International Standard Serial Number
An International Standard Serial Number is an eight-digit serial number used to uniquely identify a serial publication, such as a magazine. The ISSN is helpful in distinguishing between serials with the same title. ISSN are used in ordering, interlibrary loans, other practices in connection with serial literature; the ISSN system was first drafted as an International Organization for Standardization international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975. ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for maintaining the standard; when a serial with the same content is published in more than one media type, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type. For example, many serials are published both in electronic media; the ISSN system refers to these types as electronic ISSN, respectively. Conversely, as defined in ISO 3297:2007, every serial in the ISSN system is assigned a linking ISSN the same as the ISSN assigned to the serial in its first published medium, which links together all ISSNs assigned to the serial in every medium.
The format of the ISSN is an eight digit code, divided by a hyphen into two four-digit numbers. As an integer number, it can be represented by the first seven digits; the last code digit, which may be 0-9 or an X, is a check digit. Formally, the general form of the ISSN code can be expressed as follows: NNNN-NNNC where N is in the set, a digit character, C is in; the ISSN of the journal Hearing Research, for example, is 0378-5955, where the final 5 is the check digit, C=5. To calculate the check digit, the following algorithm may be used: Calculate the sum of the first seven digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right—that is, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, respectively: 0 ⋅ 8 + 3 ⋅ 7 + 7 ⋅ 6 + 8 ⋅ 5 + 5 ⋅ 4 + 9 ⋅ 3 + 5 ⋅ 2 = 0 + 21 + 42 + 40 + 20 + 27 + 10 = 160 The modulus 11 of this sum is calculated. For calculations, an upper case X in the check digit position indicates a check digit of 10. To confirm the check digit, calculate the sum of all eight digits of the ISSN multiplied by its position in the number, counting from the right.
The modulus 11 of the sum must be 0. There is an online ISSN checker. ISSN codes are assigned by a network of ISSN National Centres located at national libraries and coordinated by the ISSN International Centre based in Paris; the International Centre is an intergovernmental organization created in 1974 through an agreement between UNESCO and the French government. The International Centre maintains a database of all ISSNs assigned worldwide, the ISDS Register otherwise known as the ISSN Register. At the end of 2016, the ISSN Register contained records for 1,943,572 items. ISSN and ISBN codes are similar in concept. An ISBN might be assigned for particular issues of a serial, in addition to the ISSN code for the serial as a whole. An ISSN, unlike the ISBN code, is an anonymous identifier associated with a serial title, containing no information as to the publisher or its location. For this reason a new ISSN is assigned to a serial each time it undergoes a major title change. Since the ISSN applies to an entire serial a new identifier, the Serial Item and Contribution Identifier, was built on top of it to allow references to specific volumes, articles, or other identifiable components.
Separate ISSNs are needed for serials in different media. Thus, the print and electronic media versions of a serial need separate ISSNs. A CD-ROM version and a web version of a serial require different ISSNs since two different media are involved. However, the same ISSN can be used for different file formats of the same online serial; this "media-oriented identification" of serials made sense in the 1970s. In the 1990s and onward, with personal computers, better screens, the Web, it makes sense to consider only content, independent of media; this "content-oriented identification" of serials was a repressed demand during a decade, but no ISSN update or initiative occurred. A natural extension for ISSN, the unique-identification of the articles in the serials, was the main demand application. An alternative serials' contents model arrived with the indecs Content Model and its application, the digital object identifier, as ISSN-independent initiative, consolidated in the 2000s. Only in 2007, ISSN-L was defined in the
Andover is a town in Essex County, United States. It was settled in 1642 and incorporated in 1646; as of the 2010 census, the population was 33,201. It is part of the Boston-Cambridge-Quincy, Massachusetts-New Hampshire metropolitan statistical area. Part of the town comprises the census-designated place of Andover, it is twinned with its namesake: Andover, England. In 1642, the Massachusetts General Court set aside a portion of land in what is now Essex County for an inland plantation, including parts of what is now Andover, North Andover and South Lawrence. In order to encourage settlement, early colonists were offered three years' immunity from taxes and services; the first permanent settlement in the Andover area was established in 1642 by John Woodbridge and a group of settlers from Newbury and Ipswich. Shortly after they arrived, they purchased a piece of land from the local Pennacook tribal chief Cutshamache for "six pounds of currency and a coat" and on the condition that Roger, a local Pennacook man, would be allowed to plant his corn and take alewives from a local water source.
