Arquitectonica is an international architecture, landscape architecture, interior design, urban planning corporation headquartered in Miami, Florida’s Coconut Grove neighborhood. The firm has offices in ten other cities throughout the world. Arquitectonica began in 1977 as an experimental studio founded by Peruvian architect Bernardo Fort-Brescia, Laurinda Hope Spear, Andrés Duany, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, Hervin Romney. Today, the firm continues to be led by Bernardo Fort-Brescia and Laurinda Hope Spear, has designed such famous buildings as the Banco de Credito Headquarters, Atlantis Condominium, the Pink House, the American Airlines Arena in Miami and the Westin Hotel and entertainment complex in New York, amongst many others; until 2010, Arquitectonica's global headquarters were in Downtown Miami, until their new offices at 2900 Oak Avenue in the Coconut Grove neighborhood of Miami were opened in 2010. Arquitectonica has regional offices in New York City, Los Angeles, Paris, Hong Kong, Manila, Dubai, São Paulo, Lima.
The firm is known for sophisticated surface facade articulation. Arquitectonica's structures are bold in color and graphic in form and the firm has become famous for its signature style, a dramatic, expressive'high tech' modernism. In June 2011, two new major projects were announced for Arquitectonica, both in Downtown Miami: the new $700 million Brickell City Centre project in Miami's Brickell neighborhood, the $3-billion Genting Resorts World Miami project in Miami's Arts & Entertainment District neighborhood. Cyberport Campus, Pok Fu Lam Festival Walk in Kowloon Tong, Kowloon Novotel Citygate Hong Kong in Tung Chung, Lantau Landmark East in Kwun Tong, Kowloon East Forfar, Kowloon Homantin Hillside, Ho Man Tin City of Dreams Casino Resort, Cotai Riviera TwinStar Square, Shanghai The Longemont Shanghai Hotel, Shanghai King Glory Plaza, Shenzhen Taikoo Hui, Guangzhou ABC & CCB Bank Headquarters, Shanghai Mandarin Oriental Hotel, Shanghai Longemont Hotel and Office Tower, Shanghai West Mangrove, Shenzhen OneE-Com Center, Manila SM Bay City District SM Mall of Asia, Bay City, Metro Manila One Rockwell, Metro Manila The Beaufort, Bonifacio Global City,Taguig, Metro Manila Pacific Plaza Towers, Fort Bonifacio, Metro Manila Fairmont Raffles Makati, Metro Manila Mall of Asia Arena, Metro Manila SM City North EDSA Mall, Quezon City, Metro Manila SM Megamall Expansion & Renovation, Ortigas Center, Mandaluyong City, Metro Manila SMX Convention Center, Metro Manila SM Aura Premier, Bonifacio Global City, Taguig City, Metro Manila SM Seaside City Cebu, Cebu City, Cebu BDO Corporate Center, Ortigas Center, Mandaluyong City, Metro Manila Marriott Hotel in Lima, Banco de Crédito headquarters, Lima United States Embassy, Lima Westin Libertador Lima Lima HSBC headquarters in Lima Luxury Collection Paracas Resort & Spa, Paracas Luxury Collection Tambo del Inka Hotel, Urubamba Alba Condominium Leonie Hill Serviced Apartments Orchard Scotts Hotel & Residences Visioncrest Condominium BonaVista Apartements, Jakarta Menara Karya, Jakarta Menara Satrio, Jakarta Tempo Scan Tower, Jakarta Satrio Square, Jakarta Bubny Intermodal Center, Prague Marriott Hotel & Offices, Prague Auditorium de Dijon, France Mazars Headquarters, Paris, France Microsoft Headquarters, Issy les Moulineaux, France Bouygues Telecom Headquarters, Issy les Moulineaux, France EQWATER Office Building, Issy les Moulineaux, France Beb Beirut, Beirut Plus Towers, Beirut The Gate Shams, Abu Dhabi Lulu Island, Abu Dhabi Al Manhal, Abu Dhabi Al Mashtal, Abu Dhabi Columbus Bay Master Plan, Monte Cristi Province Porta Nuova Condominium Solaria & Aria Towers, Milan Nexus World Condominium Banque de Luxembourg Headquarters Lorca Mall, Lorca International Financial Center, Seoul Caracas Palace Hotel.
