A shipyard is a place where ships are repaired and built. These can be yachts, military vessels, cruise liners or other cargo or passenger ships, dockyards are sometimes more associated with maintenance and basing activities than shipyards, which are sometimes associated more with initial construction. The terms are used interchangeably, in part because the evolution of dockyards and shipyards has often caused them to change or merge roles. The shipbuilding industry tends to be fragmented in Europe than in Asia. In European countries there are a number of small companies. The publicly owned shipyards in the US are Naval facilities providing basing, Shipyards are constructed nearby the sea or tidal rivers to allow easy access for their ships. Sir Alfred Yarrow established his yard by the Thames in Londons Docklands in the late 19th century before moving it northwards to the banks of the Clyde at Scotstoun. Other famous UK shipyards include the Harland and Wolff yard in Belfast, Northern Ireland, where Titanic was built, and the naval dockyard at Chatham, England on the Medway in north Kent.
The site of a large shipyard will contain many specialised cranes, dry docks, dust-free warehouses, painting facilities, after a ships useful life is over, it makes its final voyage to a shipbreaking yard, often on a beach in South Asia. Historically shipbreaking was carried on in drydock in developed countries, but high wages, the worlds earliest known dockyards were built in the Harappan port city of Lothal circa 2600 BC in Gujarat, India. Lothal engineers accorded high priority to the creation of a dockyard, the dock was built on the eastern flank of the town, and is regarded by archaeologists as an engineering feat of the highest order. It was located away from the current of the river to avoid silting. The name of the ancient Greek city of Naupactus means shipyard, Naupactus reputation in this field extends to the time of legend, where it is depicted as the place where the Heraclidae built a fleet to invade the Peloponnesus. During its time of operation it was changed and modified. It is currently a maritime museum, ships were the first items to be manufactured in a factory, several hundred years before the Industrial Revolution, in the Venice Arsenal, Italy.
The Arsenal apparently mass-produced nearly one every day using pre-manufactured parts. Chantiers de lAtlantique – established in 1861 Nantes-Indret, France – Establish in 1771 it built ships for the American Revolution including the Deane, jean Street Shipyard 1843–present – The oldest continually operated shipyard in the U. S. Located on the Hillsborough River in Tampa, Gloucester Marine Railways 1859–present – Oldest working shipyard in New England
The German Empire was the historical German nation state that existed from the unification of Germany in 1871 to the abdication of Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1918, when Germany became a federal republic. The German Empire consisted of 26 constituent territories, with most being ruled by royal families and this included four kingdoms, six grand duchies, five duchies, seven principalities, three free Hanseatic cities, and one imperial territory. Although Prussia became one of kingdoms in the new realm, it contained most of its population and territory. Its influence helped define modern German culture, after 1850, the states of Germany had rapidly become industrialized, with particular strengths in coal, iron and railways. In 1871, it had a population of 41 million people, and by 1913, a heavily rural collection of states in 1815, now united Germany became predominantly urban. During its 47 years of existence, the German Empire operated as an industrial, Germany became a great power, boasting a rapidly growing rail network, the worlds strongest army, and a fast-growing industrial base.
In less than a decade, its navy became second only to Britains Royal Navy, after the removal of Chancellor Otto von Bismarck by Wilhelm II, the Empire embarked on a bellicose new course that ultimately led to World War I. When the great crisis of 1914 arrived, the German Empire had two allies and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, however, left the once the First World War started in August 1914. In the First World War, German plans to capture Paris quickly in autumn 1914 failed, the Allied naval blockade caused severe shortages of food. Germany was repeatedly forced to send troops to bolster Austria and Turkey on other fronts, Germany had great success on the Eastern Front, it occupied large Eastern territories following the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. German declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare in early 1917 was designed to strangle the British, it failed, but the declaration—along with the Zimmermann Telegram—did bring the United States into the war. Meanwhile, German civilians and soldiers had become war-weary and radicalised by the Russian Revolution and this failed, and by October the armies were in retreat, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire had collapsed, Bulgaria had surrendered and the German people had lost faith in their political system.