Roger's Brook, a small stream which cuts through the eastern part of town, is named in his honor. In May 1646 the settlement was named Andover; this name was chosen in honor of the town of Andover in England, near the original home of some of the first residents. The first recorded town meeting was held in 1656 in the home of settler John Osgood in what is now North Andover; the old burying ground in what is now North Andover marks the center of the early town. Contrary to popular belief, the towns split due to the location of the Old North Church located in what is now North Andover; the villagers from the southwestern part of the town were tired of walking all the way to the extreme north of what was Andover and decided to build their own South Church central to what is now Andover. Early on the general populace was concentrated together around the Old Center for protection from feared Indian attacks, but the Indians were peaceful until the outbreak of King Philip's War. King Philip Six Indian raids occurred with the last in 1698 led by Chief Escumbuit.
During the 1692 Salem witch trials, Andover resident Joseph Ballard asked for help for his wife from several girls in the neighboring Salem Village who were identifying witches there. After visiting Elizabeth Ballard, the girls claimed that several people in Andover had bewitched her: Ann Foster, her daughter Mary Lacey Sr. and her granddaughter Mary Lacey Jr. During the course of the legal proceedings, more than 40 Andover citizens women and their children, were formally accused of having made a covenant with the Devil. Three Andover residents, Martha Carrier, Mary Parker, Samuel Wardwell, were convicted and executed. Five others either pleaded guilty at arraignment or were convicted at trial: Ann Foster, Mary Lacey Sr. and Abigail Faulkner Sr. in 1692 and Wardwell's wife Sarah and Rev. Dane's granddaughter, Elizabeth Johnson Jr. in 1693. Those who were not executed were granted reprieves by Gov. William Phips, but the convictions remained on their records. In 1713, in response to petitions initiated in 1703 by Abigail Faulkner Sr. and Sarah Wardwell, Massachusetts Governor Joseph Dudley reversed the attainder on the names of those who were convicted in the episode.
By 1705, Andover's population had begun to move southward and the idea of a new meeting house in the south end of town was proposed. This was opposed by the people living near the original meeting house in the north, but the dispute was settled in 1709 when the Great and General Court divided Andover into two parishes and South. After the division of the two parishes, South Andover established the South Church and South Parish "Burying-Yard," as it was called, with early Andover settler Robert Russell the first to be interred at age 80 in December 1710, but despite this split, the town remained politically one unit. For many years Andover was geographically one of the largest towns in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. In 1854, a measure was passed to divide the town into two separate political units according to the old parish boundaries; the name Andover was assumed by the West and South parishes, while the name North Andover was given to the North Parish. How those names were decided upon is still debated to this day, from the reasons being money being paid to one town to keep the name, to there being a controversy over a fire truck affecting the name change.
Records show that on the morning of April 19, 1775 350 Andover men marched toward Lexington. Although they did not arrive in time for the battle that day, they did go on to participate in the battle of Bunker Hill two months and fought in subsequent skirmishes with the Redcoats during the war. Among the Andover men who were representatives to the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention of 1779–1780 were Colonel Samuel Osgood, Zebadiah Abbot, John Farnum and Samuel Phillips Jr.. Phillips – who would go on to found Phillips Academy – was appointed by John Adams to help draft the Massachusetts state constitution. During the burning of Charlestown Andover townspeople hiked to the top of Holt Hill to witness it. Holt Hill is the highest point in Essex County at 420 ft and is part of the Charles W. Ward Reservation. In November 1798, David Brown led a group in Dedham, Massachusetts in setting up a liberty pole with the words, "No Stamp Act, No Sedition Act, No Alien Bills, No Land Tax, downfall to the Tyrants of Amer
Good Morning America
Good Morning America is an American morning television show, broadcast on ABC. It debuted on November 3, 1975, first expanded to weekends with the debut of a Sunday edition on January 3, 1993; the Sunday edition was canceled in 1999. The weekday program airs from 7:00 to 9:00 a.m. in all U. S. time zones. The Saturday and Sunday editions are one hour long and are transmitted to ABC's stations live at 7:00 a.m. Eastern Time, although stations in some markets air them at different times. Viewers in the Pacific Time Zone receive an updated feed with a specialized opening and updated live reports. A third hour of the weekday broadcast aired from 2007 to 2008 on ABC News Now; the program features news, weather forecasts, special-interest stories, feature segments such as "Pop News", the "GMA Heat Index" and "Play of the Day". It is produced by ABC News and broadcasts from the Times Square Studios in New York City's Times Square district; the primary anchors are Robin Roberts, George Stephanopoulos, Michael Strahan alongside breaking news anchor Amy Robach, entertainment anchor Lara Spencer and weather anchor Ginger Zee.