Sharm El Sheikh Resort, Sharm El Sheikh, Egypt Icon Vallarta, Puerto Vallarta 375 East Wacker Drive, Lakeshore East, Chicago Miami Beach Convention Center JW Marriott Nashville AIA Florida Firm of the Year AIA Miami Firm of the Year The AD 100 Official website Bronx Museum
North Hollywood station
North Hollywood is a combined heavy rail subway station and a bus rapid transit station in the Los Angeles County Metro Rail system. It is located at the intersection of Lankershim Boulevard and Chandler Boulevard in the North Hollywood district in the San Fernando Valley of Los Angeles; this station is served by the Red Line subway service as well as the Orange Line BRT service. The station is the northern terminus of the Red Line, the eastern terminus of the Orange Line in the Los Angeles County Metro Liner system. Red Line service hours are from 4:30 AM until 1:00 AM daily. Metro Liner Orange Line BRT service hours are from 4:00 AM until 1:00 AM daily. Metro constructed a second entrance on the west side of Lankershim Boulevard, which allows riders to connect between the Orange Line and the Red Line via an underground passageway; this underground connection was completed in August 2016. North Hollywood Metro station is located on Lankershim Boulevard, which forms the western border of the station and parking lot.
It is one block West of Vineland Avenue. The station is located in district of the same name in the San Fernando Valley section of Los Angeles. Since the opening of the station in 2000, transit-oriented developments have begun to be constructed adjacent to the station. NoHo Tower is across the street from the station and NoHo Commons, a multi-use complex which includes several floors of apartments above a level of retail. In September 2007, transportation officials approved NoHo Art Wave, the largest "transit-oriented" development in L. A. County history, consisting of a $1.3-billion apartment and high-rise office tower complex totaling more than 1,700,000 square feet of development on 15.6 acres. That project did not start due to the recession but in 2016 a public-private partnership with the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority was proposed on the 16 acres surrounding the station; the Southern Pacific Railway built the Lankershim Depot in 1896 on land, adjacent to the current Orange Line platforms.
It served as a stop on the Pacific Electric system after its North Hollywood Line opened in 1911. In 2014, the station was restored for a cost of $3.6 million, is occupied by a coffee shop. Metro Local: 152, 154, 162, 183, 224, 237, 353, 656 Metro Express: 501 Bob Hope Airport Shuttle Burbank Bus: NoHo-Airport, NoHo-Media District City of Santa Clarita Transit: 757 LADOT Commuter Express: 549 Metro Orange Line bicycle path - begins adjacent to station and proceeds west. NoHo Arts District, Los Angeles Millennium Dance Complex North Hollywood Station: connections overview LA Metro - countywide: official website LA Metro: Orange Line Timetable - schedules LA Metro: Orange Line map and stations - route map and station addresses and features
A split platform is a station that has a platform for each track, split onto two or more levels. This configuration allows a narrower station plan horizontally, at the expense of a deeper vertical elevation, because sets of tracks and platforms are stacked above each other. Where two rails lines cross or run parallel for a time, split platforms are sometimes used in a hybrid arrangement that allows for convenient cross-platform interchange between trains running in the same general direction. On the London Underground, to minimise the risk of subsidence, the tunnel alignments followed the roads on the surface and avoided passing under buildings. If a road was too narrow to allow the construction of side-by-side tunnels, they would be aligned one above the other, so that a number of stations have platforms at different levels; this setup is not common in North American railroad stations, but is found in places in Europe such as the London Underground on the deep tube lines, namely the Bakerloo, Jubilee and Piccadilly lines.
Examples of split platform layout in the United States are Rosslyn on the Washington Metro's Blue and Orange Lines. Split platforms are at downtown Oakland, California on BART's 12th and 19th Street, at Los Angeles Metro Rail's Wilshire/Vermont. MARTA's Ashby station uses the configuration to separate the westbound platforms. In the New York City Subway, Nostrand Avenue and Kingston Avenue stations on the IRT Eastern Parkway Line have two tracks on each level, with each of the two levels serving trains in one direction. Further north on the Eastern Parkway line, Borough Hall has split platforms. Stations on the IND Eighth Avenue Line have split stacked platforms between 59th Street – Columbus Circle and Cathedral Parkway – 110th Street due to the proximity of the line to Central Park. In other stations like Fulton Street, Borough Hall, Fifth Avenue / 53rd Street, platforms are stacked due to the narrowness of the street directly above the station. One notable station, Wilson Avenue on the BMT Canarsie Line, has one elevated platform and one at-grade platform, due to the narrowness of the line's right-of-way.
