A metro station or subway station is a railway station for a rapid transit system, which as a whole is called a "metro" or "subway". A station provides a means for passengers to purchase tickets, board trains, evacuate the system in the case of an emergency; the location of a metro station is planned to provide easy access to important urban facilities such as roads, commercial centres, major buildings and other transport nodes. Most stations are located underground, with entrances/exits leading up to street level; the bulk of the station is positioned under land reserved for public thoroughfares or parks. Placing the station underground reduces the outside area occupied by the station, allowing vehicles and pedestrians to continue using the ground-level area in a similar way as before the station's construction; this is important where the station is serving high-density urban precincts, where ground-level spaces are heavily utilised. In other cases, a station may be elevated above a road, or at ground level depending on the level of the train tracks.
The physical and economic impact of the station and its operations will be greater. Planners will take metro lines or parts of lines at or above ground where urban density decreases, extending the system further for less cost. Metros are most used in urban cities, with great populations. Alternatively, a preexisting railway land corridor is re-purposed for rapid transit. At street level the logo of the metro company marks the entrances/exits of the station. Signage shows the name of the station and describes the facilities of the station and the system it serves. There are several entrances for one station, saving pedestrians from needing to cross a street and reducing crowding. A metro station provides ticket vending and ticket validating systems; the station is divided into an unpaid zone connected to the street, a paid zone connected to the train platforms. The ticket barrier allows passengers with valid tickets to pass between these zones; the barrier may operated by staff or more with automated turnstiles or gates that open when a transit pass is scanned or detected.
Some small metro systems dispense with paid zones and validate tickets with staff in the train carriages. Access from the street to ticketing and the train platform is provided by stairs, escalators and tunnels; the station will be designed to minimise overcrowding and improve flow, sometimes by designating tunnels as one way. Permanent or temporary barriers may be used to manage crowds; some metro stations have direct connections to important nearby buildings. Most jurisdictions mandate; this is resolved with elevators, taking a number of people from street level to the unpaid ticketing area, from the paid area to the platform. In addition, there will be stringent requirements for emergencies, with backup lighting, emergency exits and alarm systems installed and maintained. Stations are a critical part of the evacuation route for passengers escaping from a disabled or troubled train. A subway station may provide additional facilities, such as toilets and amenities for staff and security services, such as Transit police.
Some metro stations are interchanges, serving to transfer passengers between lines or transport systems. The platforms may be multi-level. Transfer stations handle more passengers than regular stations, with additional connecting tunnels and larger concourses to reduce walking times and manage crowd flows. In some stations where trains are automated, the entire platform is screened from the track by a wall of glass, with automatic platform-edge doors; these open, like elevator doors, only when a train is stopped, thus eliminate the hazard that a passenger will accidentally fall onto the tracks and be run over or electrocuted. Control over ventilation of the platform is improved, allowing it to be heated or cooled without having to do the same for the tunnels; the doors add cost and complexity to the system, trains may have to approach the station more so they can stop in accurate alignment with them. Metro stations, more so than railway and bus stations have a characteristic artistic design that can identify each stop.
Some have frescoes. For example, London's Baker Street station is adorned with tiles depicting Sherlock Holmes; the tunnel for Paris' Concorde station is decorated with tiles spelling the Déclaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen. Every metro station in Valencia, Spain has a different sculpture on the ticket-hall level. Alameda station is decorated with fragments of white tile, like the dominant style of the Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències; each of the original four stations on Line 8 of the Beijing Subway is decorated traditionally with elements of Chinese culture. On the Tyne and Wear Metro, the station at Newcastle United's home ground St James' Park is decorated in the clubs famous black and white stripes; each station of the Red Line and Purple Line subway in Los Angeles was built with different artwork and decorating schemes, such as murals, tile artwork and sculptural benches. Every station of the Mexico City Metro is prominently identified by a unique icon in addition to its name, because the city had high illiteracy rates at the time the system was designed.
Some metro systems, such as those of Naples, Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kiev, Lisbon and Prague are famous for their beautiful architecture and public art; the Paris Métro is famous for its art nouveau station entrances.
