Finch Avenue is an arterial thoroughfare that travels east–west in Toronto, Canada. The road continues west into the Regional Municipality of Peel as Regional Road 2 and east into the Regional Municipality of Durham Regions as Regional Road 37; the road is considered a high-density transit corridor by Metrolinx. At its intersection with Yonge Street in North York, the Finch subway station and the Finch Bus Terminal carry some of the highest numbers of commuters in the city. Finch Avenue was named after hotel owner John Finch, who operated John Finch's Hotel at the northeast corner of Finch Avenue and Yonge Street in Toronto; the road allowance was a concession road, at one time, there were a number of older churches and cemeteries on each side of the road. In the 1950s, Ontario Hydro built a series of transmission lines around Toronto, paralleled Finch from Highway 400 eastward into Pickering. A compressed natural gas pipeline follows this routing; as suburban development in North York progressed northward in the 1960s, Finch was reconstructed from a gravel road into a four-laned traffic artery.
This began with the realignment of several sections, such as at Bayview where Newtonbrook Creek flows diagonally beneath the crossroads. A rail overpass west of Leslie was built by 1968. In the west, Finch ended at the Humber River at Islington Avenue. A separate western section was constructed as development occurred in the-then Borough of Etobicoke. Traffic proceeding west had to travel on Islington, south across the Humber to Albion Road, west beyond Kipling Avenue to reach it. In the early 1990s, this gap was closed. Earlier, in the 1980s a short extension was built northwestward into Mississauga and Brampton with the construction of Highway 427, turning onto the Gorewood Drive concession. Finch ends at Steeles Avenue, Gorewood Drive continues it for a short distance north of Highway 407, where the concession is cut off by the Claireville Conservation Area; the concession is called MacVean Drive in northeastern Brampton, north of Queen Street, the former Highway 7. It continues into Caledon as Centreville Creek Road.
On August 19, 2005, a freak rainstorm in Toronto caused the Black Creek water level to rise, which caused a section of Finch Avenue West near Sentinel Road to collapse, leaving a deep pit that prevented any pedestrian or vehicular traffic from passing through. The crater left where a 4 lane roadway once was is 20–25 feet deep. Two lanes reopened in late 2005, the remaining lanes opened in April 2006. On July 24, 2009, two sinkholes appeared on Finch Avenue West between Dufferin Street and Bathurst Street. Despite its length, few major landmarks are on Finch; the North York City Centre area, at the intersection with Yonge Street, has many condominium and office high-rises. Most of Finch Avenue west of Morningside Avenue is a four to six-lane principal arterial, with a speed limit of 60 km/h in most sections. East of Morningside, Finch Av. E becomes Staines Rd. a collector road that runs through residential communities, northeast to Steeles Av. E. East of Morningside the road is signed as Old Finch Avenue requiring connections with several north-south streets before continues at the south end of Beare Road heading east as it enters into the City of Pickering in Durham Region after Scarborough-Pickering Townline where it is known as Durham Regional Road 37.
In Pickering, Finch Avenue is known as Durham Road # 37 and continues east to Brock Road. It ends at a cul-de-sac at Kingston Road, Kingston Rd. continues the concession line to the eastern boundary of Oshawa. In Mississauga and Brampton, Finch Avenue is designated as Peel Regional Road 2, is the shortest road corridor under the jurisdiction of the Region of Peel. Finch subway station on Line 1 Yonge–University of the Toronto subway is located at the intersection of Finch Avenue and Yonge Street, it is a major regional transit hub. The Finch Bus Terminal, a hub for GO Transit, York Region Transit and Viva buses, is next to the station. Finch Avenue is served by buses of the Toronto Transit Commission 24 hours a day through regular routes and Blue Night Network routes. One express route, 939 Finch Express, provide faster transit along Finch Avenue and connects to Scarborough Centre station on Line 3 Scarborough in the east. Finch West station of the Toronto–York Spadina Subway Extension on the west branch of Line 1, opened on December 17, 2017, is located at the intersection of Finch Avenue and Keele Street.
