Ostend is a Belgian coastal city and municipality, located in the province of West Flanders. It comprises the boroughs of Mariakerke, Raversijde and Zandvoorde, in earlier times, Ostend was a small village built on the east-end of an island between the North Sea and a beach lake. Although small, the rose to the status of town around 1265 when the inhabitants were allowed to hold a market. The major source of income for the inhabitants was fishing, the North Sea coastline has always been rather unstable and in 1395 the inhabitants decided to build a new Ostend behind large dikes and further away from the always-threatening sea. The strategic position on the North Sea coast had major advantages for Ostend as a harbour, the town was frequently taken, ravaged and destroyed by conquering armies. The Dutch rebels, the Gueuzen, took control of the town and this shocking event set in motion negotiations that led to a truce several years later. When the truce broke down, it became a Dunkirker base, after this era, Ostend was turned into a harbour of some importance.
In 1722, the Dutch again closed off the entrance to the worlds biggest harbour of Antwerp, Ostend rose in importance because the town provided an alternative exit to the sea. The Belgium Austriacum had become part of the Austrian Empire, the Austrian Emperor Charles VI granted the town the trade monopoly with Africa and the Far-East. The Oostendse Compagnie was allowed to found colonies overseas, however, in 1727 the Oostendse Compagnie was forced to stop its activities because of Dutch and British pressure. The Netherlands and Britain would not allow competitors on the trade level. Both nations regarded international trade as their privilege, on 19 September 1826 the local artillery magazine exploded. At least 20 people were killed and a further 200 injured, the affluent quarter of dHargras was levelled and scarcely a building in the city escaped damage. Disease followed the leading to further deaths. The harbour of Ostend continued to expand because the harbour dock, in 1838, a railway connection with Brussels was constructed.
Ostend became a harbour to England in 1846 when the first ferry sailed to Dover. Very important for the image of the town was the attention it started to receive from the Belgian kings Leopold I, both liked to spend their holidays in Ostend. Important monuments and villas were built to please the Royal Family, including the Hippodrome Wellington horse racing track, the rest of aristocratic Belgium followed and soon Ostend became known as The Queen of the Belgian sea-side resorts
James Clark, Jr OBE, known as Jim Clark, was a British Formula One racing driver from Scotland, who won two World Championships, in 1963 and 1965. Clark was a driver who competed in sports cars, touring cars and in the Indianapolis 500. He was particularly associated with the Lotus marque and he was killed in a Formula Two motor racing accident in Hockenheim, Germany in 1968. At the time of his death, he had won more Grand Prix races, in 2009, The Times placed Clark at the top of a list of the greatest-ever Formula One drivers. James Clark Jr was born into a family at Kilmany House Farm, the youngest child of five. In 1942 the family moved to Edington Mains Farm, near Duns, Berwickshire, on 16 June 1956, in his very first event, he was behind the wheel of a DKW sonderklasse at Crimond, Scotland. By 1958, Clark was driving for the local Border Reivers team, racing Jaguar D-types and Porsches in national events, on Boxing Day 1958, Clark raced against the man who would launch him to superstardom.
Driving a Lotus Elite, he finished second to Colin Chapman in a 10-lap GT race at Brands Hatch, in 1959 he drove a Lotus Elite, finishing tenth at Le Mans partnered with John Whitmore, and the ex-Bruce Halford Lister Jaguar, winning the Boness Hill Climb. Chapman was sufficiently impressed to give Clark a ride in one of his Formula Junior cars, in March 1960, the first race for the newly introduced Formula Junior took place at Goodwood. The winner was J. Clark, from J. Surtees with T. Taylor third. Clark had made an earlier FJ appearance in a race at Brands Hatch on Boxing Day,1959, driving a Gemini-B. M. C. for Graham Warner of the Chequered Flag garage. Jim Clark made his F1 Grand Prix debut, part-way through the season, Lotus had lost Surtees, as he had gone to the Isle of Man to do some serious motorcycle racing, so they had Ireland and Clark, the last-named being an acceptable substitute. He retired on lap 49 with final drive failure, Clark was quoted as saying in a 1964 interview, I was driving scared stiff pretty much all through the race, even though he finished 5th and scored his first points finish.
