The Willis Tower is a 110-story, 1,450-foot skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois. At completion in 1973, it surpassed the World Trade Center in New York City to become the tallest building in the world, a title that it held for nearly 25 years. While it held the title of "Tallest Office Building" until 2014, it lost the title of "Tallest Man-Made Structure" after only 3 years; the CN Tower in Toronto, which serves as a communications tower, took over the title in 1976. The Willis Tower is considered a seminal achievement for architect Fazlur Rahman Khan, it is the third-tallest building in the United States and the Western hemisphere – and the 23rd-tallest in the world. Each year, more than one million people visit its observation deck, the highest in the United States, making it one of Chicago's most popular tourist destinations; the structure was renamed in 2009 by the Willis Group as a term of its lease. As of April 2018, the building's largest tenant is United Airlines, which moved its corporate headquarters from 77 West Wacker Drive in 2012, occupying around 20 floors.
Other major tenants include the building's namesake Willis Group and law firms Schiff Hardin and Seyfarth Shaw. Morgan Stanley plans to move to the building in 2019 and become its fourth-largest tenant by 2020. In 1969, Roebuck & Co. was the largest retailer in the world, with about 350,000 employees. Sears executives decided to consolidate the thousands of employees in offices distributed throughout the Chicago area into one building on the western edge of Chicago's Loop. Sears asked its outside counsel, Gluck, Weitzenfeld & Minow to suggest a location; the firm consulted with local and federal authorities and the applicable law offered Sears two options: the Goose Island area northwest of downtown, a two-block area bounded by Franklin Street on the east, Jackson Boulevard on the south, Wacker Drive on the west and Adams Street on the north, with Quincy Street running through the middle from east to west. After selection of the latter site, permits to vacate Quincy Street were obtained. Attorneys from the Arnstein firm, headed by Andrew Adsit, began buying the properties parcel by parcel.
Sears purchased 15 old buildings from 100 owners and paid $2.7 million to the City of Chicago for the portion of Quincy Street the project absorbed. Sears, which needed 3,000,000 square feet of office space for its planned consolidation and predicted growth, commissioned architects Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, their team of Colombian-Peruvian architect Bruce Graham and Bangladeshi-Pakistani structural engineer Fazlur Rahman Khan designed the building as nine square "tubes", clustered in a 3×3 matrix forming a square base with 225-foot sides. All nine tubes would rise up to the 50th floor of the building, where the northwest and southeast tubes terminate; the northeast and southwest tubes reach the 66th floor. The remaining west and center tubes reach 108 floors; the Sears Tower was the first building to use this innovative design. It was both structurally efficient and economic: at 1,450 feet, it provided more space and rose higher than the Empire State Building and cost much less per unit area.
The system would prove influential in skyscraper construction and has been used in most supertall buildings since, including the world's current tallest building, the Burj Khalifa. To honor Khan's contributions, the Structural Engineers Association of Illinois commissioned a sculpture of him for the lobby of the Willis Tower. Sears decided to focus their initial occupancy on housing their merchandise group, renting out the remaining space to other tenants until needed; the latter floor areas had to be designed to a smaller footprint with a high window-space to floor-space ratio to be attractive to prospective lessees. Smaller floorplates required a taller structure to yield sufficient square footage. Skidmore architects proposed a tower with large, 55,000-square-foot floors in the lower part of the building with tapered floorplates in a series of setbacks, which would give the tower its distinctive look; as Sears continued to offer optimistic projections for growth, the tower's proposed floor count increased into the low hundreds, surpassing the height of New York's unfinished World Trade Center to become the world's tallest building.
The height was restricted by a limit imposed by the Federal Aviation Administration to protect air traffic. The financing of the tower was provided by Sears, it was topped with two antennas for radio broadcasting. Sears and the City of Chicago approved the design and the first steel was put in place in April 1971; the structure was completed in May 1973. The construction cost about US$150 million, equivalent to $860 million in 2020 dollars. By comparison, Taipei 101, built in 2004, cost the equivalent of US$2.21 billion in 2018 dollars. Black bands appear on the tower around the 29th–32nd, 64th–65th, 88th–89th, 104th–108th floors; these elements are louvres to ventilate the building's environmental support systems and obscure its belted trusses. Though regulations did not require a fire sprinkler system, the building was equipped with one from the beginning. There are around 40,000 sprinkler heads in the building, installed at a cost of $4 million. In February 1982, two television antennas were added to the structure, increasing its total height to 1,707 feet.
The western antenna was extended, bringing the overall height to 1,729 feet (52
Batteries Not Included is a 1987 American comic science fiction film directed by Matthew Robbins about small extraterrestrial living spaceships that save an apartment block under threat from property development. The story was intended to be featured in the television series Amazing Stories, but executive producer Steven Spielberg liked the idea so much that he decided to adapt it into a film, it was the feature film screenwriting debut of Brad Bird. Frank and Faye Riley, an elderly couple who manage an apartment building and café in the East Village, come under threat by a nearby property development; the development manager, sends a hoodlum named Carlos and his gang of thugs to bribe the couple and their tenants to move out. When the tenants resist and his thugs punch through artist Mason Baylor's door, intimidate pregnant single mother Marisa Esteval, break retired boxer Harry Noble's jar of tiles. After Frank Riley refuses to move, Carlos vandalizes the café; this assault convinces three of the tenants to move out.