The Empire collapsed in the November 1918 Revolution as the Emperor and all the ruling monarchs abdicated, and a republic took over. The German Confederation had been created by an act of the Congress of Vienna on 8 June 1815 as a result of the Napoleonic Wars, German nationalism rapidly shifted from its liberal and democratic character in 1848, called Pan-Germanism, to Prussian prime minister Otto von Bismarcks pragmatic Realpolitik. He envisioned a conservative, Prussian-dominated Germany, the war resulted in the Confederation being partially replaced by a North German Confederation in 1867, comprising the 22 states north of the Main. The new constitution and the title Emperor came into effect on 1 January 1871, during the Siege of Paris on 18 January 1871, William accepted to be proclaimed Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles. The second German Constitution was adopted by the Reichstag on 14 April 1871 and proclaimed by the Emperor on 16 April, the political system remained the same.
The empire had a parliament called the Reichstag, which was elected by universal male suffrage, the original constituencies drawn in 1871 were never redrawn to reflect the growth of urban areas
Achilleion is a palace built in Gastouri, Corfu by Empress of Austria Elisabeth of Bavaria, known as Sisi, after a suggestion by Austrian Consul Alexander von Warsberg. Elisabeth was a woman obsessed with beauty, and very powerful, a year in 1890, she built a summer palace in the region of Gastouri, now the municipality of Achilleion, about ten kilometres to the south of the city of Corfu. The palace was designed with the mythical hero Achilles as its central theme, Corfu was Elizabeths favourite vacation place and she built the palace because she admired Greece and its language and culture. Achilleions location provides a view of Corfu city to the north. The architectural design was intended to represent an ancient Phaeacian palace, the Achilleion property was originally owned by Corfiote philosopher and diplomat Petros Vrailas Armenis and it was known as Villa Vraila. In 1888 the Empress of Austria after visiting the place decided that it was the location for her to build her palace in Corfu.
The palace was designed by Italian architect Raffaele Caritto and built on a 200,000 m2 area, Elizabeths husband, emperor Franz Josef of Austria, had owned some nearby land as well. Ernst Herter, a famous German sculptor, was commissioned to create works inspired from Greek mythology and his famous sculpture Dying Achilles, created in Berlin in 1884 as inscribed in the statue, forms the centrepiece of the Achilleion Gardens. The architectural design was intended to represent an ancient Phaecian palace, the building, with the classic Greek statues that surround it, is a monument to platonic romanticism as well as escapism and was, named after Achilles, Achilleion. The place abounds with paintings and statues of Achilles, both in the hall and in the lavish gardens depicting the heroic and tragic scenes of the Trojan war. The architectural style is Pompeian and has parallels to that of the Russian imperial residence in Crimea. The Imperial gardens on top of the hill provide a view of the surrounding green hill crests.
Elisabeth used to visit the place often until 1898 when she was assassinated in Geneva by Italian anarchist Luigi Lucheni, after Elisabeths death, the palace was inherited by her daughter but was not used often. German Kaiser Wilhelm II purchased Achilleion in 1907 and used it as a summer residence, during Kaiser Wilhelms visits a lot of diplomatic activity used to take place in Achilleion and it became a hub of European diplomacy. Archaeologist Reinhard Kekulé von Stradonitz, who was the Kaisers advisor, was invited by the Kaiser to come to Corfu to give him advice where to position the huge statue. The famous salute to Achilles from the Kaiser, which had been inscribed at the base, was created by Kekulé. The inscription read, The inscription was removed after WWII. This tall statue is surrounded by trees that complement its graceful outline
The Hanseatic League was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and their market towns. Growing from a few North German towns in the late 1100s and it stretched from the Baltic to the North Sea and inland during the Late Middle Ages and early modern period. Hanse, spelled as Hansa, was the Middle Low German word for a convoy, the League was created to protect the guilds economic interests and diplomatic privileges in their affiliated cities and countries, as well as along the trade routes the merchants visited. The Hanseatic cities had their own system and furnished their own armies for mutual protection. The hegemony of Lübeck peaked during the 15th century, Lübeck became a base for merchants from Saxony and Westphalia trading eastward and northward. This area was a source of timber, amber, the towns raised their own armies, with each guild required to provide levies when needed. The Hanseatic cities came to the aid of one another, and commercial ships often had to be used to carry soldiers, Visby functioned as the leading centre in the Baltic before the Hansa.