The next year, Jim Clark was involved in one of the worst accidents in the history of Formula 1 racing, in the 1961 Italian Grand Prix on 10 September at Monza, Wolfgang von Trips in his Ferrari collided with Jim Clarks Lotus. Trips car became airborne and crashed into a barrier, fatally throwing von Trips out of the car. His first Drivers World Championship came driving the Lotus 25 in 1963, winning seven out of the ten races, Clarks record of seven wins in a season would not be equalled until 1984 when Frenchman Alain Prost won seven races for McLaren. The record would not be broken until Brazilian Ayrton Senna won eight races in the 1988 season, in 1963 he competed in the Indianapolis 500 for the first time, and he finished in second position behind Parnelli Jones and won Rookie of the Year honours. The 1963 Indy 500 result remains controversial, before the race United States Auto Club officials had told the drivers that they would black flag any car that was seen to be leaking oil onto the track
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and the North Sea. It is a small, densely populated country which covers an area of 30,528 square kilometres and has a population of about 11 million people. Additionally, there is a group of German-speakers who live in the East Cantons located around the High Fens area. Historically, the Netherlands and Luxembourg were known as the Low Countries, the region was called Belgica in Latin, after the Roman province of Gallia Belgica. From the end of the Middle Ages until the 17th century, Belgium is a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system of governance. It is divided into three regions and three communities, that exist next to each other and its two largest regions are the Dutch-speaking region of Flanders in the north and the French-speaking southern region of Wallonia. The Brussels-Capital Region is a bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. A German-speaking Community exists in eastern Wallonia, Belgiums linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its political history and complex system of governance, made up of six different governments.
Upon its independence, declared in 1830, Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Belgium is a member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD and WTO. Its capital, hosts several of the EUs official seats as well as the headquarters of major international organizations such as NATO. Belgium is a part of the Schengen Area, Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy and is categorized as very high in the Human Development Index. A gradual immigration by Germanic Frankish tribes during the 5th century brought the area under the rule of the Merovingian kings, a gradual shift of power during the 8th century led the kingdom of the Franks to evolve into the Carolingian Empire. Many of these fiefdoms were united in the Burgundian Netherlands of the 14th and 15th centuries, the Eighty Years War divided the Low Countries into the northern United Provinces and the Southern Netherlands.
The latter were ruled successively by the Spanish and the Austrian Habsburgs and this was the theatre of most Franco-Spanish and Franco-Austrian wars during the 17th and 18th centuries. The reunification of the Low Countries as the United Kingdom of the Netherlands occurred at the dissolution of the First French Empire in 1815, although the franchise was initially restricted, universal suffrage for men was introduced after the general strike of 1893 and for women in 1949. The main political parties of the 19th century were the Catholic Party, French was originally the single official language adopted by the nobility and the bourgeoisie
1963 Formula One season
The 1963 Formula One season was the 17th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 14th FIA World Championship of Drivers, the sixth International Cup for F1 Manufacturers, the World Championship commenced on 26 May 1963, and ended on 28 December after ten races. Jim Clark won his first championship with seven wins to two by Graham Hill and one by John Surtees in a revised Ferrari. However, unlike 1963 which only consisted of ten races, both the 1984 and 1988 seasons consisted of 16 races giving Clark a better winning ratio than either Prost or Senna. The ATS venture, founded by workers, a complete disaster which ruined Phil Hills Grand Prix career, was unrelated to the late 1970s German operation which was marginally more successful. The following teams and drivers competed in the 1963 FIA World Championship, points were awarded on a 9–6–4–3–2–1 basis at each round, with only the best six round results retained. Italics indicate fastest lap Bold indicates pole position ‡ No points awarded as Hills car was pushed at the start line, points were awarded on a 9–6–4–3–2–1 basis at each round with only the best six round results retained.
