Hollywood/Highland is a heavy rail subway station in the Los Angeles County Metro Rail system. It is located at the intersection of Hollywood Boulevard and Highland Avenue in the Hollywood section of Los Angeles; this station is served by the Red Line. With its entrance on Hollywood Boulevard, the Hollywood/Highland Station is located in the center of the tourist area of Hollywood, near such tourist attractions as Dolby Theatre, Ripley's Believe It or Not! and the Hollywood Museum. As in New York City's Times Square, costumed characters on the sidewalk outside offer themselves for photos with tourists. Hollywood/Highland is a two-story station; the station uses a simple island platform setup with two tracks. Architecturally, Hollywood/Highland station shares similarities with other Metro subway stations and the design of the entrance to the station may have been inspired by the entrances of New York City's Times Square – 42nd Street / Port Authority Bus Terminal station; the construction designing of the station were teamed up by three different firms.
The designer of the station is Sheila Klein, the constructor of the station is CannonDesign. The lightings and the mechanical design's responsibility were given to HLB Lighting Design; the construction of the station were to be made of equipments given by the Metro, which according to HLB, made it challenging. The lighting pillars of the station was to resemble like a flower, it was sized to match well with the smooth, curved ceiling which'resembled a belly'. Sheila Klein named the architecture of the station, "Underground Girl". Red Line service hours are from 5:00 AM until 12:45 AM daily; the under construction Crenshaw/LAX Line will terminate at this station via the future northern extension from the Expo/Crenshaw station which would offer connections to West Hollywood, Beverly Hills, Crenshaw District, Leimert Park, Miracle Mile, City of Inglewood, LAX. It will allow connections to the Expo Line, Purple Line, Green Line and the proposed LAX people mover; the station is located in Hollywood at the intersection between two major roads, Hollywood Boulevard and Highland Avenue.
Hollywood/Highland is beneath the shopping center of the Dolby Theatre. Due to terrorism concerns, the station has been closed on the day of the Academy Awards since 2002. Media related to Hollywood/Highland at Wikimedia Commons Station connections overview
Vermont/Santa Monica station
Vermont/Santa Monica is a heavy-rail subway station in the Los Angeles County Metro Rail system. It is located at Vermont Avenue and Santa Monica Boulevard in East Hollywood neighborhood of Los Angeles; this station is served by the Red Line. Vermont/Santa Monica has two entrances on a north entrance and a south entrance; the north entrance faces Santa Monica Blvd. The south entrance, near Lockwood Avenue, is adjacent to Los Angeles City College and three blocks from Braille Institute; the station was designed by the firm of Ellerbe Becket, which received a progressive architecture award for the design. The station design was created as a series of layers, each of, unique to its purpose; the most prominent element of the design is the almond shaped structure over the entrance to the station. The almond shape is repeated in an almond shaped balcony overlooking the station; the cost of the station was US$40.5 million. Red Line service hours are from 5:00 AM until 12:45 AM daily. Metro services Metro Local: 4, 204 Metro Rapid: 704, 754Other local services LADOT DASH: Hollywood Station connections overview
Pershing Square station
Pershing Square is a heavy-rail subway station in the Los Angeles County Metro Rail system. It is located on Hill Street between 4th and 5th Streets, near Pershing Square in Downtown Los Angeles; this station is served by the Metro Red Line and the Metro Purple Line and various local bus services. The Metro Silver Line heading northbound to El Monte Station stops at the street level; the Metro Silver Line heading southbound to Harbor Gateway Transit Center does not stop near the station. The station uses an island platform layout and is decorated with a neon art piece by Stephen Antonakos; the work pays tribute to the first neon sign in the United States, hung in 1924 in the Pershing Square area. The station installed station canopies for the stations entrance in 2014. Pershing Square is near Angels Grand Central parking. Rail services: Red and Purple Line service hours are from 5:00 AM until 12:45 AM daily. Silver Line service hours are from 4:15 AM until 1:45 AM Monday- Friday & 5:00 A. M.- 1:45 A.