Good Morning America has been the most watched morning show in total viewers and key demos each year since Summer 2012. GMA placed second in the ratings, behind NBC's Today from 1995 to 2012, it overtook its rival for a period from the early to mid-1980s with anchors David Hartman and Joan Lunden, from the late 1980s to the mid-1990s with Charles Gibson and Lunden, in April 2012 with Roberts and Stephanopoulos. Good Morning America won the first three Daytime Emmy Awards for "Outstanding Morning Program", sharing the inaugural 2007 award with Today and winning the 2008 and 2009 awards outright. On January 6, 1975, ABC launched AM America in an attempt to compete with NBC's Today; the program was hosted by Bill Beutel and Stephanie Edwards, with Peter Jennings and Robert Kennedy reading the news. Because the show could not find an audience against Today, ABC sought a new approach; the network found that one of its affiliates, WEWS in Cleveland, had been pre-empting AM America in favor of airing a locally produced show called The Morning Exchange.
Unlike AM America and Today, The Morning Exchange featured an easygoing and less dramatic approach by offering news and weather updates only at the top and bottom of every hour and used the rest of the time to discuss general-interest/entertainment topics. The Morning Exchange established a group of regular guests who were experts in certain fields, including health, consumer affairs and travel. Unlike both the NBC and ABC shows, The Morning Exchange was not broadcast from a newsroom set but instead one that resembled a suburban living room. In the process of screening the Cleveland morning program as a creative source, ABC began looking at another local show, Good Morning!, produced by Boston ABC affiliate WCVB-TV. Good Morning! was similar in format to The Morning Exchange, but with a lesser emphasis on news and weather. In fact, once the revamped ABC morning show took to the air late in 1975 under the title Good Morning America, WCVB station manager Bob Bennett accused ABC entertainment president Fred Silverman of deliberately stealing the title of Good Morning!.
The launch of Good Morning America did result in the Boston morning show changing its name—to Good Day!. ABC used it as a pilot episode. After positive reviews for the pilot, the format replaced AM America on Monday, November 3, as Good Morning America; the first host was actor David Hartman, with actress Nancy Dussault as co-host. For the first seven years, weather forecasts were presented by John Coleman, former chief meteorologist for ABC owned-and-operated station WLS-TV in Chicago, who left GMA in 1982 to start The Weather Channel with Landmark Communications CEO Frank Batten. Dave Murray provided the forecasts for both Good Morning America and ABC's early morning news program ABC News This Morning from 1983 to 1986. In August 1986, he was replaced by Spencer Christian, who worked at WABC-TV in New York City and served as fill-in meteorologist for both Coleman and Murray whenever they were away on vacation or assignment; the program's ratings climbed but throughout the 1970s and into the 1980s while Today experienced a slight slump in viewership with Walters' decision to leave NBC for a job at ABC News.
On August 30, 1976, Tom Brokaw began anchoring Today while the program began a search for a female co-host. Within a year, Today managed to beat back the Good Morning America ratings threat with Brokaw and new co-host Jane Pauley, featuring art and entertainment contributor Gene Shalit. Good Morning America continued to threaten Today's ratings dominance into the 1980s after Brokaw left the latter program to become co-anchor of NBC Nightly News with Roger Mudd for 17 months before being named sole anchor of that program. For the first time, Good Morning America became the highest-rated morning news program in the United States as Today fell to second place. At the outset, Good Morning America was a talk program with a main host, joined by a side
Today (U.S. TV program)
Today called The Today Show, is an American news and talk morning television show that airs on NBC. The program debuted on January 14, 1952, it was the first of its genre on American television and in the world, after 67 years of broadcasting it is the fifth-longest-running American television series. A weekday two-hour program from 7 to 9 a.m. it expanded to Sundays in 1987 and Saturdays in 1992. The weekday broadcast expanded to three hours in 2000, to four hours in 2007. Today's dominance was unchallenged by the other networks until the late 1980s, when it was overtaken by ABC's Good Morning America. Today retook the Nielsen ratings lead the week of December 11, 1995, held onto that position for 852 consecutive weeks until the week of April 9, 2012, when Good Morning America topped it again. Today maintained its No. 2 status behind GMA from the summer of 2012 until it regained the lead in the aftermath of anchor Matt Lauer's departure in November 2017. In 2002, Today was ranked No. 17 on TV Guide's 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time.