Koreatown, Los Angeles
Koreatown is a neighborhood in Central Los Angeles, centered near Eighth Street and Irolo Street, west of MacArthur Park. The rectangular area covers about 150 blocks, spanning 15 avenues. While significant links with Korean culture remain, the residents are a broad mix, with half Latino and a third Asian. Koreans found housing in the Mid-Wilshire area. Many opened businesses as they found tolerance towards the growing Korean population. Many of the historic Art deco buildings with terra cotta facades have been preserved because the buildings remained economically viable for the new businesses. Today, Koreatown is becoming one of LA's most popular neighborhoods. Despite the name evoking a traditional ethnic enclave, the community is complex and has an impact on areas outside the traditional boundaries. While the neighborhood culture has been oriented to the Korean immigrant population, Korean business owners are creating stronger ties to the Latino community in Koreatown; the community is diverse ethnically, with half the residents being Latino and a third being Asian.
Two-thirds of the residents were born outside of the United States, as a high figure compared to the rest of the city. In 1882, the United States and Korea established the United States-Korea Treaty of 1882, which ended Korea’s self-imposed isolation; the establishment of diplomatic relations between the United States and Korea paved the way for Korean immigration to Hawaii in the late 1880s. In the early 1900s, Korean immigrants began making their way to Los Angeles, where they created communities based around ethnic churches; as the number of Koreans increased to the hundreds, their residential and commercial activities spread to the southwestern corner of the Los Angeles business district, putting them within walking distance of Little Tokyo and Chinatown. By the 1930s 650 Koreans resided in Los Angeles, they established churches and community organizations, as well as businesses that focused on vegetable and fruit distribution. In 1936, the Korean National Association, one of the largest Korean immigrant political organizations, moved its central headquarters from San Francisco to Los Angeles to continue promoting political, cultural and religious activities.
However, racial covenant laws and economic constraints limited Korean residents to an area bounded by Adams Boulevard to the north, Slauson Avenue to the south, Western Avenue to the west, Vermont Avenue to the east. The 1930s saw the height of the area's association with Hollywood; the Ambassador Hotel hosted the Academy Awards ceremony in 1930, 1931, 1932, 1934. As the entertainment industry grew in the surrounding Koreatown area, Koreans remained segregated into low-income districts because of discriminatory housing policies. After the 1948 Shelley v. Kraemer Supreme Court case prohibited racially restrictive housing policies, Koreans began to move north of Olympic Boulevard to establish new homes and businesses. In the late 1960s, the surrounding neighborhood began to enter a steep economic decline; the once-glamorous mid-Wilshire area became filled with vacant commercial and office space that attracted wealthier South Korean immigrants. They found many opened businesses in Koreatown. Many of the area's Art Deco buildings with terracotta facades were preserved because they remained economically viable with the new commercial activity that occupied them.
The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 removed restrictions on Asian migration and helped further the growth of the immigrant community in Koreatown. By the late 1970s, most businesses in the Olympic Boulevard and 8th Street areas were owned by Koreans; this economic boom led to the creation of Korean media outlets and community organizations, which played a key role in developing a sense of communal identity in the neighborhood. The ethnic enclave was able to establish itself as the primary hub of the Korean community in Southern California, the residents lobbied for the installation of the first Koreatown sign in 1982; the 1992 Los Angeles riots had a significant impact on the community, solidifying the importance of community-based nonprofit organizations, such as the Koreatown Youth and Community Center and Koreatown Immigrant Workers Alliance. These organizations advocated for reparations and protections for Korean Americans, who received little support from government authorities as a result of their low social status and language barrier.
During the time of the riots and Korean Americans were facing racial strife. In many predominately Black neighborhoods, Korean citizens owned the majority of businesses; when white residents left the area, Koreans purchased their businesses from them for little money. Rapper Ice Cube spoke of this, along with Asian suspicion of Black residents in his 1988 album "Death Certificate" during the song "Black Korea". On March 16, 1991, a Korean store owner, Soon Ja Du, shot and killed a 15-year old, black customer, Latasha Harlins. Du accused Harlins of stealing orange juice, after watching her slamming down the jug and turning to leave, shot her in the head; some historians view Du's posting bail as the breaking point in tensions. The 1992 unrest stimulated a new wave of political activism among Korean-Americans, but split them into two camps; the liberals sought to unite wit
Pellissier Building and Wiltern Theatre
The Pellissier Building and adjoining Wiltern Theatre is a 12-story, 155-foot Art Deco landmark at the corner of Wilshire Boulevard and Western Avenue in Los Angeles, California. The entire complex is referred to as the Wiltern Center. Clad in a blue-green glazed architectural terra-cotta tile and situated diagonal to the street corner, the complex is considered one of the finest examples of Art Deco architecture in the United States; the Wiltern building is owned and the Wiltern Theatre is operated by Live Nation's Los Angeles division. The Wiltern Theatre is located at the western edge of the Los Angeles neighborhood of Koreatown, at the southeast corner of Wilshire Boulevard and Western Avenue; the Koreatown district is served by Metro Rail. Named after the family that owned the land upon which it was developed, the Pellissier Building is a 12-story steel-reinforced concrete office tower. Set upon a two-story pedestal that contains ground floor retail and the theater entrance, the tower has narrow vertical windows that sweep the eye upward and create the illusion of a much taller building.