M. Saturdays/ Sundays & Holidays. Metro bus services: Metro Local: 2, 4, 10, 14, 16, 18, 28, 30, 33, 37, 38, 40, 45, 48, 53, 55, 62, 68, 70, 71, 76, 78, 79, 81, 83, 90, 91, 92, 94, 96, 302*, 316* & 378* Metro Express: 442*, 460, 487 & 489* Metro Rapid: 720, 728, 733, 745, 770 & 794 Metro Liner: Metro Silver Line Other local and commuter bus services: Foothill Transit: Silver Streak LADOT Commuter Express: 419* LADOT DASH: B, D Montebello Transit: 40, 50, 90* Orange County Transportation Authority: 701*, 721* Torrance Transit: 4* Note: * indicates commuter service that operates only during weekday rush hours. Pershing Square Historic Core/Broadway Angels Flight Grand Central Market Hilton Checkers Hotel Library Tower Jewelry District Millennium Biltmore Hotel Omni Los Angeles Hotel Richard J. Riordan Central Library Title Guarantee and Trust Company Building Angels Knoll parkOUE Skycrape LA Days of Summer S. W. A. T. Lethal Weapon 3 Speed He Was a Quiet Man "Takers" Bad Day 2005 video by musician Daniel Powter Pershing Square Station connections overview
Passenger rail terminology
Various terms are used for passenger rail lines and equipment-the usage of these terms differs between areas: A rapid transit system is an electric railway characterized by high speed and rapid acceleration. It uses passenger railcars operating singly or in multiple unit trains on fixed rails, it operates on separate rights-of-way from which all other foot traffic are excluded. It uses sophisticated signaling systems, high platform loading; the term rapid transit was used in the 1800s to describe new forms of quick urban public transportation that had a right-of-way separated from street traffic. This set rapid transit apart from horsecars, streetcars and other forms of public transport. Though the term was always used to describe rail transportation, other forms of transit were sometimes described by their proponents as rapid transit, including local ferries in some cases; the term bus rapid transit has come into use to describe bus lines with features to speed their operation. These have more characteristics of light rail than rapid transit.
Metros, short for metropolitan railways, are defined by the International Association of Public Transport as urban guided transport systems "operated on their own right of way and segregated from general road and pedestrian traffic. They are designed for operations in tunnel, viaducts or on surface level but with physical separation in such a way that inadvertent access is not possible. In different parts of the world Metro systems are known as the underground, the subway or the tube. Rail systems with specific construction issues operating on a segregated guideway are treated as Metros as long as they are designated as part of the urban public transport network." Metropolitan railways are used for high capacity public transportation. They can operate in trains of up to 10 cars. In Germany, the terms U-Bahn and S-Bahn are used; some metro systems run on rubber tires but are based on the same fixed-guideway principles as steel wheel systems. Subway used in a transit sense refers to either a rapid transit system using heavy rail or a light rail/streetcar system that goes underground.
The term may refer only to the full system. Subway is most used in the United States and the English-speaking parts of Canada, though the term is used elsewhere, such as to describe the SPT Subway in Glasgow, in translation of system names or descriptions in some Asian and Latin American cities; some lines described. Notably, Boston's Green Line and the Newark City Subway, each about half underground, originated from surface streetcar lines; the Buffalo Metro Rail is referred to as "the subway", while it uses light rail equipment and operates in a pedestrian mall downtown for half of its route and underground for the remaining section. Sometimes the term is qualified, such as in Philadelphia, where trolleys operate in an actual subway for part of their route and on city streets for the remainder; this is locally styled subway-surface. In some cities where subway is used, it refers to the entire system. Naming practices select one type of placement in a system where several are used. Historic posters referred to Chicago's Red & Blue lines as "the subway lines".
When the Boston subway was built, the subway label was only used for sections into which streetcars operated, the rapid transit sections were called tunnels. In some countries, subway refers to systems built under roads and the informal term tube is used for the deep-underground tunnelled systems – in this usage, somewhat technical nowadays and not used much in London, underground is regardless the general term for both types of system. Bus subways are uncommon but do exist, though in these cases the non-underground portions of route are not called subways; until March 2019, Washington had a bus subway downtown in which diesel-electric hybrid buses and light rail trains operated in a shared tunnel. The hybrid buses ran in electrical-only mode while traveling through the tunnel and overhead wires power the light rail trains which continue to operate in the tunnel. Bus subways are sometimes built to provide an exclusive right-of-way for bus rapid transit lines, such as the MBTA Silver Line in Boston.