Sailing east, Visby merchants established a trading post at Novgorod called Gutagard in 1080, Merchants from northern Germany stayed in the early period of the Gotlander settlement. Later they established their own trading station in Novgorod, known as Peterhof, in 1229, German merchants at Novgorod were granted certain privileges that made their position more secure. Hansa societies worked to remove restrictions to trade for their members, before the official foundation of the League in 1356, the word Hanse did not occur in the Baltic language. The earliest remaining documentary mention, although without a name, of a specific German commercial federation is from London 1157. That year, the merchants of the Hansa in Cologne convinced Henry II, King of England, to them from all tolls in London. The allied cities gained control over most of the trade, especially the Scania Market. In 1266, Henry III of England granted the Lübeck and Hamburg Hansa a charter for operations in England, much of the drive for this co-operation came from the fragmented nature of existing territorial government, which failed to provide security for trade.
Over the next 50 years the Hansa itself emerged with formal agreements for confederation and co-operation covering the west and east trade routes. The principal city and linchpin remained Lübeck, with the first general Diet of the Hansa held there in 1356, other such alliances formed throughout the Holy Roman Empire. Yet the League never became a closely managed formal organisation, over the period, a network of alliances grew to include a flexible roster of 70 to 170 cities. The league succeeded in establishing additional Kontors in Bruges and these trading posts became significant enclaves
Museum of Military History, Vienna
The Museum of Military History – Military History Institute in Vienna is the leading museum of the Austrian Armed Forces. Although the museum is owned by the Federal Government, it is not affiliated to the Federal museums but is organised as an agency reporting directly to the Ministry of Defence. The museum building is the centrepiece of Viennas Arsenal, a military complex previously consisting of a total of 72 buildings erected in the wake of the 1848/49 revolution. It was Danish architect Theophil Hansen who designed what was referred to as the weapons museum. The museum was completed on 8 May 1856, just six years after the beginning of construction, making it the oldest museum building – planned and executed as such – in Austria. At the time of its construction, the Arsenal was located outside the ring of fortifications, in 1850, however. Along the south-west side of the Arsenal ran the Vienna-Raab railway, for which the main Vienna station, just as many other historicist buildings borrowed models from historic architecture, Theophil Hansen chose the Venetian Arsenal, built after 1104, as his prototype.
He borrowed Byzantine style elements, adding some Gothic elements in the process, what really stands out is the characteristic brickwork structure. The richly adorned attic section is borne by a magnificent lombard band reminiscent of Florentine palazzi, allegoric representations of military virtues made of sandstone are featured on and in front of the facade, created by Hans Gasser, one of the most influential sculptors of his time. All statutes are made of Carrara marble and stand equally tall at exactly 186 centimetres, half of the costs were borne by Emperor Franz Joseph himself, and the rest was financed by private sponsors who were often descendants of the respective field commanders depicted. The chronological period covered by these statues ranges from the Margrave Leopold I of Babenberg to the Habsburg Archduke Charles, the staircase too, was lavishly decorated. Carl Rahl was assigned with the decoration of the Staircase. The centre of the ceiling features frescos with allegorical depictions of power and unity and honour.
