phonograph Company was founded in 1887 by stenographer and New Jersey native Edward D. Easton and a group of investors.
It derived its name from the District of Columbia. At first it had a local monopoly on sales and service of Edison phonographs and phonograph cylinders in Washington, D. C. Maryland, Delaware; as was the custom of some of the regional phonograph companies, Columbia produced many commercial cylinder recordings of its own, its catalogue of musical records in 1891 was 10 pages. Columbia's ties to Edison and the North American Phonograph Company were severed in 1894 with the North American Phonograph Company's breakup. Thereafter it sold only phonographs of its own manufacture. In 1902, Columbia introduced a molded brown wax record, to use up old stock. Columbia introduced black wax records in 1903. According to one source, they continued to mold brown waxes until 1904 with the highest number being 32601, "Heinie", a duet by Arthur Collins and Byron G. Harlan; the molded brown waxes may have been sold to Sears for distribution. Columbia began selling disc records and phonographs in addition to the cylinder system in 1901, preceded only by their "Toy Graphophone" of 1899, which used small, vertically cut records.
For a decade, Columbia competed with both the Edison Phonograph Company cylinders and the Victor Talking Machine Company disc records as one of the top three names in American recorded sound. In order to add prestige to its early catalog of artists, Columbia contracted a number of New York Metropolitan Opera stars to make recordings; these stars included Marcella Sembrich, Lillian Nordica, Antonio Scotti and Edouard de Reszke, but the technical standard of their recordings was not considered to be as high as the results achieved with classical singers during the pre–World War I period by Victor, England's His Master's Voice or Italy's Fonotipia Records. After an abortive attempt in 1904 to manufacture discs with the recording grooves stamped into both sides of each disc—not just one—in 1908 Columbia commenced successful mass production of what they called their "Double-Faced" discs, the 10-inch variety selling for 65 cents apiece; the firm introduced the internal-horn "Grafonola" to compete with the popular "Victrola" sold by the rival Victor Talking Machine Company.
During this era, Columbia used the "Magic Notes" logo—a pair of sixteenth notes in a circle—both in the United States and overseas. Columbia stopped recording and manufacturing wax cylinder records in 1908, after arranging to issue celluloid cylinder records made by the Indestructible Record Company of Albany, New York, as "Columbia Indestructible Records". In July 1912, Columbia decided to concentrate on disc records and stopped manufacturing cylinder phonographs, although they continued selling Indestructible's cylinders under the Columbia name for a year or two more. Columbia was split into one to make records and one to make players. Columbia Phonograph was moved to Connecticut, Ed Easton went with it, it was renamed the Dictaphone Corporation. In late 1922, Columbia went into receivership; the company was bought by its English subsidiary, the Columbia Graphophone Company in 1925 and the label, record numbering system, recording process changed. On February 25, 1925, Columbia began recording with the electric recording process licensed from Western Electric.
"Viva-tonal" records set a benchmark in tone and clarity unequaled on commercial discs during the 78-rpm era. The first electrical recordings were made by Art Gillham, the "Whispering Pianist". In a secret agreement with Victor, electrical technology was kept secret to avoid hurting sales of acoustic records. In 1926, Columbia acquired Okeh Records and its growing stable of jazz and blues artists, including Louis Armstrong and Clarence Williams. Columbia had built a catalog of blues and jazz artists, including Bessie Smith in their 14000-D Race series. Columbia had a successful "Hillbilly" series. In 1928, Paul Whiteman, the nation's most popular orchestra leader, left Victor to record for Columbia. During the same year, Columbia executiv
The Rolling Stones
The Rolling Stones are an English rock band formed in London in 1962. The first stable line-up consisted of bandleader Brian Jones, Mick Jagger, Keith Richards, Bill Wyman, Charlie Watts, Ian Stewart. Stewart was removed from the official line-up in 1963 but continued to work with the band as a contracted musician until his death in 1985; the band's primary songwriters and Richards, assumed leadership after Andrew Loog Oldham became the group's manager. Jones left the band less than a month before his death in 1969, having been replaced by Mick Taylor, who remained until 1974. After Taylor left the band, Ronnie Wood took his place in 1975 and continues on guitar in tandem with Richards. Since Wyman's departure in 1993, Darryl Jones has served as touring bassist; the Stones have not had an official keyboardist since 1963, but have employed several musicians in that role, including Jack Nitzsche, Nicky Hopkins, Billy Preston, Ian McLagan, Chuck Leavell. The Rolling Stones were at the forefront of the British Invasion of bands that became popular in the United States in 1964 and were identified with the youthful and rebellious counterculture of the 1960s.