Only the best placed car from each manufacturer at each round was eligible to score points, Bold results counted to championship totals. ‡ No points awarded as Hills car was pushed at the start line, other Formula One races were held in 1963, which did not count towards the World Championship
Ford Motor Company
The Ford Motor Company is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit. It was founded by Henry Ford and incorporated on June 16,1903, the company sells automobiles and commercial vehicles under the Ford brand and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand. Ford owns Brazilian SUV manufacturer and Australian performance car manufacturer FPV, in the past, it has produced tractors and automotive components. Ford owns an 8% stake in Aston Martin of the United Kingdom, and it has a number of joint-ventures, one in China, one in Taiwan, one in Thailand, one in Turkey, and one in Russia. It is listed on the New York Stock Exchange and is controlled by the Ford family, Fords former UK subsidiaries Jaguar and Land Rover, acquired in 1989 and 2000 respectively, were sold to Tata Motors in March 2008. Ford owned the Swedish automaker Volvo from 1999 to 2010, in 2011, Ford discontinued the Mercury brand, under which it had marketed entry-level luxury cars in the United States, Canada and the Middle East since 1938.
During the financial crisis at the beginning of the 21st century, it was close to bankruptcy, Ford is the second-largest U. S. -based automaker and the fifth-largest in the world based on 2015 vehicle production. At the end of 2010, Ford was the fifth largest automaker in Europe, Ford is the eighth-ranked overall American-based company in the 2010 Fortune 500 list, based on global revenues in 2009 of $118.3 billion. In 2008, Ford produced 5.532 million automobiles and employed about 213,000 employees at around 90 plants, the company went public in 1956 but the Ford family, through special Class B shares, still retain 40 percent voting rights. The Ford Motor Company was launched in a factory in 1903 with $28,000 in cash from twelve investors, most notably John. During its early years, the company produced just a few cars a day at its factory on Mack Avenue and its factory on Piquette Avenue in Detroit, Michigan. Groups of two or three men worked on car, assembling it from parts made mostly by supplier companies contracting for Ford.
Henry Ford was 39 years old when he founded the Ford Motor Company and it has been in continuous family control for over 100 years and is one of the largest family-controlled companies in the world. The first gasoline powered automobile had been created in 1885 by the German inventor Carl Benz, between 1903 and 1908, Ford produced the Models A, B, C, F, K, N, R, and S. Hundreds or a few thousand of most of these were sold per year, in 1908, Ford introduced the mass-produced Model T, which totalled millions sold over nearly 20 years. In 1927, Ford replaced the T with the Model A, Ford launched the first low-priced car with a V8 engine in 1932. In an attempt to compete with General Motors mid-priced Pontiac, Henry Ford purchased the Lincoln Motor Company in 1922, in order to compete with such brands as Cadillac and Packard for the luxury segment of the automobile market. The creation of a laboratory in Dearborn, Michigan in 1951, doing unfettered basic research
12 Hours of Sebring
The event is the second round of the United SportsCar Championship and in the past has been a round of the now defunct World Sportscar Championship, IMSA GT Championship and American Le Mans Series. In 2012, the race was the event of the FIA World Endurance Championship. The track opened in 1950 on an airfield and is a racing course styled after those used in European Grand Prix motor racing. The first race was a race on New Years Eve 1950. The race is famous for its once around the action, starting during the day. In its early years, the Sebring circuit combined former airport runways with narrow service roads. The 1966 event was a point in Sebring history, as the facilities. Five people were killed during the race, which was more people killed than in the races prior 15-year history combined, bob McLean crashed while approaching the hairpin, his car rolled several times, struck a utility pole and exploded, landing in a ditch and killing McLean. The circuit was made safer and there were no fatalities until 1980 and it is known as preparation for the 24 Hours of Le Mans, as the tracks extremely bumpy surface, combined with south-central Floridas perennial hot weather, is a test of a cars reliability.