In Canada, split platforms on the Montreal Metro are located at De L'Église and Charlevoix and the Blue Line platforms at Jean-Talon, while Snowdon and Lionel-Groulx have a hybrid layout where the two directions on each line are split from each other but sharing an island platform with the other line. They are found on Vancouver's SkyTrain, at the stations in the Dunsmuir Tunnel and at the King Edward station on the Canada Line. Milan Metro Sant'Agostino on line M2 is similar, all the stations between Crocetta and Turati on line M3. On Munich Marienplatz Station the Munich S-Bahn are on two separate levels, where westbound trains depart from the lower level, eastbound trains from the upper level. Below the westbound level there is an interchange to the metro lines U3 and U6 in North-South direction. In Nuremberg metro network, the station Plärrer has two platforms for cross-platform interchange between lines U1 and U2/U3; the upper platform is used for westbound/outbound services, while the lower one is designated for eastbound/inbound trains.
In Hanover light-metro network, Kröpcke has one for blue lines. The red lines level and the yellow lines level are situated directly below each other. An interchange between red and yellow lines is possible at Aegidientorplatz where the underground platforms are situated the same way like Nürnberg Plärrer. Eastbound/outbound trains use the lower platform, westbound/inbound trains use the upper one. On Vienna U-Bahn line U3, the stations Neubaugasse, Herrengasse and Stubentor have two levels of platforms. Trains towards Ottakring use trains towards Simmering the upper one. In Stephansplatz the line U1 crosses below these platforms. In Asia and Yongan Market on the Taipei Metro have split stacked platforms, Central, Wan Chai, Causeway Bay, Tin Hau, North Point, Sai Wan Ho on MTR's Island Line on Hong Kong Island all have split platforms. Ginza-itchome Station on the Tokyo Metro Yurakucho Line has split platforms. Promenade and Stevens Station in Singapore and Bukit Bintang MRT station in Malaysia have split side platforms.
Charlevoix De L'Église Wan Chai Station Causeway Bay Station Sai Wan Ho Station Tin Hau Station Paraíso Day, John R. The Story of London's Underground. Capital Transport. ISBN 1-85414-316-6
A transit village is a predominantly residential development with some nearby retail activities planned around a transportation hub, such as a train station, with the intent to make it convenient for village dwellers to get to/from work or run errands and travel via a public transportation network. A civic square of public space abuts the train station, functioning as the hub or centerpiece of the surrounding community and encouraging social interaction. While residential in nature, many transit villages offer convenience retail and services to residents heading to and from train stations; the term "transit villages" was popularized in the 1997 book by Michael Bernick and Robert Cervero, Transit Villages for the 21st Century, whose cover shows a mixed-use, pedestrian-friendly community infilling what was a surface park-and-ride lot of the Pleasant Hill BART station area, what is now the Contra Costa Centre Transit Village. In their book, the authors distinguished transit villages from transit-oriented development as more residential-oriented in land-use composition, with neighborhood retail and services provided in and around the rail station and a prominent civic space immediate to the station.
Portland, Oregon has pursued transit village style development along the Portland area light rail known as Metropolitan Area Express. California is exploring transit village development options for its evolving transit systems. Miami, Florida has placed large affordable housing complexes at its two least used Metrorail stations, one is known as the Brownsville Transit Village and the other is Santa Clara Apartments. Miami-Dade Transit has its headquarters in the Overtown Transit Village building at one of its downtown stations. New Jersey Transit, the New Jersey Department of Transportation, some local communities in New Jersey are working on developing transit villages in locations such as Hamilton Township, Mercer County, New Jersey along New Jersey Transit's Northeast Corridor rail line and Somerville, New Jersey along New Jersey Transit's Raritan Valley Line rail line; the effort is termed Transit Village Initiative. New Jersey has become a national leader in promoting Transit Village development.