Rooted in blues and early rock and roll, the band started out playing covers but found more success with their own material. After a short period of experimentation with psychedelic rock in the mid-1960s, the group returned to its "bluesy" roots with Beggars Banquet, which along with its follow-ups Let It Bleed, Sticky Fingers and Exile on Main St. is considered to be the band's best work and is seen as their "Golden Age." It was during this period they were first introduced on stage as "The Greatest Rock and Roll Band in the World."The band continued to release commercially successful albums through the 1970s and early 1980s, including Some Girls and Tattoo You, the two best-sellers in their discography. During the 1980s, the band infighting curtailed their output and they only released two more underperforming albums and did not tour for the rest of the decade, their fortunes changed at the end of the decade, when they released Steel Wheels, promoted by a large stadium and arena tour, the Steel Wheels/Urban Jungle Tour.
Since the 1990s, new material has been less frequent. Despite this, the Rolling Stones continue to be a huge attraction on the live circuit. By 2007, the band had four of the top five highest-grossing concert tours of all time: Voodoo Lounge Tour, Bridges to Babylon Tour, Licks Tour and A Bigger Bang. Musicologist Robert Palmer attributes the endurance of the Rolling Stones to their being "rooted in traditional verities, in rhythm-and-blues and soul music", while "more ephemeral pop fashions have come and gone"; the Rolling Stones were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1989 and the UK Music Hall of Fame in 2004. Rolling Stone magazine ranked them fourth on the "100 Greatest Artists of All Time" list and their estimated record sales are above 250 million, they have released 23 live albums and numerous compilations. Let It Bleed marked the first of five consecutive No. 1 studio and live albums in the UK. Sticky Fingers was the first of eight consecutive No. 1 studio albums in the US.
In 2008, the band ranked 10th on the Billboard Hot 100 All-Time Top Artists chart. In 2012, the band celebrated its 50th anniversary; the band still continues to release albums to critical acclaim. S. and won a Grammy Award for Best Traditional Blues Album. The band continues to sell out venues, they have been on their No Filter Tour since September, 2017 and will wrap up the tour with a North American leg over Summer 2019. Keith Richards and Mick Jagger became childhood classmates in 1950 in Dartford, Kent; the Jagger family moved to Wilmington, five miles away, in 1954. In the mid-1950s, Jagger formed a garage band with his friend Dick Taylor. Jagger met Richards again on 17 October 1961 on platform two of Dartford railway station; the Chuck Berry and Muddy Waters records. A musical partnership began shortly afterwards. Richards and Taylor met Jagger at his house; the meetings moved to Taylor's house in late 1961 where Alan Etherington and Bob Beckwith joined the trio. In March 1962, the Blues Boys read about the Ealing Jazz Club in Jazz News newspaper, which mentioned Alexis Korner's rhythm and blues band, Blues Incorporated.
The group sent a tape of their best recordings to Korner, favourably impressed. On 7 April, they visited the Ealing Jazz Club where they met the members of Blues Incorporated, who included slide guitarist Brian Jones, keyboardist Ian Stewart and drummer Charlie Watts. After a meeting with Korner and Richards started jamming with the group. Jones, no longer in a band, advertised for bandmates in Jazz Weekly, while Stewart found them a practice space. Soon after, Jagger and Richards left Blues Incorporated to join Jones and Stewart; the first rehearsal included guitarist Geoff Bradford and vocalist Brian Knight, both of whom decided not to join the band. They objected to playing the Chuck Berry and Bo Diddley songs preferred by Jagger and R
Led Zeppelin were an English rock band formed in London in 1968. The group consisted of guitarist Jimmy Page, singer Robert Plant, bassist/keyboardist John Paul Jones, drummer John Bonham. Along with Black Sabbath and Deep Purple, the band's heavy, guitar-driven sound has led them to be cited as one of the progenitors of heavy metal, their style drew from a wide variety of influences, including blues and folk music. After changing their name from the New Yardbirds, Led Zeppelin signed a deal with Atlantic Records that afforded them considerable artistic freedom. Although the group were unpopular with critics, they achieved significant commercial success with eight studio albums released over eleven years, from Led Zeppelin to In Through the Out Door, their untitled fourth studio album known as Led Zeppelin IV and featuring the song "Stairway to Heaven", is among the most popular and influential works in rock music, it helped to secure the group's popularity. Page wrote most of Led Zeppelin's music early in their career, while Plant supplied the lyrics.