The staircase is crowned by a marble sculpture group titled Austria. Indisputably, the most representative section of the museum is the Ruhmeshalle located in the first floor. A particular highlight of the Ruhmeshalle are the frescos by Karl von Blaas, the four large wall arches show the victories of the Imperial Army, the battle of Nördlingen 1634, the war council at the battle of St. Although the museum building itself was completed in 1856, work on its interior lasted until 1872. The collection was completed with pieces from the former court arms collection of the Imperial armoury, the Imperial private collection in the Laxenburg Palace, and the Imperial treasury in Vienna
Of the 2,224 passengers and crew aboard, more than 1,500 died, making it one of the deadliest commercial peacetime maritime disasters in modern history. Thomas Andrews, her architect, died in the disaster, the first class accommodation was designed to be the pinnacle of comfort and luxury, with an on-board gymnasium, swimming pool, high-class restaurants and opulent cabins. A high-power radiotelegraph transmitter was available for sending passenger marconigrams and for the operational use. Titanic only carried enough lifeboats for 1,178 people—slightly more than half of the number on board, after leaving Southampton on 10 April 1912, Titanic called at Cherbourg in France and Queenstown in Ireland before heading west to New York. On 14 April, four days into the crossing and about 375 miles south of Newfoundland, the collision caused the ships hull plates to buckle inwards along her starboard side and opened five of her sixteen watertight compartments to the sea, she could only survive four flooding.
Meanwhile and some members were evacuated in lifeboats. A disproportionate number of men were left aboard because of a women and children first protocol for loading lifeboats, at 2,20 a. m. she broke apart and foundered—with well over one thousand people still aboard. Just under two hours after Titanic sank, the Cunard liner RMS Carpathia arrived at the scene, where she brought aboard an estimated 705 survivors. The disaster was greeted with shock and outrage at the huge loss of life. Public inquiries in Britain and the United States led to improvements in maritime safety. One of their most important legacies was the establishment in 1914 of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, which still governs maritime safety today. Additionally, several new regulations were passed around the world in an effort to learn from the many missteps in wireless communications—which could have saved many more passengers. The wreck of Titanic, first discovered over 70 years after the sinking, remains on the seabed, since her discovery in 1985, thousands of artifacts have been recovered and put on display at museums around the world.
Titanic has become one of the most famous ships in history, her memory is kept alive by numerous works of culture, including books, folk songs, exhibits. Titanic is the second largest ocean liner wreck in the world, only beaten by her sister HMHS Britannic, the name Titanic was derived from Greek mythology and meant gigantic. They were by far the largest vessels of the British shipping company White Star Lines fleet, Teutonic was replaced by Olympic while Majestic was replaced by Titanic. Majestic would be back into her old spot on White Stars New York service after Titanics loss. The ships were constructed by the Belfast shipbuilders Harland and Wolff, cost considerations were relatively low on the agenda and Harland and Wolff was authorised to spend what it needed on the ships, plus a five percent profit margin
Internationales Maritimes Museum Hamburg
The Internationales Maritimes Museum Hamburg is a private museum in the HafenCity quarter of Hamburg, Germany. The museum houses Peter Tamms collection of ships, construction plans, uniforms. It opened in a warehouse in 2008. The private collection was started in 1934 by Peter Tamm—former chairman of the board of the Axel Springer AG—when Tamm was six years old, as Tamm retold the history, the initial event was when his mother presented him his first model ship. In 2004 the Hamburg Parliament approved a grant for a new museum in the HafenCity quarter unanimously, on 25 June 2008, the museum was opened by the German president Horst Köhler. The Kaispeicher B is the oldest preserved warehouse in Hamburg, built in 1878 and 1879 by the architects Bernhard Georg Jacob Hanssen and it was built with a supporting structure of wood and steel columns, the outer walls of bricks supporting the building. It was designed in neo-Gothic style and used as a combination of a grain elevator and for ground storage for packaged goods.