The entertainment magazine Variety reported the 2016 advertising revenue during the first two hours of the show was $508.8 million. The show's first broadcast aired on January 14, 1952 as the brainchild of television executive Sylvester Weaver, vice president of NBC. Weaver was president of the company from 1953 to 1955, during which time Today's late-night companion The Tonight Show premiered. In pre-production, the show's proposed working title was Shine Revue. Today was the first program of its genre; the program blended national news headlines, interviews with newsmakers, lifestyle features, other light news and gimmicks, local news updates from the network's stations. It has spawned several other shows of a similar type, including ABC's Good Morning America, CBS' now-defunct The Early Show. In other countries, the format was copied – most notably in the United Kingdom with the BBC's Breakfast Time and TV-am's Good Morning Britain, in Canada with Canada AM on CTV; when Today debuted, it was seen live only in the Eastern and Central time zones, broadcasting for three hours each morning but seen for only two hours in each time zone.
Since 1958, Today has been tape-delayed for the five other U. S. time zones. To accommodate host Dave Garroway's declining health, the program ceased live broadcasts in the summer of 1958, opting instead to broadcast an edition taped the previous afternoon; the experiment, which drew criticism from many sides, ended when John Chancellor replaced Garroway in July 1961. Today was a two-hour program for many years, airing from 7:00 to 9:00 a.m. in all time zones except for Alaska and the U. S. Virgin Islands, until NBC expanded the program to three hours on October 2, 2000. A fourth hour was added on September 10, 2007. NBC stations in some markets, such as WYFF in Greenville, South Carolina, air the third and fourth hours of Today on tape delay. In August 2013, Today released a mobile app for tablets; the program airs live in the Eastern Time Zone and on tape delay beginning at 7:00 a.m. in each of the five remaining time zones. When breaking news stories warrant, Today will broadcast a live West Coast edition.
The live updates do not last longer than the 7:00 a.m. hour and once completed, will return to the taped East Coast feed. When the anchors welcome the viewers to the show, they will note the current time as being "Pacific Time" and continue to note it as such until the tape delay is started. In some instances, when an NBC News Special Report of breaking news occurs during the Today timeslot, the show's anchors will assume hosting responsibilities and the show will go live across all time zones until such time when the Special Report segment finishes. At that point, viewers outside the Eastern Time Zone will return to regularly-scheduled programming. During the first three and a half hours of the program, local affiliates are offered a five-minute window at:25 and:55 minutes past the hour to insert a local newsbreak and local advertisements, although the show provides additional segments for those affiliates who do not provide such a news insert. Certain NBC affiliates that produce an additional morning newscast for a sister station or digital subchannel may pre-tape the local inserts aired during the first one to two hours of Today to focus production responsibilities on their local broadcast.
Starting in June 2014, Sirius XM Satellite Radio began simulcasting Today on a new channel called "Today Show Radio", Channel 108, with The Best of Today starting at 6 am and the Today Show's live broadcast from Studio 1A at Rockefeller Center in New York City starting at 7 am, with a tape delayed broadcast at beginning 7 am Pacific time. On Mondays The Hoda Show with Hoda Kotb is broadcast exclusive on the Today Show Radio channel. On Tuesdays Off the Rails with Al Roker, Dylan Dreyer and Sheinelle Jones airs at 1 pm. On Wednesdays The Happy Hour with the producers of Kathie Lee and Hoda airs, on Thursdays Today Show Confidential with the producers of TODAY airs; the channel simulcasts NBC Nightly News with Lester Holt at 6
Broadcast journalism is the field of news and journals which are "broadcast", that is, published by electrical methods instead of the older methods, such as printed newspapers and posters. Broadcast methods include radio and the World Wide Web; such media disperse visual text and sounds. Broadcast articles can be written as "packages", "readers", "voice-overs" and "sound on tape". A "sack" is common on television, it is narrated by a reporter. It is a story with audio, video and video effects; the news anchor, or presenter reads a "lead-in" before the package is aired and may conclude the story with additional information, called a "tag". A "reader" is an article read without accompanying sound. Sometimes an "over the shoulder digital on-screen graphic" is added. A voice-over, or VO, is a video article narrated by the anchor. Sound on tape, or SOT, is sound or video recorded in the field, it is an interview or soundbite. Radio was the first medium for broadcast journalism. Many of the first radio stations were co-operative community radio ventures not making a profit.