The tower is an example of French Zig-Zag Moderne styling. The entrance to the Wiltern Theatre is flanked by large vertical neon signs while patrons approach the ticket booth set back among colorful terrazzo paving; the Wiltern's interior was designed by G. Albert Lansburgh and is renowned for its Art Deco design containing decorative plaster and tile work along with colorful murals painted by Anthony Heinsbergen; the most dramatic element of the design is the sunburst on the ceiling of the auditorium, with each ray its own Art Deco skyscraper—Lansburgh's vision of the future of Wilshire Boulevard. When the Wiltern first opened, it housed the largest theater pipe organ in the western United States. Both the Wiltern Theatre and the Pellissier Building have been named to the National Register of Historic Places and declared a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument by the City of Los Angeles. Built in 1931, the Wiltern was designed by architect Stiles O. Clements of Morgan, Walls & Clements, the city's oldest architectural firm.
The Wiltern Theatre was designed as a vaudeville theater and opened as the Warner Brothers Western Theater, the flagship for the theater chain. Closing a year the theater reopened in the mid-1930s and was renamed the Wiltern Theatre for the major intersection which it faces. In 1956, the building and theater were sold to the Franklin Life Insurance Company of Springfield, Illinois; the Los Angeles chapter of the American Theater Organ Enthusiasts worked to restore the theater's 37-rank Kimball pipe organ—reputed to be the largest one in Los Angeles at the time—and held recitals there through the late 1960s and into the mid-1970s. However, the owners ignored the landmark building, by the late 1970s, the Wiltern had fallen into disrepair. Only the intervention of a group of local preservationists saved the complex from being demolished on two occasions in the late 1970s, when the owners filed for demolition permits. In 1981, the Wiltern was purchased by developer Wayne Ratkovich, who worked with architect Brenda Levin to restore both the theater and the office building to their former glory.
Previous successes with the Fine Arts Building and the Oviatt Building renovations in downtown Los Angeles and the refurbishing of the nearby Chapman Market complex on Sixth Street convinced many in the city that they were the right people for the job. The renovation of the office building was complete by 1983, but the Wiltern Theatre presented a much more difficult problem and took another two years to complete; the theater had been poorly maintained—many of the murals and plasterwork were damaged, many of the fixtures had been sold off or pillaged, portions of the ceiling had crashed onto the ground floor seats. It had been used as the primary location for the film Get Crazy, which caused further damage. To restore the theater to its original state required expert craftsmanship by A. T. Heinsbergen, son of the original painter, some creativity to replace what had been lost; this included salvaging vintage Art Deco seats from the soon-to-be-renovated Paramount Theater in Portland, Oregon. Furthermore, while it was designed and run as a movie theater, Ratkovich wanted to convert the Wiltern into a performing arts center that could host live concerts and Broadway-level stage performances—which entailed opening up the rear wall and extending the stage and stage house of the theater back 15 feet.
After a four-year renovation the Wiltern Theatre opened again to the public on May 1, 1985, with performances by the Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater company. Bill Graham Presents was retained to provide the oversight of operations; the Wiltern was operated as a producing theater, hosted its own live performances and those sponsored by Avalon Attractions, Concerts West, Universal Concerts, Timeless Entertainment, many others, was used for many televised events, commercial filming and feature film locations. On August 7, 1985, Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers played a show at the theater, most of the live show was subsequently used for Petty's first official live release Pack Up the Plantation: Live! The concert was filmed; the Wiltern seated 2,344. Subsequent modifications in 2002 removed the 1,200 p
Los Angeles Metro Rail
The Los Angeles Metro Rail is an urban rail transportation system serving Los Angeles County, California. It consists of six lines, including two rapid transit subway lines and four light rail lines serving 93 stations, it connects with the Metro Busway bus rapid transit system and with the Metrolink commuter rail system. Metro Rail is owned and operated by the Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Authority and started service in 1990, it has been extended since that time and several further extensions are either in the works or being considered. The system served a ridership of 344,176 on an average weekday in 2018. Los Angeles had two previous rail transit systems, the Pacific Electric Red Car and Los Angeles Railway Yellow Car lines, which operated between the late 19th century and the 1960s; the Metro Rail system utilizes many of their former rights-of-way, thus can be considered their indirect successor. In Los Angeles Metro terminology, common with most other metro systems, a line is a named service, defined by a route and set of stations served by trains on that route.