In 1890 the city of Hamburg bought the warehouse, which has been called Kaispeicher B ever since, in 2000 it was listed as a cultural heritage building but used as a warehouse for goods until the end of 2003. In 2008 the museum was opened after a period of renovation, mirjana Marcovic planned the renovations and received an award from the Architekten- und Ingenieurverein Hamburg. Some critics changed their opinion later, the walkabout starts with a 3, 000-year-old dugout, which was found in the Elbe river. Another exhibit is the baton of Großadmiral Karl Dönitz, displayed in an article about the Nuremberg Trials in the newspaper Berliner Zeitung of 1946 and this article describes the sentences against the Nazi war criminals. The exhibition of the baton was taken as an example of the lack of historical awareness about Nazi propaganda. Further the exhibition consists of paintings with a naval or marine theme, model ships made of bones or ivory, uniforms. The museums archive possesses 47 original letters of Lord Horatio Nelson, famous for his victory at the Battle of Trafalgar, the collection shows more than 36,000 items on 12,000 m2.
On 28 February 2009 the 100, 000th visitor was counted, the museums budget is calculated based on an estimate of 150,000 visitors per year. It takes part in the Long Night of Museums of Hamburg, the museum is owned by the foundation Peter Tamm Sen. Stiftung. The remodeling of the building was supported by a €30 million grant from the city of Hamburg, the museum is located in the Speicherstadt in the port of Hamburg. The building was given to the foundation by lease for free for 99 years by the senate of Hamburg, list of museums and cultural institutions in Hamburg Möwe, Friedrich
U-boat is the anglicised version of the German word U-Boot, a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally undersea boat. While the German term refers to any submarine, the English one refers specifically to military submarines operated by Germany, particularly in the First and Second World Wars. Although at times they were efficient fleet weapons against enemy warships, they were most effectively used in an economic warfare role. Austro-Hungarian navy submarines were known as U-boats. The first submarine built in Germany, the three-man Brandtaucher, sank to the bottom of Kiel harbor on 1 February 1851 during a test dive, the inventor and engineer Wilhelm Bauer had designed this vessel in 1850, and Schweffel & Howaldt constructed it in Kiel. Dredging operations in 1887 rediscovered Brandtaucher, it was raised and put on display in Germany, there followed in 1890 the boats WW1 and WW2, built to a Nordenfelt design. The SM U-1 was a completely redesigned Karp-class submarine and only one was built, the Imperial German Navy commissioned it on 14 December 1906.
It had a hull, a Körting kerosene engine. The 50%-larger SM U-2 had two torpedo tubes, the U-19 class of 1912–13 saw the first diesel engine installed in a German navy boat. At the start of World War I in 1914, Germany had 48 submarines of 13 classes in service or under construction, during that war the Imperial German Navy used SM U-1 for training. Retired in 1919, it remains on display at the Deutsches Museum in Munich, on 5 September 1914, HMS Pathfinder was sunk by SM U-21, the first ship to have been sunk by a submarine using a self-propelled torpedo. On 22 September, U-9 sank the obsolete British warships HMS Aboukir, HMS Cressy, for the first few months of the war, U-boat anticommerce actions observed the prize rules of the time, which governed the treatment of enemy civilian ships and their occupants. On 20 October 1914, SM U-17 sank the first merchant ship, surface commerce raiders were proving to be ineffective, and on 4 February 1915, the Kaiser assented to the declaration of a war zone in the waters around the British Isles.