Radio advertising to pay for programs was pioneered in radio. Still, television displaced radio and newspapers as the main news sources for most of the public in industrialized countries; some of the programming on radio is locally produced and some is broadcast by a radio network, for example, by syndication. The "talent" talk including reading the news. People tune in to hear engaging radio personalities and information. In radio news, stories include speech soundbites, the recorded sounds of events themselves, the anchor or host; some radio news contain 12 -- 15 stories. These new bulletins must balance the desire for a broad overview of current events with the audience's limited capacity to focus on a large number of different stories; the radio industry has undergone a radical consolidation of ownership, with fewer companies owning the thousands of stations. Large media conglomerates such as Clear Channel Communications own most of the radio stations in the United States; that has resulted in more "niche" formats and the sharing of resources within clusters of stations, de-emphasizing local news and information.
There has been concern over. The opposition says that the range of political views expressed is narrowed and that local concerns are neglected, including local emergencies, for which communication is critical. Automation has resulted in many stations broadcasting for many hours a day with no one on the station premises; when radio first became popular, it was not used as a source of information. This began to change with a man named Edward R. Murrow. Edward Murrow was an American who traveled to England in order to broadcast news about World War II, he stayed in London throughout the war and was the first to report on events such as bombings in London and updated the people on Hitler's reign. Murrow gained his fame after reporting on Hitler's German army annexing Austria. Many Americans relied on his broadcasts throughout the war to gain information about the war. More people began to rely on radio for information after the attacks on Pearl Harbor. People found out about the bombing through President Roosevelt's broadcast interrupting their daily programming.
It set Americans on edge, people began to rely more on the radio for major announcements throughout World War II. World War II was a time where radio broadcasting became a much larger industry because it was the easiest and quickest way for people to get updates on what was going on throughout the world. Informative radio continued while television reporting began to take flight. Throughout the 40's and 50's television news sources grew, it wasn't until John F. Kennedy's assassination in 1963. Radio could only capture the sound of the event, but television showed people the true horror of the assassination; this was one of the first major events in which news companies competed with each other to get the news out to the public first. CBS News was the first to report that Kennedy was killed. News crews spent the next several days covering everything happening in Washington, including Kennedy's funeral; this set the standard for news stations to have to cover major events quicker and get them out to the public as they were happening.
The JFK assassination helped to transform television journalism to how it is today, with instantaneous coverage and live coverages at major events. Television offered faster coverage than radio and allowed viewers to feel more as if they were experiencing the event because they could visualize what was going on. NBC and CBS were the two competing forces of news broadcasting in the early years of broadcast journalism. NBC was established in 1926 and CBS in 1927. There was a divide in the industry because they were not only competing against each other, but radio news, established. Women had a hard time immersing themselves into radio news seeing as most of the radio broadcasts were men. There was a small number of women who hosted programs that were for homemakers and were on entertainment broadcast. After World War II, the doors for women in broadcasting opened up; this was due to the shortage of men that were home during the war, so news outlets looked to women to fill those
MSNBC is an American pay television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events. MSNBC is owned by the NBCUniversal News Group, a unit of the NBCUniversal Television Group division of NBCUniversal. MSNBC and its website were founded in 1996 under a partnership between Microsoft and General Electric's NBC unit, hence the network's naming. Although they had the same name, msnbc.com and MSNBC maintained separate corporate structures and news operations. Msnbc.com was headquartered on the Microsoft campus in Redmond, Washington while MSNBC operated out of NBC's headquarters in New York City. Microsoft divested its stakes in the MSNBC channel in 2005 and in msnbc.com in July 2012. The general news site was rebranded as NBCNews.com, a new msnbc.com was created as the online home of the cable channel. In the late summer of 2015, MSNBC revamped its programming. MSNBC sought to sharpen its news image by entering into a dual editorial relationship with its organizational parent NBC News.