Metro Rail lines are for the most part named after colors, these colors are used to distinguish the lines on Metro's maps. Metro uses colors for its Metro Busway services. In mid-2019, Metro will rename all of its rail and BRT lines with letters, while leaving their colors unchanged on maps. Six Metro Rail lines operate in Los Angeles County: The Red and Purple lines follow a underground route, the Green Line follows a elevated route; the Blue and Gold Line routes run in a mix of environments, including at-grade street running, at-grade in an exclusive corridor and underground. The two heavy-rail lines share tracks between Union Station and Wilshire/Vermont, while two of the light-rail lines share tracks between 7th St/Metro Center and Pico. Future system expansions are expected to use shared light-rail tracks; the large majority of light rail stations are either at ground level or elevated, while a handful are underground. All heavy rail stations are underground. Future light rail lines will add more underground stations to the system.
Stations include at least two ticket vending machines, wayfinding maps, electronic message displays, bench seating. Each station features unique artwork reflecting local culture and/or the function of transit in society. Stations are unstaffed during regular hours. Call boxes are available at most stations to allow employees at the Metro Rail Operations Control Center to assist passengers with concerns. Metro Rail uses a proof-of-payment fare system, with Metro's fare inspectors randomly inspecting trains and stations to ensure passengers have a valid fare product on their Transit Access Pass electronic fare card; when passengers enter a station, they encounter TAP card validators which collect fares when a customer places their card on top. Additionally, fare gates connected to TAP card validators at all underground stations, all elevated stations and some surface stations. Once passengers pass these validators or board a train, they have entered the "fare paid zone," where fare inspectors may check their TAP card to ensure they have a valid fare.
Underground stations are large in size with a mezzanine level for fare sales and collection above a platform level where passengers board trains. Street-level stations are more simple with platforms designed with shade canopies, separated from nearby roads and sidewalks, where passengers can purchase fares and board a train. Subway stations and tunnels are designed to resist ground shaking that could occur at a specific location, but there is no general magnitude of earthquake that the entire system is expected to withstand; the Metro Rail system has not suffered any damage due to earthquakes since its opening in 1993. Some suburban stations have free or paid park and ride lots available and most have bike storage available. Metro Rail maintains two distinct systems of rail: a heavy rail system; the heavy rail and light rail systems are incompatible with each other though they both use 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge. Metro's heavy rail lines are powered by third rail, whereas its light rail lines are powered by overhead catenary.
The two separate systems have different loading gauge, platforms are designed to match the separate car widths. All Metro Rail lines run between 5am and midnight, seven days a week. Limited service on particular segments is provided before 5 am. On Friday and Saturday evenings, service operates until 2am. There is no rail service between 3:30 am, except on special occasions such as New Year's Eve. Service operates every 5–10 minutes during the peak period, every 10–15 minutes during middays and during the day on weekends, every 20 minutes during the evening until the close of service. Exact times vary from route to route; the standard Metro base fare applies for all trips. Fare collection is based on a partial proof-of-payment system. At least two fare machines are at each station. Fare inspectors, local police and deputy sheriffs police the system and cite individuals without fares. Passengers are required to purchase a TAP card to enter stations equipped with fare gates. Passengers using a TAP card can transfer between Metro routes for free within 2 hours from the first tap.
The following table shows Met
Westwood, Los Angeles
Westwood is a commercial and residential neighborhood in the northern central portion of the Westside region of Los Angeles, California. It is the home of the University of Los Angeles; the 2000 census found the forty-seven thousand people living in the neighborhood were young and moderately diverse ethnically, with a high level of income and education. The neighborhood was developed after 1919, with a new campus of the University of California opened in 1926. Other attractions include Westwood Village, with its historic motion picture theaters and shopping, Westwood Village Memorial Park Cemetery and the Hammer Museum. Holmby Hills is considered one of the wealthiest residential areas in Los Angeles, the Geffen Playhouse attracts theater-goers. A Mormon temple is prominent. There are one middle school in the neighborhood; the 2000 U. S. census counted 47,916 residents in the 3.68-square-mile Westwood neighborhood—or 13,036 people per square mile, an average population density for the city. In 2008, the city estimated that the population had increased to 52,041.