The New Jersey Department of Transportation established the Transit Village Initiative in 1999, offering multi-agency assistance and grants from the annual $1 million Transit village fund to any municipality with a ready to go project specifying appropriate mixed land-use strategy, available property, station-area management, commitment to affordable housing, job growth, culture. Transit village development must preserve the architectural integrity of significant buildings. Since 1999 the state has made 32 Transit Village designations, which are in different stages of development: Pleasantville, Rutherford, South Amboy, South Orange, Rahway, Belmar, Bound Brook, Cranford Matawan, New Brunswick, Journal Square/Jersey City, Elizabeth/Midtown, Burlington City, the City of Orange Township, Somerville, West Windsor, East Orange, Summit, Park Ridge, Irvington Hackensack, Long Branch. Commuter town New Urbanism Principles of Intelligent Urbanism Smart growth Streetcar suburb Transit-oriented development Transit-proximate development Urban sprawl Transit metropolis Transit Oriented Development transitvillages.org
The Government Employees Insurance Company is an American auto insurance company with headquarters in Chevy Chase, Maryland. It is the second largest auto insurer in the United States, after State Farm. GEICO is a wholly owned subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway that provides coverage for more than 24 million motor vehicles owned by more than 15 million policy holders as of 2017. GEICO writes private passenger automobile insurance in all 50 U. S. states and the District of Columbia. The insurance agency sells policies through local agents, called GEICO Field Representatives, over the phone directly to the consumer, through their website, its mascot is a gold dust day gecko with a Cockney accent, voiced by English actor Jake Wood. GEICO is well known in popular culture for its advertising, having made a large number of commercials intended to entertain viewers. GEICO was founded in 1936 by Leo Goodwin Sr. and his wife Lillian Goodwin to provide auto insurance directly to federal government employees and their families.
Since 1925, Goodwin had worked for USAA as an insurer who specialized in insuring only military personnel. He decided to start his own company after rising as far as a civilian could go in USAA's military-dominated hierarchy. Based on Goodwin's experience at USAA, GEICO's original business model was predicated on the assumption that federal employees, as a group, would constitute a less risky and more financially stable pool of insureds compared to the general public. Despite the presence of the word "government" in its name, GEICO has always been a private corporation not affiliated with any U. S. government organization. In 1937, the Goodwins relocated GEICO from San Antonio, Texas to Washington, D. C. and reincorporated the company as a D. C. corporation after realizing that their business model would work best in the place with the highest concentration of federal employees. An important figure in GEICO's history is David Lloyd Kreeger, who became president of the company in 1964 and helped steer it into a major insurance enterprise.
In 1948, he formed a group of investors. He became senior general counsel of the company. Six years after becoming president of GEICO, Kreeger was named chairman and chief executive officer, he retained those titles until he retired in 1975. Kreeger continued his role as chairman of the executive committee until 1979, when he was named honorary chairman. In 1974 under Kreeger's leadership, GEICO began to insure the general public after real-time access to computerized driving records became available throughout the United States. At this time, GEICO was the fifth-largest U. S. auto insurer. By 1975, it was clear that GEICO had expanded far too when it reported a $126.5 million USD loss. To prevent GEICO from collapsing, a consortium of 45 insurance companies agreed to take over a quarter of its policies, it was forced to issue a stock offering to raise money to pay claims, it took a massive reorganization to set GEICO on the path to recovery. GEICO has offered other types of insurance besides auto, including homeowner's insurance from 1962 to 1996.
A sister company, the Government Employees Life Insurance Company, offered life insurance from 1975 to 1985. Although GEICO has since focused on its core auto insurance competency, it uses its established direct sales infrastructure to market homeowner's and other types of insurance underwritten by other companies. In 1996, after many years as a publicly traded firm, GEICO became a wholly owned subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway. GEICO deals directly with consumers via telephone and internet. GEICO is now the second-largest writer of private auto insurance in the country. In 2015, GEICO began offering coverage for drivers of transportation network companies in select states, including in high-population states such as Texas, Pennsylvania and Georgia; the policy, issued through GEICO's commercial department, has received praise from insurance experts and launched GEICO as the largest insurance provider for TNC drivers. In 2016, J. D. Power rated the company # 20 out of 24 with a 2/5 score. GEICO has many well-known ad campaigns.
In 2012 GEICO spent over $1.1 billion 6.8 % of its revenue. All campaigns are produced by The Martin Agency in Richmond, Virginia. GEICO ads have featured several well-known mascots, including: The GEICO Gecko is the most prevalent spokesperson mascot and speaks with a Cockney accent; the GEICO Cavemen. Maxwell, the GEICO "Piggy" who shouts a long "Whee" and appears in more radio and TV commercials. Actor Mike McGlone, who uses film noir-style narration to compare the ease of GEICO to things, famous people, or idioms; the scene is acted out, with humorous results. In addition to Johnson, other ads have included Charlie Daniels, Andrés Cantor, Foghorn Leghorn, Elmer Fudd, R. Lee Ermey, Ed "Too Tall" Jones among others; this campaign is notable for the creation of the "Maxwell the Pig" commercials. The "money savers" campaign enlisted actors to portray average consumers who have resorted to various humorous extremes in order to save money, such as teaching a dog to sing or teaching a group of Guinea pigs to row a boat and perform some mundane task for the consumer
Los Angeles Metro Rail
The Los Angeles Metro Rail is an urban rail transportation system serving Los Angeles County, California. It consists of six lines, including two rapid transit subway lines and four light rail lines serving 93 stations, it connects with the Metro Busway bus rapid transit system and with the Metrolink commuter rail system. Metro Rail is owned and operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority and started service in 1990, it has been extended since that time and several further extensions are either in the works or being considered. The system served a ridership of 344,176 on an average weekday in 2018. Los Angeles had two previous rail transit systems, the Pacific Electric Red Car and Los Angeles Railway Yellow Car lines, which operated between the late 19th century and the 1960s; the Metro Rail system utilizes many of their former rights-of-way, thus can be considered their indirect successor. In Los Angeles Metro terminology, common with most other metro systems, a line is a named service, defined by a route and set of stations served by trains on that route.