Jones' keyboard-based compositions became central to the group's catalogue, which featured increasing experimentation. The latter half of their career saw a series of record-breaking tours that earned the group a reputation for excess and debauchery. Although they remained commercially and critically successful, their output and touring schedule were limited during the late 1970s, the group disbanded following Bonham's death from alcohol-related asphyxia in 1980. In the decades that followed, the surviving members sporadically collaborated and participated in one-off Led Zeppelin reunions; the most successful of these was the 2007 Ahmet Ertegun Tribute Concert in London, with Jason Bonham taking his late father's place behind the drums. Many critics consider Led Zeppelin to be one of the most successful and influential rock groups in history, they are one of the best-selling music artists in the history of audio recording. With RIAA-certified sales of 111.5 million units, they are the third-best-selling band in the US.
Each of their nine studio albums placed in the top 10 of the Billboard album chart and six reached the number-one spot. They achieved eight consecutive UK number-one albums. Rolling Stone magazine described them as "the heaviest band of all time", "the biggest band of the Seventies", "unquestionably one of the most enduring bands in rock history", they were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1995. In 1966, London-based session guitarist Jimmy Page joined the blues-influenced rock band the Yardbirds to replace bassist Paul Samwell-Smith. Page soon switched from bass to lead guitar. Following Beck's departure in October 1966, the Yardbirds, tired from constant touring and recording, began to wind down. Page wanted to form a supergroup with him and Beck on guitars, the Who's Keith Moon and John Entwistle on drums and bass, respectively. Vocalists Steve Winwood and Steve Marriott were considered for the project; the group never formed, although Page and Moon did record a song together in 1966, "Beck's Bolero", in a session that included bassist-keyboardist John Paul Jones.
The Yardbirds played their final gig in July 1968 at Luton College of Technology in Bedfordshire. They were still committed to several concerts in Scandinavia, so drummer Jim McCarty and vocalist Keith Relf authorised Page and bassist Chris Dreja to use "the Yardbirds" name to fulfill the band's obligations. Page and Dreja began putting a new line-up together. Page's first choice for the lead singer was Terry Reid, but Reid declined the offer and suggested Robert Plant, a singer for the Band of Joy and Hobbstweedle. Plant accepted the position, recommending former Band of Joy drummer John Bonham. John Paul Jones inquired about the vacant position of bass guitarist at the suggestion of his wife after Dreja dropped out of the project to become a photographer. Page had known Jones since they were both session musicians and agreed to let him join as the final member; the four played together for the first time in a room below a record store on Gerrard Street in London. Page suggested that they attempt "Train Kept A-Rollin'" a jump blues song popularised in a rockabilly version by Johnny Burnette, covered by the Yardbirds.
"As soon as I heard John Bonham play", Jones recalled, "I knew this was going to be great... We locked together as a team immediately". Before leaving for Scandinavia, the group took part in a recording session for the P. J. Proby album, Three Week Hero; the album's track "Jim's Blues", with Plant on harmonica, was the first studio track to feature all four future members of Led Zeppelin. The band completed the Scandinavian tour as the New Yardbirds, playing together for the first time in front of a live audience at Gladsaxe Teen Clubs in Gladsaxe, Denmark, on 7 September 1968; that month, they began recording their first album, based on their live set. The album was recorded and mixed in nine days, Page covered the costs. After the album's completion, the band were forced to change their name after Dreja issued a cease and desist letter, stating that Page was allowed to use the New Yardbirds moniker for the Scandinavian dates only. One account of how the new band's name was chosen held that Moon and Entwistle had suggested that a supergroup with Page and Beck would go down like a "lead balloon", an idiom for disastrous results.
The group dropped the'a' in lead at the suggestion
Burbank is a city in Los Angeles County in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of Southern California, United States, 12 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles. The population at the 2010 census was 103,340. Billed as the "Media Capital of the World" and only a few miles northeast of Hollywood, numerous media and entertainment companies are headquartered or have significant production facilities in Burbank, including Warner Bros. Entertainment, The Walt Disney Company, Nickelodeon Animation Studios, The Burbank Studios, Cartoon Network Studios with the West Coast branch of Cartoon Network, Insomniac Games; the Hollywood Burbank Airport was the location of Lockheed's Skunk Works, which produced some of the most secret and technologically advanced airplanes, including the U-2 spy planes that uncovered the Soviet Union missile components in Cuba in October 1962. Burbank consists of two distinct areas: a downtown/foothill section, in the foothills of the Verdugo Mountains, the flatland section; the city was referred to as "Beautiful Downtown Burbank" on Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In and The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson.