MSNBC Live, the network's flagship daytime news platform, was expanded to cover over eight hours of the day. Phil Griffin is the president and director of day-to-day operations at MSNBC. Pat Burkey, Janelle Rodriguez, Jonathan Wald oversee programming and news operations, with Brian Williams serving as the channel's chief anchor of breaking news coverage; as of February 2015 94,531,000 households in the United States were receiving MSNBC. Commentators have described MSNBC as having a bias towards left-leaning politics and the Democratic Party. In November 2007, a New York Times article stated that MSNBC's prime-time lineup is tilting more to the left. Fox News media analyst Howard Kurtz, while in the same role at The Washington Post, stated that the channel's evening lineup "has gravitated to the left in recent years and seems to regard itself as the antithesis of Fox News". MSNBC was established under a strategic partnership between Microsoft. NBC executive Tom Rogers was instrumental in developing this partnership.
James Kinsella, a Microsoft executive, served as president of the online component, MSNBC.com, represented the tech company in the joint venture. Microsoft invested $221 million for a 50 percent share of the cable channel. MSNBC and Microsoft shared the cost of a $200 million newsroom in Secaucus, New Jersey, for msnbc.com. The network took over the channel space of NBC's 2-year-old America's Talking network, although in most cases cable carriage had to be negotiated with providers who had never carried AT. MSNBC was launched on July 15, 1996; the first show was anchored by Jodi Applegate and included news and commentary. During the day, rolling news coverage continued with The Contributors, a show that featured Ann Coulter and Laura Ingraham, as well as interactive programming coordinated by Applegate, John Gibson, John Seigenthaler. Stories were longer and more detailed than the stories CNN was running. NBC highlighted their broadcast connections by airing stories directly from NBC's network affiliates, along with breaking news coverage from the same sources.
MSNBC increased its emphasis on politics. After completing its seven-year survey of cable channels, the Project for Excellence in Journalism said in 2007 that, "MSNBC is moving to make politics a brand, with a large dose of opinion and personality."In January 2001, Mike Barnicle's MSNBC show started, but it was canceled in June 2001 because of high production costs. In June, Microsoft chief executive officer Steve Ballmer said that he would not have started MSNBC had he foreseen the difficulty of attracting viewers. After the September 11, 2001 attacks, NBC used MSNBC as an outlet for the up-to-the-minute coverage being provided by NBC News as a supplement to the longer stories on broadcast NBC. With little financial news to cover, CNBC and CNBC Europe ran MSNBC for many hours each day following the attacks; the year boosted the profile of Ashleigh Banfield, present during the collapse of Building 7 while covering the World Trade Center on September 11. Her Region In Conflict program capitalized on her newfound celebrity and showcased exclusive interviews from Afghanistan.
In the aftermath of September 11, MSNBC began calling itself "America’s NewsChannel" and hired opinionated hosts like Alan Keyes, Phil Donahue, Pat Buchanan, Tucker Carlson. On December 23, 2005, NBC Universal announced its acquisition of an additional 32 percent share of MSNBC from Microsoft, which solidified its control over television operations and allowed NBC to further consolidate MSNBC's backroom operations with NBC News and its other cable properties. NBC exercised its option to purchase Microsoft's remaining 18 percent interest in MSNBC. In late 2005, MSNBC began attracting liberal and progressive viewers as Keith Olbermann began critiquing and satirizing conservative media commentators during his Countdown With Keith Olbermann program, he focused his attention on the Fox News Channel and Bill O'Reilly, its principal primetime commentator. On June 7, 2006, Rick Kaplan resigned as president of MSNBC after holding the post for two years. Five days Dan Abrams, a nine-year veteran of MSNBC and NBC News, was named general manager of MSNBC with immediate effect.
NBC News senior vice president Phil Griffin would oversee MSNBC, while continuing to oversee NBC News’ Today program, with Abrams reporting to Griffin. On June 29, 2006, Abrams annou
Phillips Academy Andover is a co-educational university-preparatory school for boarding and day students in grades 9–12, along with a post-graduate year. The school is in Andover, United States, 25 miles north of Boston. Phillips Academy has 1,150 students, is a selective school, accepting 13% of applicants with a yield as high as 86%, it is part of the Eight Schools Association, Ten Schools Admissions Organization as well as the G20 Schools Group. Founded in 1778, Phillips is one of the oldest incorporated secondary schools in the United States, it has educated two American presidents, George H. W. Bush and George W. Bush, as well as a long list of notable alumni: 3 Nobel Prize laureates and 6 Medal of Honor recipients, it has been referred to by many contemporary sources as "the finest school in America". A boarding school for boys, it turned coeducational in 1973, the year in which it merged with its neighbor girls school Abbot Academy. Phillips Academy Andover is the oldest incorporated academy in the United States, established in 1778 by Samuel Phillips, Jr.