These are called by the term bus rapid transit.'Subway' outside the USA, in Europe refers to an underground pedestrian passageway linking large road interconnections that are too difficult or dangerous to cross at ground level. In Canada, the term subway may be used in either sense; the usage of underground is similar to that of subway, describing an underground train system. In London the colloquial term tube now refers to the London Underground and is the most common word used for the underground system, it is used by Transport for London the local government body responsible for most aspects of the transport system throughout Greater London; however speaking, it should only refer to those deep lines which run in bored circular tunnels as opposed to those constructed near to the surface by'cut-and-cover' methods. The Glasgow metro system is known as the Glasgow Subway or colloquial as "the subway"; the word Metro is not use
Tunnel boring machine
A tunnel boring machine known as a "mole", is a machine used to excavate tunnels with a circular cross section through a variety of soil and rock strata. They may be used for microtunneling, they can bore through anything from hard rock to sand. Tunnel diameters can range from one metre to 17.6 metres to date. Tunnels of less than a metre or so in diameter are done using trenchless construction methods or horizontal directional drilling rather than TBMs. Tunnel boring machines are used as an alternative to drilling and blasting methods in rock and conventional "hand mining" in soil. TBMs have the advantages of limiting the disturbance to the surrounding ground and producing a smooth tunnel wall; this reduces the cost of lining the tunnel, makes them suitable to use in urbanized areas. The major disadvantage is the upfront cost. TBMs are expensive to construct, can be difficult to transport; the longer the tunnel, the less the relative cost of tunnel boring machines versus drill and blast methods.
This is because tunneling with TBMs is much more efficient and results in shortened completion times, assuming they operate successfully. Drilling and Blasting however remains the preferred method when working through fractured and sheared rock layers; the first successful tunnelling shield was developed by Sir Marc Isambard Brunel to excavate the Thames Tunnel in 1825. However, this was only the invention of the shield concept and did not involve the construction of a complete tunnel boring machine, the digging still having to be accomplished by the standard excavation methods; the first boring machine reported to have been built was Henri-Joseph Maus's Mountain Slicer. Commissioned by the King of Sardinia in 1845 to dig the Fréjus Rail Tunnel between France and Italy through the Alps, Maus had it built in 1846 in an arms factory near Turin, it consisted of more than 100 percussion drills mounted in the front of a locomotive-sized machine, mechanically power-driven from the entrance of the tunnel.
The Revolutions of 1848 affected the funding, the tunnel was not completed until 10 years by using less innovative and less expensive methods such as pneumatic drills. In the United States, the first boring machine to have been built was used in 1853 during the construction of the Hoosac Tunnel in northwest Massachusetts. Made of cast iron, it was known as Wilson's Patented Stone-Cutting Machine, after inventor Charles Wilson, it drilled 10 feet into the rock before breaking down. Wilson's machine anticipated modern TBMs in the sense that it employed cutting discs, like those of a disc harrow, which were attached to the rotating head of the machine. In contrast to traditional chiseling or drilling and blasting, this innovative method of removing rock relied on simple metal wheels to apply a transient high pressure that fractured the rock. In 1853, the American Ebenezer Talbot patented a TBM that employed Wilson's cutting discs, although they were mounted on rotating arms, which in turn were mounted on a rotating plate.
In the 1870s, John D. Brunton of England built a machine employing cutting discs that were mounted eccentrically on rotating plates, which in turn were mounted eccentrically on a rotating plate, so that the cutting discs would travel over all of the rock face, to be removed; the first TBM that tunneled a substantial distance was invented in 1863 and improved in 1875 by British Army officer Major Frederick Edward Blackett Beaumont. In 1875, the French National Assembly approved the construction of a tunnel under the English Channel and the British Parliament allowed a trial run to be made; the cutting head of English's TBM consisted of a conical drill bit behind which were a pair of opposing arms on which were mounted cutting discs. From June 1882 to March 1883, the machine tunneled, through chalk, a total of 6,036 feet. A French engineer, Alexandre Lavalley, a Suez Canal contractor, used a similar machine to drill 1,669 m from Sangatte on the French side. However, despite this success, the cross-Channel tunnel project was abandoned in 1883 after the British military raised fears that the tunnel might be used as an invasion route.