In 2007, former mayor David Miller proposed the construction of several light rail lines under the Transit City plan, one of, Line 6 Finch West, proposed to operated between Humber College in the west and Finch West station in the east. After intermittently abandoning the proposal by succeeding mayor Rob Ford, the line was approved for funding by Metrolinx and had been scheduled for completion in 2022, but after consultation with Mosaic Transit Group, the consortium selected to build the line for a construction schedule, Metrolinx delayed completion of the line to 2023. Points of interest along Finch from west to east: Wet'n'Wild Toronto — at Steeles Avenue Malton Indian Line Campground — near Highway 427 Humber College Main Campus — near Highway 27 Etobicoke General Hospita
Bathurst Street (Toronto)
Bathurst Street is a main north-south thoroughfare in Toronto, Canada. It begins at an intersection of the Queens Quay roadway, just north of the Lake Ontario shoreline, it continues north through Toronto to the Toronto boundary at Steeles Avenue. It is a four-lane thoroughfare throughout Toronto; the roadway continues north into York Region where it is known as York Regional Road 38. Bathurst Street begins in the south at the intersection with Queens Quay; the southernmost part of Bathurst, south of the Gardiner Expressway, was industrialized until the 1970s. These factories are now gone; the former Omni Television headquarters are in this area, before they relocated in October 2008 but Rogers Media still owns the building. South of the intersection, Eireann Quay, which used to be a section of Bathurst Street, runs south to the Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport ferry dock and the Western Gap channel which separates the Toronto Islands from the Toronto mainland. North of the Gardiner is Fort York on the western side.
The Sir Isaac Brock Bridge connects the section south of Fort York to the section north of the railways. The bridge was relocated here in 1916, it had been used as a railway bridge over the Humber River. North of the tracks, the area is a mix of small commercial and residential buildings on the western fringe of downtown. North of Queen Street, the eastern side of Bathurst is the edge of the Alexandria Park cluster of housing projects, while to the west is Trinity–Bellwoods. North of Dundas Street, Bathurst is dominated by Toronto Western Hospital; this part of the street continues to be a mix of small commercial establishments and residential housing rental apartments. North of College Street, Bathurst becomes more residential, with the exception of certain areas, chiefly around the intersections with Bloor Street, St. Clair Avenue, Eglinton Avenue; the portion of Bathurst Street north of Bloor Street is the western boundary of The Annex neighbourhood. The University segment of Toronto Transit Commission Line 1 Yonge–University crosses underneath Bathurst north of St. Clair, with the St. Clair West station at St. Clair just east of Bathurst.
North of Eglinton, the street continues as a four-lane arterial road into the former borough of North York. The street has lay-bys for TTC buses and turning lanes at intersections, expanding its width. Development along both sides of the road is both residential and commercial, with shopping plazas at many intersections; the West Branch of the Don River crosses Bathurst Street north of Sheppard and Bathurst Park is on the east side of Bathurst Street. North of Steeles Avenue, Bathurst runs through York Region, is referred to as York Regional Road 38. From Steeles north, the road is a six-lane arterial road, it serves many residential sub-divisions on either side. It serves as the boundary between Vaughan and Richmond Hill north of Highway 407, between King Township and Newmarket and Aurora. Bathurst Street ends at the Holland Marsh, between Holland Landing and Bradford, with the section north of Queensville Sideroad being maintained by the Town of East Gwillimbury, it was interrupted for 500 m due to rugged terrain north of Morning Sideroad, north of Newmarket, but the gap was closed in 2016 when a new link was completed, allowing traffic to access York Regional Road 1 from the sousecth.