In recent years, six victories have been achieved by the Audi R8. Tom Kristensen has won the more times than anyone else, with six victories – in 1999–2000, 2005–2006,2009. The 1966 race had Dan Gurney leading at the last lap, Gurney pushed his car over the finish line, beaten only by Ken Miles and Lloyd Ruby. However, his actions were ultimately determined to be against the rules, Corvette had dominated the class the past three years with its previous generation C5R. The all-new Audi R10 TDI won the 2006 edition of the race, the victory set the stage for an even more momentous win by the R10 in its next race, the Le Mans 24 Hours in the year. The much-hyped Porsche RS Spyder campaigned by Penske Racing dropped to take 2nd place in its LMP2 class, behind the Intersport Lola car. The GT1 Corvette C6R team got their revenge against the Aston Martin, in addition to an overall win, Audi set a track record in 2007 with Marco Werner behind the wheel in qualifying. ^A The car was in fact, a Porsche 935 K3 that has been modified with a single cylinder head.
^B These races were stopped for a period of due to heavy rain and/or accidents
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a federal republic in Europe. It consists of 26 cantons, and the city of Bern is the seat of the federal authorities. The country is situated in western-Central Europe, and is bordered by Italy to the south, France to the west, Germany to the north, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east. Switzerland is a country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2. The establishment of the Old Swiss Confederacy dates to the medieval period, resulting from a series of military successes against Austria. Swiss independence from the Holy Roman Empire was formally recognized in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648. The country has a history of armed neutrality going back to the Reformation, it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815, nevertheless, it pursues an active foreign policy and is frequently involved in peace-building processes around the world. In addition to being the birthplace of the Red Cross, Switzerland is home to international organisations.
On the European level, it is a member of the European Free Trade Association. However, it participates in the Schengen Area and the European Single Market through bilateral treaties, spanning the intersection of Germanic and Romance Europe, Switzerland comprises four main linguistic and cultural regions, French and Romansh. Due to its diversity, Switzerland is known by a variety of native names, Suisse, Svizzera. On coins and stamps, Latin is used instead of the four living languages, Switzerland is one of the most developed countries in the world, with the highest nominal wealth per adult and the eighth-highest per capita gross domestic product according to the IMF. Zürich and Geneva have each been ranked among the top cities in the world in terms of quality of life, with the former ranked second globally, according to Mercer. The English name Switzerland is a compound containing Switzer, a term for the Swiss. The English adjective Swiss is a loan from French Suisse, in use since the 16th century.
The name Switzer is from the Alemannic Schwiizer, in origin an inhabitant of Schwyz and its associated territory, the Swiss began to adopt the name for themselves after the Swabian War of 1499, used alongside the term for Confederates, used since the 14th century. The data code for Switzerland, CH, is derived from Latin Confoederatio Helvetica. The toponym Schwyz itself was first attested in 972, as Old High German Suittes, ultimately related to swedan ‘to burn’
1960 Belgian Grand Prix
The 1960 Belgian Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Spa-Francorchamps on 19 June 1960. It was the race of the 1960 Formula One season. It is remembered as one of Formula Ones darkest days due to the deaths of Chris Bristow and Alan Stacey, five laps later, Alan Stacey was hit in the face by a bird at Masta and crashed fatally. It would be the darkest weekend for the sport until the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix, the race distance had been lengthened to 36 laps from 24 laps. The results highlight an unusual quirk in the rules regarding classification of non-finishers, under modern rules, Graham Hill would have been classified third, since he completed lap 35 before the lapped Olivier Gendebien. Hill retired, in the pits, but was not classified since he did not push his car over the line after the winner took the finish. In fact the rule about crossing the line was inconsistently applied – at the 1959 German Grand Prix. Notes, Only the top five positions are included for both sets of standings
Nino Vaccarella is an Italian former sports car racing and Formula One driver. His principal achievements include winning the 196424 Hours of Le Mans, and the Targa Florio in 1965,1971 and 1975, sicily-born Vaccarella was well known for being a Targa Florio specialist. According to Vic Elford he knew the roads on Sicily like the back of his hand and he was teamed with Umberto Maglioli for the 1960 Targa Florio in a birdcage Maserati, which was owned by the Camoradi team. Maglioli had previously won the race twice, Vaccarella was a schoolteacher in Palermo with a passion for motorsport. They took the lead in the afternoon on 8 May. The event was won by Joakim Bonnier and Hans Herrmann in a small silver Porsche, Vaccarella was paired with Lorenzo Bandini in the 1965 Targa Florio when they won with an average speed of 63.7 miles per hour, finishing in 7 hours and 1 minute. In 1966 Vaccarella and Bandini led most of the race until their Ferrari 330 ran off the track after seven laps and was too damaged to continue, while waving his hand to acknowledge the crowd, Vaccarella made eye contact with a retaining wall that carried the inscription Viva Nino.