This was cited as a retaliation for British minefields and shipping blockades, under the instructions given to U-boat captains, they could sink merchant ships, even potentially neutral ones, without warning. In February 1915, a submarine U-6 was rammed and both periscopes were destroyed off Beachy Head by the collier SS Thordis commanded by Captain John Bell RNR after firing a torpedo, on 7 May 1915, SM U-20 sank the liner RMS Lusitania. The sinking claimed 1,198 lives,128 of them American civilians, munitions that it carried were thousands of crates full of ammunition for rifles, 3-inch artillery shells, and various other standard ammunition used by infantry. The sinking of the Lusitania was widely used as propaganda against the German Empire, a widespread reaction in the U. S was not seen until the sinking of the ferry SS Sussex. The sinking occurred in 1915 and the United States entered the war in 1917, the initial U. S. response was to threaten to sever diplomatic ties, which persuaded the Germans to issue the Sussex pledge that reimposed restrictions on U-boat activity
Lithography is a method of printing originally based on the immiscibility of oil and water. The printing is from a stone or a plate with a smooth surface. It was invented in 1796 by German author and actor Alois Senefelder as a method of publishing theatrical works. Lithography can be used to print text or artwork onto paper or other suitable material, Lithography originally used an image drawn with oil, fat, or wax onto the surface of a smooth, level lithographic limestone plate. The stone was treated with a mixture of acid and gum arabic, when the stone was subsequently moistened, these etched areas retained water, an oil-based ink could be applied and would be repelled by the water, sticking only to the original drawing. The ink would finally be transferred to a paper sheet. This traditional technique is used in some fine art printmaking applications. In modern lithography, the image is made of a coating applied to a flexible aluminum plate. The image can be printed directly from the plate, or it can be offset, by transferring the image onto a sheet for printing.
In fact, photolithography is used synonymously with offset printing, the technique as well as the term were introduced in Europe in the 1850s. Beginning in the 1960s, photolithography has played an important role in the fabrication, Lithography uses simple chemical processes to create an image. For instance, the part of an image is a water-repelling substance. Thus, when the plate is introduced to a printing ink and water mixture, the ink will adhere to the positive image. This allows a flat print plate to be used, enabling much longer, Lithography was invented by Alois Senefelder in the Kingdom of Bavaria in 1796. In the early days of lithography, a piece of limestone was used. After the oil-based image was put on the surface, a solution of gum arabic in water was applied, during printing, water adhered to the gum arabic surfaces and was repelled by the oily parts, while the oily ink used for printing did the opposite. Lithography works because of the repulsion of oil and water. The image is drawn on the surface of the print plate with a fat or oil-based medium such as a wax crayon, which may be pigmented to make the drawing visible
Die Gartenlaube – Illustrirtes Familienblatt was the first successful mass-circulation German newspaper and a forerunner of all modern magazines. It was founded by publisher Ernst Keil and editor Ferdinand Stolle in Leipzig, at the height of its popularity Die Gartenlaube was widely read across the German speaking world. It could be found in all German states, the German colonies in Africa and among the significant German-speaking minorities of Latin America, austrian composer Johann Strauss II even published a waltz dedicated to its readers, with the English title Gartenlaube Waltz, in 1895. During its 91-year history the journal changed owners several times, by the turn of the century it had become more focused on entertainment, and in the buildup to World War I it came under the control of right-wing nationalists. These changes corresponded to a decline in its readership and it was finally purchased outright by the Nazi publishing house Eher Verlag in 1938, who renamed it Die neue Gartenlaube, and ceased publication in 1944.
Despite this, today Die Gartenlaube remains important for historical analysis in many fields and is regarded as an essential source for the understanding of German cultural history. Circulation of Die Gartenlaube increased steadily following its initial 1853 print run of 5,000 copies, after the magazine introduced serialized novels, its paid circulation increased dramatically, rising to 160,000 by 1863 and 382,000 by 1875. By comparison, most daily newspapers of the period had a circulation of only 4,000 copies, since Die Gartenlaube became common family reading and many lending libraries and cafes took delivery, estimates of actual readership run between two and five million. It kept this market supremacy until at least 1887 and at one time it claimed to have the largest readership of any publication in the world, the format of the magazine consisted of 52 weekly issues, 16-20 pages each, in quarto size. The text, printed in a Fraktur font, was typeset with elaborate engraved illustrations and, Die Gartenlaubes masthead depicted a grandfatherly figure reading aloud to a family around a table.