His uncle, Dr. John Phillips founded Phillips Exeter Academy in 1781. Phillips Academy's endowment stood at just over one billion dollars as of June 2017. Andover is subject to the control of a board of trustees, headed by Peter Currie, business executive and former Netscape Chief Financial Officer, who took over as president of the Phillips Academy Board of Trustees on July 1, 2012. On November 14, 2012, John G. Palfrey, Jr. Henry N. Ess III Professor of Law and Vice Dean for Library and Information Resources at Harvard Law School, was named the 15th Head of School. Phillips Academy admitted only boys until the school became coeducational in 1973, the year of Phillips Academy's merger with Abbot Academy, a boarding school for girls in Andover. Abbot Academy, founded in 1828, was one of the first incorporated schools for girls in New England. Then-headmaster Theodore Sizer of Phillips and Donald Gordon of Abbot oversaw the merger. Andover traditionally educated its students for Yale, just as Phillips Exeter Academy educated its students for Harvard, Lawrenceville prepped students for Princeton.
The school's student-run newspaper, The Phillipian, is the oldest secondary school newspaper in the United States, the next oldest secondary school newspaper being The Exonian, Phillips Exeter Academy's weekly. The Phillipian was first published on July 28, 1857, has been published since 1878, it retains financial and editorial independence from Phillips Academy, having completed a $500,000 endowment drive in 2014. Students comprise the editorial board and make all decisions for the paper, consulting with two faculty advisors at their own discretion; the Philomathean Society is one of the oldest high school debate societies in the nation, second to the Daniel Webster Debate Society at Phillips Exeter Academy. Phillips Academy runs a five-week summer session for 600 students entering grades 8 through 12. Phillips Academy was founded during the American Revolution as an all-boys school in 1778 by Samuel Phillips, Jr. Phillips Academy's traditional rival is Phillips Exeter Academy, established three years in Exeter, New Hampshire, by Samuel Phillips' uncle, Dr. John Phillips, a major contributor to Andover's founding.
The two schools still maintain a rivalry. The football teams have met nearly every year since 1878, making it the oldest prep school rivalry in the country. In 1882, the first high school lacrosse teams were formed at Phillips Academy, Phillips Exeter Academy and the Lawrenceville School. Several figures from the revolutionary period are associated with the school. George Washington visited the school during his presidency in 1789, Washington's nephews attended the school. John Hancock signed the school's articles of incorporation and the great seal of the school was designed by Paul Revere. For a hundred years of its history, Phillips Academy shared its campus with the Andover Theological Seminary, founded on Phillips Hill in 1807 by orthodox Calvinists who had fled Harvard College after it appointed a liberal Unitarian theologian to a professorship of divinity; the Andover Theological Seminary was independent from Phillips Academy but shared the same board of directors. In 1908, the seminary departed Phillips Academy, leaving behind its key buildings: academic building Pearson Hall, dormitories Foxcroft Hall and Bartlet Hall.
These buildings became part of the Andover campus, expanded in the 1920s and 1930s around this historic core with new buildings of similar Georgian style: Samuel Phillips Hall, George Washington Hall, Samuel Morse Hall, Paul Revere Hall, Oliver Wendell Holmes Library, the Addison Gallery of American Art and Cochran Chapel. Small portions of Andover's campus were laid out by Frederick Law Olmsted, designer of Central Park and himself a graduate of the school. Revere's design of the school's seal incorporated bees, a beehive, the sun; the school's primary motto, Non Sibi, located in the sun, means "not for oneself". The school's second motto, Finis Origine Pendet, meaning "the end depends upon the beginning", is scrolled across the bottom of the seal. Phillips was one of the schools where students on the Chinese Educational Mission were sent to study by the Qing dynasty government from 1878 to 1881. One of the students, Liang Cheng became the Chinese ambassador to the United States. Phillips Academy curriculum and extracurricular activities include music ensembles, 30 competitive sports, a campus newspaper, a radio station, a debate club.
In 1973 Phillips Academy merged with neighboring Abbot Academy, founded in 1829 as one of the first schools for girls in Ne