In 1883, this TBM was used to bore a railway ventilation tunnel — 7 feet in diameter and 6,750 feet long — between Birkenhead and Liverpool, through sandstone under the Mersey River. During the late 19th and early 20th century, inventors continued to design and test TBMs in response to the need for tunnels for railroads, sewers, water supplies, etc. TBMs employing rotating arrays of drills or hammers were patented. TBMs that resembled giant hole saws were proposed. Other TBMs consisted of a rotating drum with metal tines on its outer surface, or a rotating circular plate covered with teeth, or revolving belts covered with metal teeth. However, all of these TBMs proved expensive and unable to excavate hard rock. TBM development continued in potash and coal mines, where the rock was softer. A TBM with a bore diameter of 14.4 m was manufactured by The Robbins Company for Canada's Niagara Tunnel Project. The machine was used to bore a hydroelectric tunnel beneath Niagara Falls; the machine was named "Big Becky" in reference to the Sir Adam Beck hydroelectric dams to which it is tunneling to provide an additional hydroelectric tunnel.
An earth pressure balance TBM
Universal City/Studio City station
Universal City/Studio City Universal City, is a heavy rail subway station in the Los Angeles County Metro Rail system. It is located at the intersection of Lankershim Boulevard, Campo de Cahuenga and Universal Terrace Parkway. In Los Angeles, California; this station is served by the Red Line. Universal City/Studio City station lies within the Los Angeles neighborhood of Studio City at the intersection of Lankershim Boulevard, Campo de Cahuenga and Universal Terrace Parkway. Universal City/Studio City station straddles the hills between the Los Angeles Basin to the south and the San Fernando Valley to the north. Just southeast of the station, across the Hollywood Freeway is the Cahuenga Pass, arguably a neighborhood as well, consisting of a strip of shops and offices that follow US 101, but along Cahuenga Boulevard, which parallels the freeway through the pass. Universal City/Studio City station serves the nearby Universal Studios Hollywood theme park and Universal CityWalk entertainment complex.
It includes the NBC Universal studio complex and the 10 Universal City Plaza building. Riders can cross the street and board the tram to go to City Walk and the theme park, as well as the Studio itself. A pedestrian passageway was proposed by Metro but was scrapped because of Universal's reluctance to pay the growing costs of the project. Universal, in conjunction with Metro, constructed a pedestrian bridge over Lankershim Boulevard and Universal Hollywood Drive that opened in April 2016. NBCUniversal agreed to fund a portion of the $19.5 million project, while the remainder was funded through Proposition A. Part of MOS-3 of the Red Line, Universal City/Studio City opened on June 24, 2000, as part of an extension from Hollywood/Vine to North Hollywood, the latter of which remains the line's northwestern terminus; the Universal City/Studio City station lies underground, in this case beneath Bluffside Drive at its intersection with Campo de Cahuenga. Access is provided by two entrances, one on the northwest and the other on the southwest corner of the intersection between Lankershim Boulevard and Campo de Cahuenga.
The station features a ride lot. There are a few public bus lines that stop or terminate at the bus bays on the west side of Lankershim Boulevard, adjacent to the station while others are found by crossing to the east side of Lankershim Boulevard. Metro Local: 150, 155, 224, 237, 240, 656 Metro Rapid: 750 Universal City Shuttle Tram Media related to Universal City/Studio City at Wikimedia Commons Station connections overview
Wilshire/Western is a heavy-rail subway station in the Los Angeles County Metro Rail system. It is located at Wilshire Boulevard and Western Avenue, in Los Angeles' Mid-Wilshire/Koreatown District; this station is served by the Purple Line. Wilshire/Western was the western terminus of the Purple Line when it opened, is one of only two subway stations in the system not served by the Red Line. Prior plans called for this subway to extend to Fairfax Ave. and north into the Valley but due to political disagreements, the line terminates here and the Red Line travels to the Valley via Vermont Avenue. Metro is now constructing the Purple Line Extension to extend the Purple Line west from this station to an eventual terminus station in Westwood, near UCLA; the two artwork installations at Wilshire/Western are called "People Coming", the other "People Going". They are large murals at each end of the station; the artist responsible is a Compton native. A condominium tower named Solair opened above the station in 2009.
Pellissier Building and Wiltern Theatre Purple Line service hours are from 5:00 AM until 12:45 AM daily. Metro services Metro Local: 18, 20, 66, 207, 209 Metro Rapid: 710, 720, 757Other local and commuter services Big Blue Bus: 7, Rapid 7 LADOT DASH: Wilshire Center/Koreatown, Hollywood/Wilshire Station connections overview