Between 1853 and 1880 works by prominent German writers such as Goethe, Goethe was featured 75 times in print and 14 times in illustrations, and Schiller was featured 90 times in print and 15 times in illustrations. Publication of works by novelist E. Marlitt in serial form, such as Goldelse beginning in 1866, had a significant impact on the magazines popularity, a particularly famous image by Willy Stöwer of the sinking of the RMS Titanic was published by the magazine in 1912. Die Gartenlaube went through a number of distinct phases throughout its history, the early volumes up to German unification in 1871 were envisioned to be a peoples encyclopedia, covering a wide range of interests. Founded by radical liberal publisher Ernst Keil, it was committed to the creation of a democratic unity government. The promotion of bourgeois values contrasted with the decline of aristocratic norms, during this period Die Gartenlaube was noted for a neutral to positive view of Jews, with occasional articles on Jewish family life.
In the years following the founding of the German Empire in 1871 and their dedicated and highly polemical interest in the culture war, came to the defense of the liberal world view. Arguments in support of the National Liberal Party were supported in particular, when Ernst Keil died in 1878 the magazine had reached the height of its success and influence, with a paid circulation of 372,000. Its actual readership was at least 2 million, making it one of the most widely read publications in the world, in 1886, Keils widow sold Die Gartenlaube to new publisher Adolf Kröner and his son Alfred
SMS Cap Trafalgar
SMS Cap Trafalgar was a German passenger liner converted to an auxiliary cruiser during World War I. She was named after the Spanish Cape Trafalgar, scene of the famous Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. A three-funneled vessel of 613 ft length and 72 ft beam, she measured 18,710 GRT and could carry nearly 1,600 passengers (400 1st class,276 2nd class,913 3rd or steerage class. A triple-screw vessel, her propellers were powered by two triple-expansion steam engines, and the centre screw by an exhaust turbine, an arrangement similar to that of the RMS Titanic. When war was declared in Europe in August 1914, Cap Trafalgar was in Buenos Aires and was laid up pending orders, as already planned, the German Imperial Navy requisitioned her as an auxiliary cruiser. At the same time, her funnel was removed. She was armed with two 4.1 inch guns and six one-pounder pom-poms, all manned by experienced naval personnel and she was given the codename Hilfskreuzer B and was commanded by Korvettenkapitän Wirth. After an initial cruise, Cap Trafalgar returned on 13 September to the secret supply base at Trindade Island to take on fuel from German colliers.
Carmania spotted Cap Trafalgars smoke early in the morning and some hours was able to surprise the German ship with two colliers in the only harbour. By coincidence, the Cap Trafalgar was disguised as the Carmania, the Cap Trafalgar sent out encoded German messages, announcing the engagement with the Carmania, and the position as 35 degrees west,26 degrees south, with a NNW heading. Then the two ships turned towards each other and began to fight, the Carmania firing too early and thus allowing the Cap Trafalgar the first blow. Carmania suffered much the worse of the engagement in the two hours, being hit 79 times, was holed below the waterline, and had her bridge totally destroyed by shellfire. Just as it seemed that the fires on Carmania would burn out of control, Cap Trafalgar veered away, lowering lifeboats as she heeled over to port. A shell below the waterline had ruptured several compartments, and the ship was rapidly sinking, fifty-one were killed in the fighting or the sinking, including Captain Wirth.
Carmania was equally shattered, listing severely, heavily flooded and burning, with nine men dead and it was at this point that Cap Trafalgars contemporary, the armed merchant cruiser SMS Kronprinz Wilhelm arrived, seemingly to provide the coup de grace for the shattered ship. Most were interned for the duration of the war on the Argentine-controlled Martín García Island, Battle of Río de Oro Edwards, Salvo. Epic Naval Gun Actions, Great Britain,1995, the Ship That Hunted Itself - Penguin Books,1977. Schmalenbach, Paul German raiders, A history of auxiliary cruisers of the German Navy, 1895-1945 ISBN 0-87021-824-7. net Account of battle Dueling Doppelgängers, Futility Closet