Metro Rail lines are for the most part named after colors, these colors are used to distinguish the lines on Metro's maps. Metro uses colors for its Metro Busway services. In mid-2019, Metro will rename all of its rail and BRT lines with letters, while leaving their colors unchanged on maps. Six Metro Rail lines operate in Los Angeles County: The Red and Purple lines follow a underground route, the Green Line follows a elevated route; the Blue and Gold Line routes run in a mix of environments, including at-grade street running, at-grade in an exclusive corridor and underground. The two heavy-rail lines share tracks between Union Station and Wilshire/Vermont, while two of the light-rail lines share tracks between 7th St/Metro Center and Pico. Future system expansions are expected to use shared light-rail tracks; the large majority of light rail stations are either at ground level or elevated, while a handful are underground. All heavy rail stations are underground. Future light rail lines will add more underground stations to the system.
Stations include at least two ticket vending machines, wayfinding maps, electronic message displays, bench seating. Each station features unique artwork reflecting local culture and/or the function of transit in society. Stations are unstaffed during regular hours. Call boxes are available at most stations to allow employees at the Metro Rail Operations Control Center to assist passengers with concerns. Metro Rail uses a proof-of-payment fare system, with Metro's fare inspectors randomly inspecting trains and stations to ensure passengers have a valid fare product on their Transit Access Pass electronic fare card; when passengers enter a station, they encounter TAP card validators which collect fares when a customer places their card on top. Additionally, fare gates connected to TAP card validators at all underground stations, all elevated stations and some surface stations. Once passengers pass these validators or board a train, they have entered the "fare paid zone," where fare inspectors may check their TAP card to ensure they have a valid fare.
Underground stations are large in size with a mezzanine level for fare sales and collection above a platform level where passengers board trains. Street-level stations are more simple with platforms designed with shade canopies, separated from nearby roads and sidewalks, where passengers can purchase fares and board a train. Subway stations and tunnels are designed to resist ground shaking that could occur at a specific location, but there is no general magnitude of earthquake that the entire system is expected to withstand; the Metro Rail system has not suffered any damage due to earthquakes since its opening in 1993. Some suburban stations have free or paid park and ride lots available and most have bike storage available. Metro Rail maintains two distinct systems of rail: a heavy rail system; the heavy rail and light rail systems are incompatible with each other though they both use 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge. Metro's heavy rail lines are powered by third rail, whereas its light rail lines are powered by overhead catenary.
The two separate systems have different loading gauge, platforms are designed to match the separate car widths. All Metro Rail lines run between 5am and midnight, seven days a week. Limited service on particular segments is provided before 5 am. On Friday and Saturday evenings, service operates until 2am. There is no rail service between 3:30 am, except on special occasions such as New Year's Eve. Service operates every 5–10 minutes during the peak period, every 10–15 minutes during middays and during the day on weekends, every 20 minutes during the evening until the close of service. Exact times vary from route to route; the standard Metro base fare applies for all trips. Fare collection is based on a partial proof-of-payment system. At least two fare machines are at each station. Fare inspectors, local police and deputy sheriffs police the system and cite individuals without fares. Passengers are required to purchase a TAP card to enter stations equipped with fare gates. Passengers using a TAP card can transfer between Metro routes for free within 2 hours from the first tap.