Beyond a marina on the Holland River, it continues as a private driveway to a property along the Holland Marsh. Old Bathurst Street runs north of St John's Sideroad to 19th Sideroad where Bathurst Street was re-routed. Another un-signed road continues east from 19th Sideroad into Koffler Scientific Reserve and intersects with the current section of Bathurst south of Sykes Road; the street was named for Henry Bathurst, 3rd Earl Bathurst, who organized migration from the British Isles to Canada after the War of 1812, granted the charter to King's College, never visited Canada. The original Bathurst Street was between Government Wharf and Queen Street, the section to the north was called Crookshank's Lane, a semi-private lane named after George Crookshank. In 1870, Crookshank's Lane was renamed "Bathurst Street". North of Bloor, Bathurst Street was a muddy trail. Bathurst Street has finished in the top 10 in Canadian Automobile Association's "Ontario's Worst Roads" poll in every year from 2004 to 2007.
Bathurst Street has been the heart of the Jewish community of Toronto for decades. From the early part of the twentieth century, many Jews lived around Bathurst Street south of Bloor Street east to Spadina Avenue and west to past Christie Pits. After World War II, as the community became more middle class, it moved north along Bathurst Street, with wealthier members of the community moving to Forest Hill; the poorer members moved to the area around Bathurst and St. Clair Avenue or Bathurst and Eglinton Avenue; the community continued to move north along Bathurst and today, much of the Jewish community resides along the street from north of St. Clair Avenue and, in higher concentrations just south of Lawrence Avenue to beyond the city limits at Steeles Avenue, extending further until about Elgin Mills Road in Richmond Hill. Many synagogues and other Jewish community institutions are on Bathurst: The northern stretch of Bathurst, north of Sheppard Avenue West, has become one of the centres of Toronto's Russian community.
Many Russian Jewish immigrants began to settle in the area's apartment buildings, starting from early 1970s to get easier access to services p
Toronto District School Board
The Toronto District School Board is the English-language public-secular school board for Toronto, Canada. The minority public-secular francophone, public-separate anglophone, public-separate francophone communities of Toronto have their own publicly funded school boards and schools that operate in the same area, but which are independent of the TDSB, its headquarters are in the district of North York. The TDSB is the fourth largest school board in North America; the earliest schools in Toronto were in private homes run by members of the clergy. Public funding for schools began with the establishment of the Home District Grammar School. Notably, it was not governed by an elected school board. Voting for the city's first elected school board took place in 1816 following the passage of the Common School Act; the board, as per the regulations of the act, had three members: Eli Playter, Dr. Thomas D. Morrison, Jesse Ketchum; the board governed the Common School at York, located on the same grounds as the Grammar School.
However, this lasted only four years before the school and its associated school board were shut down in favour of the creation of the Central School, placed under the control of an unelected board and marked an attempt to bring public schools under Anglican religious control. Control of this board in Toronto was subsumed under a provincial Board of Education in 1824, itself merged into the Council of King's College, a body charged with obtaining a university for the province. In 1831, Upper Canada College was created to replace the Home District Grammar School with state funding in the form of an initial crown lands grant of 6,000 acres supplemented by an additional 60,000 acres. In contrast, common schools in this era, the equivalent of today's elementary schools, were woefully underfunded. Funding for the schools was derived from the sale of crown lands, but the lands chosen to support education were undesirable and couldn't command a high enough price to sustain the common schools. In addition to undesirability, the acreage devoted to funding the common schools granted in 1816 was reduced by half.
These deficiencies began to be addressed by the School Act of 1844 and culminated in the creation of local public school boards across the province including the Toronto Public School Board. The Toronto Public School Board was created in 1847 to oversee elementary education in Toronto. However, the date of creation of the board is given as 1850 as this was when trustee elections under a ward system started. Legislation toward the creation of local, public school boards began with the School Act of 1844, which stipulated municipal contributions toward the salaries of teachers; the Toronto Public School Board continued to govern the city's elementary schools until 1904 when, following a city referendum, it was merged with the Collegiate Institute Board, which oversaw the city's secondary schools, the Technical School Board, which oversaw the Toronto Technical School, to form the Toronto Board of Education. Six trustees were appointed to the original 1847 board by the municipal council of Toronto to serve with the mayor.