The city was named after David Burbank, a New Hampshire–born dentist and entrepreneur who established a sheep ranch there in 1867. The city of Burbank occupies land, part of two Spanish and Mexican-era colonial land grants, the 36,400-acre Rancho San Rafael, granted to Jose Maria Verdugo by the Spanish Bourbon government in 1784, the 4,063-acre Rancho Providencia created in 1821; this area was the scene of a military skirmish which resulted in the unseating of the Spanish Governor of California, his replacement by the Mexican leader Pio Pico. Remnants of the military battle were found many years in the vicinity of Warner Bros. Studio when residents dug up cannonballs. Dr. David Burbank purchased over 4,600 acres of the former Verdugo holding and another 4,600 acres of the Rancho Providencia in 1867 and built a ranch house and began to raise sheep and grow wheat on the ranch. By 1876, the San Fernando Valley became the largest wheat-raising area in Los Angeles County, but the droughts of the 1860s and 1870s underlined the need for steady water supplies.
A professionally trained dentist, Burbank began his career in Maine. He joined the great migration westward in the early 1850s and, by 1853 was living in San Francisco. At the time the American Civil War broke out he was again well established in his profession as a dentist in Pueblo de Los Angeles. In 1867, he purchased Rancho La Providencia from David W. Alexander and Francis Mellus, he purchased the western portion of the Rancho San Rafael from Jonathan R. Scott. Burbank's property reached nearly 9,200 acres at a cost of $9,000. Burbank would not acquire full titles to both properties until after a court decision known as the "Great Partition" was made in 1871 dissolving the Rancho San Rafael, he became known as one of the largest and most successful sheep raisers in southern California, as a result, he closed his dentistry practice and invested in real estate in Los Angeles. Burbank later owned the Burbank Theatre, which opened on November 27, 1893, at a cost of $150,000. Though the theater was intended to be an opera house, instead it staged plays and became known nationally.
The theatre featured famous actors of the time including Fay Bainter and Marjorie Rambeau, until it had deteriorated into a burlesque house. When the area that became Burbank was settled in the 1870s and 1880s, the streets were aligned along what is now Olive Avenue, the road to the Cahuenga Pass and downtown Los Angeles; these were the roads the Native Americans traveled and the early settlers took their produce down to Los Angeles to sell and to buy supplies along these routes. At the time, the primary long-distance transportation methods available to San Fernando Valley residents were stagecoach and train. Stagecoaching between Los Angeles and San Francisco through the Valley began in 1858; the Southern Pacific Railroad arrived in the Valley in 1876, completing the route connecting San Francisco and Los Angeles. A shrewd businessman, foreseeing the value of rail transport, Burbank sold Southern Pacific Railroad a right-of-way through the property for one dollar; the first train passed through Burbank on April 5, 1874.
A boom created by a rate war between the Santa Fe and Southern Pacific brought people streaming into California shortly thereafter, a group of speculators purchased much of Burbank's land holdings in 1886 for $250,000. One account suggests Burbank may have sold his property because of a severe drought that year, which caused a shortage of water and grass for his livestock. 1,000 of his sheep died due to the drought conditions. The group of speculators who bought the acreage formed the Providencia Land and Development Company and began developing the land, calling the new town Burbank after its founder, began offering farm lots on May 1, 1887; the townsite had Burbank Boulevard/Walnut Avenue as the northern boundary, Grandview Avenue as the southern boundary, the edge of the Verdugo Mountains as the eastern boundary and Clybourn Avenue was the western border. The establishment of a water system in 1887 allowed farmers to irrigate their orchards and provided a stronger base for agricultural development.
The original plot of the new townsite of Burbank extended from what is now Burbank Boulevard on the north, to Grandview Avenue in Glendale, California on the south, from the top of the Verdugo Hills on the east to what is now known as Clybourn Avenue on the west. At the same time, the arrival of the railroad provided immediate access for the farmers to bring crops to market. Packing houses and warehouses were built alo