Maglioli and Vaccarella drove a Ford GT-40 to fifth place in the 196712 Hours of Sebring, the 8 May 1968 edition of Giornale Di Sicilia proclaimed in its headline, Only Vaccarella Can Bring Off The Miracle. The meaning had to do with the Sicilian drivers great task of gaining victory in the Targa Florio in his 2. 5-litre Alfa Romeo and he was up against four German competitors who were driving Porsche 910 models. The Porsches had recently swept the races at Daytona and Sebring. Few experts gave the four Alfa Romeos much of a chance against the flawless Porsches, Vaccarella qualified eighth for the 197024 Hours of Daytona in a Ferrari 512S. He drove the big V12-powered Ferrari 512S in a heroic yet ultimately losing effort in 1970 and this was one of a series of 11 endurance events held in Europe and North America for the 1970 world manufacturers championship. Vaccarella and Toine Hezemans won the 1971 Targa Florio in an Alfa Romeo and they crossed the finish line over a minute ahead of Andrea de Adamich and Gijs van Lennep, who drove an Alfa Romeo.
This race ended the dominance of Porsche, which had finished first in the previous five Targa Florio races, Vaccarella competed in the 197212 Hours of Sebring in one of four Alfa Romeo 33/3TTs to be entered in the event. His driving partner was Nanni Galli and they qualified fifth after another Alfa Romeo of Rolf Stommelen and Peter Revson, who started third. Vacarella was selected for the 1962 Ferrari Formula One race team by Enzo Ferrari and he was joined by John Surtees, Mike Parkes, Willy Mairesse and Ludovico Scarfiotti. He participated in five World Championship Grands Prix, debuting on 10 September 1961 and he participated in several non-Championship Formula One races
Angola /æŋˈɡoʊlə/, officially the Republic of Angola, is a country in Southern Africa. It is the seventh-largest country in Africa and is bordered by Namibia to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Zambia to the east, and the Atlantic Ocean to west. The exclave province of Cabinda has borders with the Republic of the Congo, the capital and largest city of Angola is Luanda. In the 19th century, European settlers slowly and hesitantly began to themselves in the interior. As a Portuguese colony, Angola did not encompass its present borders until the early 20th century, following resistance by groups such as the Cuamato, the Kwanyama and the Mbunda. Independence was achieved in 1975 under a communist one-party state backed by the Soviet Union, the country soon descended into an even lengthier civil war that lasted until 2002. It has since become a relatively stable presidential republic. Angola has vast mineral and petroleum reserves, and its economy is among the fastest growing in the world, Angolas economic growth is highly uneven, with the majority of the nations wealth concentrated in a disproportionately small sector of the population.