The board was composed of white men until the election of the first female trustee Augusta Stowe-Gullen in 1892. The board was created after the passage of the Common School Act of 1846 spearheaded by Egerton Ryerson, architect of both publicly funded schooling and the residential school system; the Act called for the creation of a provincial normal school which would become the Toronto Normal School. Prior to the 1846 Common School Act, individual schools were governed by boards created under the Grammar School Act of 1807 and the Common Schools Act of 1816. Like all boards of education at the time, the Toronto Public School Board was responsible for raising money to fund schools in addition to grants provided by the provincial government. However, they were not empowered to make these levies compulsory until the passage of the Common School Act in 1850 brought on in part by the closure of schools in Toronto in 1848 due to lack of funds; this act allowed for the creation of separate schools boards in Ontario including racially segregated schools.
In Toronto, the act allowed for the creation of a Catholic school board which would become today's Toronto Catholic District School Board. While elementary schooling across the province was not made free by law until 1871, the 1850 Common School Act allowed for individual boards to fund their schools through public funds; the Toronto Public School Board voted to do so in 1851, making elementary schooling in the city free. Minutes from the first meetings of the Toronto Public School Board have been preserved by the Toronto District School Board Museum and Archives; when the Toronto Public School Board was first created, elementary or common schools in the city did not have dedicated buildings but instead, "the thousand-odd children who were registered as common school pupils were accommodated in rented premises--a dozen or so small halls and houses, designated by numbers." This changed shortly after the election of the first board when six schools identical in architecture were built, one in each ward of the city.
More schools with distinct designs were built over the coming decades. Some of these original schools are listed in the order of their construction below: Louisa St. School The Park School George St. School John St. School Victoria St. School Phoebe St. School Jesse Ketchum School Givins St. School Elizabeth
Toronto Catholic District School Board
The Toronto Catholic District School Board is an English-language public-separate school board for Toronto, Canada, headquartered in North York. It is one of the two English boards of education in the City of Toronto, serving the former municipalities of Scarborough, North York, East York, Old Toronto and Etobicoke. With 85,864 students, the TCDSB is one of the largest school boards in Canada, is the largest publicly funded Catholic school board in the world; until 1998, it was known as the Metropolitan Separate School Board as an anglophone and francophone separate school district. Prior to 1998, the Metropolitan Separate School Board was the governing body of all publicly funded Roman Catholic schools in Toronto. In 1998, the board was reorganised, resulting in the separation of English and French language schools, the latter of which are now part of the Conseil scolaire de district catholique Centre-Sud; the resulting board was named the Toronto Catholic District School Board. The Toronto Catholic District School Board mission statement relies on as "an inclusive learning community uniting home and school and rooted in the love of Christ" that "educates students to grow in grace and knowledge and to lead lives of faith and charity."
The vision encourages learning communities of the Board to "transform the world through witness, faith and action." The school board is governed by 12 elected trustees. Each year one secondary school student is selected to serve on the board as a student trustee; the chair of the board, the vice-chair, the honorary treasurer are elected at the inaugural meeting of the board, serve for one year. As of August 2013, Ann Andrachuk serves as chair, Sal Piccininni serves as vice-chair. Trustees are paid $18,500 a year in salary, can claim up to $18,000 for expenses. Prior to the 1998 separation of French-language schools, the Metropolitan Separate School Board had three French language seats; the policies of the Board designates. There are more than 85,864 students serving over 200 Catholic schools, represent close to 475,000 Catholic school supporters in all of Toronto; the TCDSB has staff consisting of 6,000 teachers, 2,800 support staff, 360 principals and vice principals, 200 administrators. In addition, the Board operates standing three committees: the Student Achievement and Well Being, Catholic Education and Human Resources, Corporate Affairs, Strategic Planning and Property, & Governance Framework.