The median age for residents was 27, considered young for the city. The neighborhood was considered moderately diverse ethnically, with a high percentage of Asians and of whites; the breakdown was whites, 62.9%. Iran and Taiwan were the most common places of birth for the 31.3% of the residents who were born abroad—about the same percentage as in the city at large. The median yearly household income in 2008 dollars was a high figure for Los Angeles; the percentages of households that earned $125,000 yearly and higher or that earned $20,000 or less were high for Los Angeles County. The average household size of two people was low for Los Angeles. Renters occupied 64.1% of the housing stock and house- or apartment owners held 35.9%. The percentages of never-married men and women were among the county's highest. In 2000 there were 309 families headed by a low percentage for the city. Five percent of the population had served in the military, a low figure for both the city and the county. According to the Westwood Neighborhood Council, the Westwood Homeowners Association, the Los Angeles Times' Mapping L.
A. project, Westwood's street and other boundaries are north, Sunset Boulevard. Westwood is flanked on the north by Beverly Crest, on the east by Beverly Hills, on the southeast by Century City, on the south by West Los Angeles, on the west by Veterans Administration and Brentwood and on the northwest by Bel-Air. Westwood Village was created by the Janss Investment Company, run by Harold and Edwin Janss and their father, Peter, in the late 1920s as an shopping district and headquarters of the Janss Company, its boom was complemented by the boom of UCLA, developed as a shopping district for the residents of Westwood and the university. Opening in 1929, the design was considered one of the nation's most well-planned and beautifully laid out commercial areas. Harold Janss had hired major architects and instructed them to follow a Mediterranean theme, with clay tile roofs, decorative Spanish tile, paseos and courtyards. Buildings at strategic points, including theaters, used towers to serve as beacons for drivers on Wilshire Boulevard.
Janss determined their location in the neighborhood. The architectural style met a turning point in 1970, when a 24-story office building now known as Oppenheimer Tower was built in the neighborhood and the design of new buildings soon became a mishmash of styles; the Oppenheimer Tower was used for the primary location in the 1978 episode of Emergency!, The Steel Inferno. The neighborhood's popularity continued to rise, with commercial rents peaking in 1988; the area suffered a major setback in the late 1980s, when gangs began to frequent the neighborhood and bother visitors. The neighborhood's well-known bookstores and some movie cinemas began closing with the advent of large chain stores, Amazon.com and multiplex theaters. By 1999, the Village was considered to be upscale economically, today it houses many small and large shops and restaurants. Independent merchants have blamed poor sales on lack of parking. Parking is still cited as a major problem. Holmby Hills, Bel Air and Beverly Hills form the "Platinum Triangle" of Los Angeles.
It is bordered by the city of Beverly Hills on the east, Wilshire Boulevard on the south and Bel Air on the north. North Westwood Village is a multifamily residential neighborhood west of Gayley Avenue and east of Le Conte Avenue where many UCLA students reside. Westwood was developed on the lands of the historic Wolfskill Ranch, a 3,000-acre parcel, purchased by Arthur Letts, the successful founder of the Broadway, Bullock's department stores, in 1919. Upon Arthur Lett's death, his son-in-law, Harold Janss, vice president of Janss Investment Company, inherited the land and developed the area and started advertising for new homes in 1922
Richard Wyatt Jr.
Richard Wyatt Jr. is a contemporary muralist best known for his public art in and around the city of Los Angeles. His murals can be found at the Watts Towers, the Capitol Records Building, White Memorial Hospital, the Ontario Airport, the Wilshire and Western Metro station, the Union Station East Portal, many other locations. Wyatt was born in Lynwood and grew up in Compton, before moving with his family to Los Angeles' Crenshaw District and graduating from Fairfax High School, he showed artistic promise from an early age, when he was twelve, he won $200 at the first Watts Chalk-In, a sidewalk art contest sponsored by the Studio Watts Workshop. At thirteen, he participated in an art show at the Los Angeles Bahai Center, where he exhibited alongside John Outterbridge, who became a mentor and advocate. Other influential early mentors included Cecil Fergerson and Claude Booker, whom he met through his participation in the Watts Summer Festival. At the age of seventeen, Wyatt was selected to be part of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art's 1972 "Panorama of Black Artists" exhibition, which garnered him widespread recognition and launched his career as a member of the city's African American artistic community.