Angola is a state of the United Nations, OPEC, African Union, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, the Latin Union. A highly multiethnic country, Angolas 25.8 million people span various tribal groups, Angolan culture reflects centuries of Portuguese rule, namely in the predominance of the Portuguese language and the Catholic Church, combined with diverse indigenous influences. The name Angola comes from the Portuguese colonial name Reino de Angola, the toponym was derived by the Portuguese from the title ngola held by the kings of Ndongo. Ndongo was a kingdom in the highlands, between the Kwanza and Lukala Rivers, nominally tributary to the king of Kongo but which was seeking greater independence during the 16th century, modern Angola was populated predominantly by nomadic Khoi and San prior to the first Bantu migrations. The Khoi and San peoples were neither pastoralists nor cultivators, following a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and they were displaced by Bantu peoples arriving from the north, some of whom likely originated in northwestern Nigeria.
Bantu speakers introduced the cultivation of bananas and taro, as well as large herds, to Angolas central highlands. During this time, the Bantu established a number of entities in most of what today comprises Angola. To its south lay the Kingdom of Ndongo, from which the area of the Portuguese colony was known as Dongo. The region now known as Angola was reached by the Portuguese explorer Diogo Cão in 1484, the year before, the Portuguese had established relations with the Kongo, which stretched at the time from modern Gabon in the north to the Kwanza River in the south. The Portuguese established their primary trading post at Soyo, which is now the northernmost city in Angola apart from the Cabinda exclave
Team Lotus was the motorsport sister company of English sports car manufacturer Lotus Cars. The team ran cars in motorsport series, including Formula One, Formula Two, Formula Ford, Formula Junior, IndyCar. The Lotus name returned to Formula One in 2010, as the name of Tony Fernandess Lotus Racing team. In 2011, Team Lotuss iconic black-and-gold livery returned to F1 as the livery of the Lotus Renault GP team, sponsored by Lotus Cars, colin Chapman established Lotus Engineering Ltd in 1952 at Hornsey, UK. Lotus achieved rapid success with the 1953 Mk 6 and the 1954 Mk 8 sports cars, Team Lotus was split off from Lotus Engineering in 1954. A new Formula Two regulation was announced for 1957, and in Britain, the following year, the Lotus 12 appeared. Driving one in 1958, Allison won the F2 class in the International Trophy at Silverstone, beating Stuart Lewis-Evanss Cooper. As the Coventry Climax engines were enlarged in 1952 to 2. 2-litres, Chapman decided to enter Grand Prix racing, running a pair of Lotus 12s at Monaco in 1958 for Graham Hill and these were replaced that year by Lotus 16s.
By then, the success had caused it to expand to such an extent that it had to move to new premises at Cheshunt. The first Formula One victory for Team Lotus came when Innes Ireland won the 1961 United States Grand Prix, a year earlier, Stirling Moss had recorded the first victory for a Lotus car at Monaco in his Lotus 18 entered by the independent Rob Walker Racing Team. There were successes in Formula Two and Formula Junior, the road car business was doing well with the Lotus Seven and the Lotus Elite and this was followed by the Lotus Elan in 1962. In 1963 Clark drove the Lotus 25 to a remarkable seven wins in a season and won the World Championship. The 1964 title was still for the taking by the time of the last race in Mexico but problems with Clarks Lotus, however, in 1965, Clark dominated again, six wins in his Lotus 33 gave him the championship. While very innovative, Chapman came under criticism for the fragility of his designs. In Dave Friedmans book Indianapolis Memories 1961–1969, Dan Gurney is quoted as saying and we had several structural failures in those cars.
But at the time, I felt it was the price you paid for getting something significantly better, a switch to the new Ford Cosworth DFV, designed by former Lotus employee Keith Duckworth, in 1967 returned the team to winning form. Although they failed to win the title in 1967, by the end of the season, the Lotus 49, for 1968 Lotus had lost its exclusive right to use the DFV. The season-opening 1968 South African Grand Prix confirmed Lotuss superiority, with Jim Clark and it would be Clarks last win