The following table shows Met
Red Line (Los Angeles Metro)
The Red Line is a heavy rail subway line running between Downtown Los Angeles and North Hollywood via the districts of Hollywood and Mid-Wilshire. In North Hollywood it connects with the Orange Line service for stations to the Warner Center in Woodland Hills and Chatsworth, it is operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority. The Red Line, one of six lines forming the Metro Rail rapid transit system, opened in stages between 1993 and 2000. Together with the Purple Line, these two heavy rail lines combine to form L. A. Metro Rail's busiest line; as of October 2013, the combined Red and Purple lines averaged 169,478 boardings per weekday. Beginning in 2019, the line will be renamed to the B Line while retaining its red coloring; the Red Line is a 16.4-mile line that begins at Union Station and travels southwest through Downtown Los Angeles, passing the Civic Center, Pershing Square and the Financial District. At 7th St/Metro Center, travelers can connect to Metro Expo Line.
From here, the train travels between 7th Street and Wilshire Boulevard west through Pico-Union and Westlake, arriving at Wilshire/Vermont in the city's Mid-Wilshire/Koreatown district. Up to this point, the track is shared with the Metro Purple Line: at Wilshire/Vermont, the two lines diverge. From here, the Red Line travels north along Vermont, west along Hollywood Boulevard, traveling through Koreatown and Hollywood; the line turns northwest and crosses into the San Fernando Valley, where it terminates in North Hollywood. This route matches a branch of the old Red Car system, dismantled during The Great American Streetcar Scandal. Trains run between 4:30 a.m. and 1:00 a.m. the following morning. On Friday and Saturday evenings, trains are extended until 2:00 a.m. of the following morning. First and last train times are as follows: To/From North Hollywood Eastbound First Train to Union Station: 4:32 a.m. Last Train to Union Station: 1:02 a.m. Westbound First Train to North Hollywood: 4:10 a.m.
Last Train to North Hollywood: 12:21 a.m. Trains on the Red Line operate every ten minutes during peak hours Monday through Friday, they operate every twelve minutes during the daytime weekdays and all day on the weekends after 10 a.m.. Night service is every 20 minutes; the current Red Line is the product of a long-term plan to connect Downtown Los Angeles to central and western portions of the city with a heavy rail subway system. Planned in the 1980s to travel west down Wilshire Boulevard to Fairfax Avenue and north to the San Fernando Valley, a methane explosion at a Ross Dress for Less clothing store near Fairfax in 1985, just as construction got underway, led to a legal prohibition on tunneling in a large part of Mid-Wilshire. Instead, after some wrangling, a new route was chosen up Vermont Avenue to Hollywood Boulevard; the line opened in three minimum operating segments: MOS-1, which consisted of the original five stations from Union Station to Westlake/MacArthur Park, opened on January 30, 1993.
MOS-2B, which consisted of five new stations from Wilshire/Vermont to Hollywood/Vine which opened in 1999. MOS-3, which added new stations and extended the Red Line from Hollywood/Vine to its final terminus at North Hollywood, opened in 2000; the route known as the Red Line was intended to continue beyond its eastern terminus at Union Station to East Los Angeles. At the north end of the route, the Red Line was to turn west from North Hollywood station toward Warner Center. Trouble during the Red Line's construction, including a 1995 sinkhole that led to the project switching to a new contractor, led to a 1998 ballot proposition that banned revenue from existing sales taxes being used to dig subway tunnels in Los Angeles County, which put an end to expansion of the Red Line for the foreseeable future; the route to Warner Center was turned into a bus rapid transitway service. In the early 21st century, new sales tax Measures R and M were approved voters to provide funds for subway development.
While the Red Line does not figure into active expansion plans, several concepts have been proposed that would build off of it. Former Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa has mentioned extending the Red Line from its current North Hollywood Station terminus along Lankershim Boulevard to the northeastern San Fernando Valley, with a terminus in Sylmar. One long-term possibility might be an underground extension of another mile or two to a future high-rise housing district, or to a multi-modal transportation hub station at Bob Hope Airport in Burbank, a distance of four miles, it would go under Oxnard Street, the NoHo West development, Laurel Canyon Blvd, Vanowen Street to the Burbank Airport. In 2006 a large number of housing units, including a high-rise tower was completed near the North Hollywood station. Planned high-rise housing developments further to the north, including the NoHo West development which broke ground in March 2017 and the possibility of establishing a direct connection to the planned California High-Speed Rail station at Burbank Airport have been suggested as additional justification for an extension of the line from its current terminus in North Hollywood.
In 2010, at the request of L. A. City Councilman Tom LaBonge, Metro staff studied the possibility of adding a station along the west bank of the Los Angeles River to 6th Street and Santa Fe Avenue; the study concluded that such an extension, completed at