Italics indicate. Averell Robinson, Q. C. - 1953–1954. Hugh Callaghan, D. P. - 1954–1955 Gerard Godin - 1956–1957 Georges B. Heenan - 1958–1959 Michael J. Duggan - 1960–1962 Edward J. Brisbois - 1963–1965 Dr. John J. Andrachuk - 1966–1967 Rev. Msgr. Percy H. Johnson, P. H. 1968–1969. J. A. Fullerton - 1970–1971 J. A. Marrese - 1972–1974 Joseph Grittani - 1975–1976 Rev. E. F. Boehler - 1977–1978 Bruno M. Suppa - 1979–1980 Paul J. Duggan - 1981–1982 Edward T. McMahon - 1983–1984. F. Boehler - 1984–1985 Rev. C. Matthews, S. J. - 1985–1986 Caroline M. DiGiovanni - 1986–1988 Michael Lofranco - 1988–1989 Donald E. Clune - 1989–1992 Elvira DeMonte - 1992–1994 Paul B. R. Fernandes - 1994–1996 Joseph Martino - 1997–1999 - Last chair as MSSB and first chair of the reorganized TCDSB. Rose Andrachuk - 1999–2000 Mike Del Grande - 2000–2001 - Later became city councilor. Now serves as a teacher for the Toronto District School Board since 2010 and teaches at Scarborough Centre for Alternative Studies from 2012 onwards. Catherine LeBlanc-Miller - 2008–2009 Angela Kennedy - 2009–2010 - removed by the judge and was re-elected.
B. E. Nelligan - 1965–1983 Berchman Kipp - 1983–1989 Tony Barone - 1989–1996 Norm Forma - 1996–1997 Johanne Stewart - 1997–2001 Tom Donavan - 2001–2005 Noel Martin - 2005 Kevin Kobus - 2005–2007 Les Nemes - 2007–2009 Ann Perron - 2009–2011 Bruce Rodrigues - 2011–2013 Angela Gauthier - 2013-2017 Like the TDSB-built schools, 70% of the TCDSB stock of school buildings outside of the old City of Toronto were built after World War II and during the 1950s; these are Mid-Century modern in style with two to three storey brick facade and large double hung windows albeit from the cross attached. Some are built in Tudor Gothic style ones in the late 1800s; the following service providers have been contracted by the school board: Attridge Transportation Dignity Transportation First Student Canada McCluskey Transportation Services Sharp Bus Lines Stock Transportation Switzer-Carty Transportation Toronto Transit Commission Wheelchair Accessible Transit Uniforms are mandatory for students at the secondary level and elementary starting in the fall 2011.
In 2010 some elementary schools started implementing use of uniforms. In 1988, the MSSB ruled. At the time, all of the high schools in Scarborough except for Blessed Cardinal Newman had uniforms; some trustees anticipated protests from students from Newman. As of 2018, all TCDSB elementary students must wear a uniform of a white or navy blue top, navy blue bottoms; this is enforced in special programs such as the gifted program and ME. While Catholic high schools are funded by the provincial gover
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Elementary school is a school for students in their first school years, where they get primary education before they enter secondary education. The exact ages vary by country. In the United States, elementary schools have 6 grades with pupils aged between 6 and 13 years old, but the age can be up to 10 or 14 years old as well. In Japan, the age of pupils in elementary school ranges from 6 to 12, after which the pupils enter junior high school. Elementary school is only one part of compulsory education in Western countries. Elementary school were first established in 1870. Most of these schools were converted into Primary schools during the late 1940s. Elementary school: were first promoted in 1647 in the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Today, there are approximately 92,858 elementary schools Elementary schools in Japan were first established by 1875. National Center for Education Statistics Elementary Schools with Education and Crime Statistics Educational stage Primary school Grammar school Virtual reality in primary education
Koreans are an East Asian ethnic group native to Korea and southwestern Manchuria. Koreans live in the two Korean states, South Korea and North Korea, but are an recognized ethnic minority in China, Vietnam and the Philippines, plus a number of former Soviet states, such as Russia and Uzbekistan. Over the course of the 20th century, significant Korean communities have emerged in Oceania and North America; as of 2017, there were an estimated 7.4 million ethnic Koreans residing outside the Korean Peninsula. South Koreans refer to themselves as Hanguk-in, or Hanguk-saram, both of which mean "Korean nation people." When referring to members of the Korean diaspora, Koreans use the term Han-in. North Koreans refer to themselves as Joseon-in or Joseon-saram, both of which mean "Joseon people"; the term is derived from the Joseon dynasty, a Korean kingdom founded by Yi Seonggye that lasted for five centuries from 1392 to 1910. Using similar words, Koreans in China refer to themselves as Chaoxianzu in Chinese or Joseonjok, Joseonsaram in Korean, which are cognates that mean "Joseon ethnic group".