Mason's girlfriend, Pamela is tired of living in an old, depressing building with a guy whose art career is going nowhere. She dumps Mason, packs up and before leaving, advises Mason to quit being an artist and get a steady job; the Rileys' friends and Sid Hogensin take Lacey's bribe and decide to move to a retirement home in New Jersey. Frank feels a little betrayed by the Hogensins for taking Lacey's money but they explain that the building doesn't feel like home anymore, they advise Frank. With the assault and Faye's dementia growing, Frank contemplates giving in. Things look bleak until the appearance of a pair of small living space ships into the Rileys' apartment that evening, repairing many of the items that were broken, they repair the vandalized cafe, putting Frank and Faye back in business. The two aliens take up residence in the shed at the top of the apartment building, are dubbed "The Fix-Its" by the residents. Carlos comes back to threaten the tenants once again, but the Fix-Its lure him to the top of the building and into the shed where they scare him away.
Faye and Marisa learn. After consuming plenty of metal and electrical objects, it gives birth to three baby Fix-Its, although one of them is stillborn. Faye buries the stillborn in a flowerbox the next day, but Harry digs it up, takes it back to his apartment, succeeds in reviving it by taking apart his precious television set. Frank and Faye see a boost of business in the café from the demolition crew, while the Fix-Its help in the kitchen. Mason and Marisa grow closer. Marisa finds Mason's paintings nice, which makes Mason feel better about his art and not to give up on it. Marisa's baby is due in 2 to 3 months, her boyfriend, a musician and the father of her baby, comes over. Mason leaves Marisa and Hector alone. Marisa explains that his band have found a steady gig in Chicago with good pay. Mason wonders. Marisa confesses that she told Hector to go without her because their relationship just wasn't working out, but it appears she has developed feelings for Mason. Mason has developed feelings for her as well.
With Carlos unable to prove the existence of the Fix-Its, foiling their plans, Lacey is furious with the delays in evicting the tenants and moves to replace him. Desperate to see the job done and growing more unstable, Carlos breaks into the building's basement to sabotage the building's pipework and electricity, badly damages the "father" machine in the process. After Harry throws him out, the tenants discover the Fix-It children are missing and go searching for them in the city while Faye stays behind with the "mother" machine as it fixes the "father"; when the "father" machine is repaired, the now-wary Fix-It parents leave to seek out their offspring. After finding them with Harry, the machine family departs from the planet. Tired of the delays, Lacey hires an arsonist; the arsonist attempts to burn down the building in a staged "accidental fire". Carlos discovers the plan and in a rage sabotages the arson to make the entire building explode, only to discover that Faye is still in the building.
While the arsonist flees, Carlos unsuccessfully attempts to pose as her late son Bobby to get her to leave, but succeeds in rescuing her as the fire spreads. The tenants return to find the blazing apartment block collapsing, Faye being loaded into an ambulance. By the next morning, the apartment block has been reduced to a smoldering wreck. To Kovacs' fury the construction crew, out of respect for Harry, refuse to continue as he is sitting dejected on the steps. Harry is greeted by the mechanical family that night, who have recruited countless other Fix-Its for repairs. By the next morning, the entire building has been seamlessly restored to brand new condition, ending Lacey's demolition plans and resulting in him terminating Kovacs. Mason and Marisa settle into a relationship, while Carlos tries to start a friendship with the Rileys, with Faye having come to accept her real son's passing; some years the developments have been built, but this time flanking either side of the tiny apartment building, with Frank's café now doing a roaring trade as a result of the new employment brought into the area.
Principal photography started in New York in August 1986, but location scouting began a year before. "Since the story called for a solitary building amidst rubble," explained producer Ronald Schwary, "we had to find a vacant lot with burned-out buildings all around it. We settled on an actual building on 8th Street between Avenues C an
Andy Kelly is a former American football quarterback in the Arena Football League. He played in the AFL for fifteen seasons for a total of eight different teams, he played for two seasons for the Rhein Fire of the former World League of American Football. He played college football at the University of Tennessee from 1988 to 1991. Kelly attended Rhea County High School in Tennessee; as a member of the Golden Eagles high school football team, he won Gatorade All-America honors in football as a senior. Kelly was a successful collegiate quarterback at the University of Tennessee from 1988–1991 under head coach Johnny Majors, he took over as a starter for Sterling Henton in the 1989 SEC rivalry game against the Alabama Crimson Tide. He became part of Tennessee football lore as part of team that accomplished a 35–34 at Notre Dame dubbed as "The Miracle at South Bend"; the Vols trailed at one point 31–7 before Kelly helped instrument a comeback to beat the Fighting Irish. He set numerous Tennessee and SEC passing records, most of them broken by his successor at Tennessee, Peyton Manning.
Kelly's predominant professional football career was as an Arena Football League quarterback, playing some of his career with the New Orleans VooDoo, for whom he played for in 2005 and 2007, and, the last team for which he appeared as a player. He played for the Charlotte Rage, Nashville Kats, Dallas Desperados, Detroit Fury, Kansas City Brigade, Utah Blaze. At the end of the 2006 season, he held several all-time AFL career records, including touchdown passes, passing yards, pass attempts, pass completions, interceptions. On Friday, April 27, 2007, in a 72–57 home loss to their division-mate, the Georgia Force, Kelly joined Aaron Garcia, Clint Dolezel, Sherdrick Bonner as the only quarterbacks in professional football history to throw for over 800 career touchdowns. On December 6, 2007, Kelly was named the head coach of the proposed new All American Football League's Tennessee team. However, the league suspended operations March 12, 2008, Kelly signed with the Georgia Force two weeks on March 26, 2008, but never participated in any games as an active player for the Force.
Kelly retired as an Arena Football player following the 2008 season and serves as a commentator on Tennessee Volunteers football radio broadcasts. In June 2013, Kelly was nominated for the Arena Football Hall of Fame. After his professional football career, Kelly became a full-time insurance agent for State Farm. Andy Kelly at ArenaFan Online Just Sports Stats Andy Kelly's NFL Europe Stats at The Football Database