Wyatt attended the Chouinard Art Institute from 1966 to 1968 and studied in a Tutor Art Saturday youth program at the Otis Art Institute. It was at Otis that Wyatt met and studied with Charles White, whose work was a major influence on him, with John Riddle, who helped him improve his technique and encouraged him to address social themes in his art. Wyatt earned his B. F. A. degree from UCLA in 1978, by he had established contacts in Los Angeles' vibrant mural movement. Wyatt has worked as a teacher and lecturer, assisting John Outterbridge at the Watts Tower Arts Center from 1974-1978, doing part-time, occasional teaching at the University of California, Irvine and at the Otis Art Institute, but since 1989, he has been able to devote himself full-time to his art. Official website Artist's page at Mural Conservancy site
Passenger rail terminology
Various terms are used for passenger rail lines and equipment-the usage of these terms differs between areas: A rapid transit system is an electric railway characterized by high speed and rapid acceleration. It uses passenger railcars operating singly or in multiple unit trains on fixed rails, it operates on separate rights-of-way from which all other foot traffic are excluded. It uses sophisticated signaling systems, high platform loading; the term rapid transit was used in the 1800s to describe new forms of quick urban public transportation that had a right-of-way separated from street traffic. This set rapid transit apart from horsecars, streetcars and other forms of public transport. Though the term was always used to describe rail transportation, other forms of transit were sometimes described by their proponents as rapid transit, including local ferries in some cases; the term bus rapid transit has come into use to describe bus lines with features to speed their operation. These have more characteristics of light rail than rapid transit.
Metros, short for metropolitan railways, are defined by the International Association of Public Transport as urban guided transport systems "operated on their own right of way and segregated from general road and pedestrian traffic. They are designed for operations in tunnel, viaducts or on surface level but with physical separation in such a way that inadvertent access is not possible. In different parts of the world Metro systems are known as the underground, the subway or the tube. Rail systems with specific construction issues operating on a segregated guideway are treated as Metros as long as they are designated as part of the urban public transport network." Metropolitan railways are used for high capacity public transportation. They can operate in trains of up to 10 cars. In Germany, the terms U-Bahn and S-Bahn are used; some metro systems run on rubber tires but are based on the same fixed-guideway principles as steel wheel systems. Subway used in a transit sense refers to either a rapid transit system using heavy rail or a light rail/streetcar system that goes underground.
The term may refer only to the full system. Subway is most used in the United States and the English-speaking parts of Canada, though the term is used elsewhere, such as to describe the SPT Subway in Glasgow, in translation of system names or descriptions in some Asian and Latin American cities; some lines described. Notably, Boston's Green Line and the Newark City Subway, each about half underground, originated from surface streetcar lines; the Buffalo Metro Rail is referred to as "the subway", while it uses light rail equipment and operates in a pedestrian mall downtown for half of its route and underground for the remaining section. Sometimes the term is qualified, such as in Philadelphia, where trolleys operate in an actual subway for part of their route and on city streets for the remainder; this is locally styled subway-surface. In some cities where subway is used, it refers to the entire system. Naming practices select one type of placement in a system where several are used. Historic posters referred to Chicago's Red & Blue lines as "the subway lines".
When the Boston subway was built, the subway label was only used for sections into which streetcars operated, the rapid transit sections were called tunnels. In some countries, subway refers to systems built under roads and the informal term tube is used for the deep-underground tunnelled systems – in this usage, somewhat technical nowadays and not used much in London, underground is regardless the general term for both types of system. Bus subways are uncommon but do exist, though in these cases the non-underground portions of route are not called subways; until March 2019, Washington had a bus subway downtown in which diesel-electric hybrid buses and light rail trains operated in a shared tunnel. The hybrid buses ran in electrical-only mode while traveling through the tunnel and overhead wires power the light rail trains which continue to operate in the tunnel. Bus subways are sometimes built to provide an exclusive right-of-way for bus rapid transit lines, such as the MBTA Silver Line in Boston.
These are called by the term bus rapid transit.'Subway' outside the USA, in Europe refers to an underground pedestrian passageway linking large road interconnections that are too difficult or dangerous to cross at ground level. In Canada, the term subway may be used in either sense; the usage of underground is similar to that of subway, describing an underground train system. In London the colloquial term tube now refers to the London Underground and is the most common word used for the underground system, it is used by Transport for London the local government body responsible for most aspects of the transport system throughout Greater London; however speaking, it should only refer to those deep lines which run in bored circular tunnels as opposed to those constructed near to the surface by'cut-and-cover' methods. The Glasgow metro system is known as the Glasgow Subway or colloquial as "the subway"; the word Metro is not use