Zainichi Koreans refer to themselves as Zainichi Chousenjin, Chousenjin in Japanese or Jaeil Joseonin, Joseonin in Korean In the chorus of Aegukga, the national anthem of South Korea, the Koreans are referred to as Daehan-saram. Ethnic Koreans living in Russia and Central Asia refer to themselves as Koryo-saram, alluding to Goryeo, a Korean dynasty spanning from 918 to 1392. Koreans are the descendants or an admixture of the ancient people who settled in the Korean Peninsula said to be Siberian or paleo-Asian. Archaeological evidence suggests that proto-Koreans were migrants from Manchuria during the Bronze Age, it is noteworthy to mention that there were people living on the Korean peninsula from the Paleolithic age and Neolithic age, thus it is logical to assume that there was intermingling between these populations. Linguistic evidence indicates speakers of proto-Korean languages were established in southeastern Manchuria and northern Korean peninsula by the Three Kingdoms of Korea period, migrated from there to southern Korea during this period.
The largest concentration of dolmens in the world is found on the Korean Peninsula. In fact, with an estimated 35,000-100,000 dolmen, Korea accounts for nearly 70% of the world's total. Similar dolmens can be found in Manchuria, the Shandong Peninsula and the Kyushu island, yet it is unclear why this culture only flourished so extensively on the Korean Peninsula and its surroundings compared to the bigger remainder of Northeastern Asia. Stephen Pheasant, who taught anatomy and ergonomics at the Royal Free Hospital and the University College, said that Far Eastern people have proportionately shorter lower limbs than Europeans and Black Africans. Pheasant said that the proportionately short lower limbs of Far Eastern people is a difference, most characterized in Japanese people, less characterized in Korean and Chinese people, the least characterized in Vietnamese and Thai people. In a craniometric study, Pietrusewsky found that the Japanese series, a series that spanned from the Yayoi period to modern times, formed a single branch with Korea.
Pietrusewsky found, that Korean and Yayoi people were highly separated in the East Asian cluster, indicating that the connection that Japanese have with Korea would not have derived from Yayoi people. Park Dae-kyoon et al. said that distance analysis based on thirty-nine non-metric cranial traits showed that Koreans are closer craniometrically to Kazakhs and Mongols than Koreans are close craniometrically to the populations in China and Japan. Studies of polymorphisms in the human Y-chromosome have so far produced evidence to suggest that the Korean people have a long history as a distinct endogamous ethnic group, with successive waves of people moving to the peninsula and three major Y-chromosome haplogroups; the reference population for Koreans used in Geno 2.0 Next Generation is 94% Eastern Asia and 5% Southeast Asia & Oceania. Korea Foundation Associate Professor of History, Eugene Y. Park said that many Koreans seem to have a genealogical memory blackout before the twentieth century. Park said.
Park said that, through "inventing tradition" in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, families devised a kind of master narrative story that purports to explain a surname-ancestral seat combination's history to the extent where it is next to impossible to look beyond these master narrative stories. Park gave an example of what "inventing tradition" was like from his own family's genealogy where a document from 1873 recorded three children in a particular family and a 1920 document recorded an extra son in that same family. Park said that these master narratives connect the same surname and ancestral seat to a single, common ancestor. Park said that this trend became universal in the nineteenth century, but genealogies which were published in the seventeenth century admit that they did not know how the different lines of the same surname or ancestral seat are related at all. Park said that on