West Adams, Los Angeles
West Adams is a historic neighborhood in the South Los Angeles region of Los Angeles, California. The area is known for its large number of historic buildings and notable houses and mansions throughout Los Angeles, it is a youthful, densely populated area with a high percentage of African American and Latino residents. The neighborhood has several private schools. West Adams is one of the oldest neighborhoods in the city of Los Angeles, with most of its buildings erected between 1880 and 1925, including the William Andrews Clark Memorial Library. West Adams was developed by railroad magnate Henry E. Huntington and wealthy industrialist Hulett C. Merritt of Pasadena, it was once the wealthiest district in the city, with its Victorian mansions and sturdy Craftsman bungalows, a home to Downtown businessmen and professors and academicians at USC. Several historic areas of West Adams, Harvard Heights, Lafayette Square, Pico-Union, West Adams Terrace, were designated as Historic Preservation Overlay Zones by the city of Los Angeles, in recognition of their outstanding architectural heritage.
Menlo Avenue-West Twenty-ninth Street Historic District, North University Park Historic District, Twentieth Street Historic District, Van Buren Place Historic District and St. James Park Historic District, all with houses of architectural significance, are located in West Adams; the development of the West Side, Beverly Hills and Hollywood, beginning in the 1910s, siphoned away much of West Adams' upper-class white population. One symbol of the area's emergence as a center of black wealth at this time is the landmark 1949 headquarters building of the Golden State Mutual Life Insurance Company, a late-period Moderne structure at Adams and Western designed by renowned black architect Paul Williams, it housed. West Adams' transformation into an affluent black area was sped by the Supreme Court's 1948 invalidation of segregationist covenants on property ownership; the area was a favorite among black celebrities in the 1950s. Singer Ray Charles's business headquarters, including his RPM studio, is located at 2107 Washington Boulevard.
The intersection of Washington Boulevard and Westmoreland Boulevard, at the studio, is named "Ray Charles Square" in his honor. Many African-American gays have moved into the neighborhood, it has become the center of black gay life in Los Angeles earning the nickname of "the black West Hollywood" or "the black Silver Lake" Many of the neighborhoods are experiencing a renaissance of sorts with their historic houses being restored to their previous elegance. In total, more than 70 sites in West Adams have received recognition as a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument, a California Historical Landmark, or listing on the National Register of Historic Places. According to the Mapping L. A. project of the Los Angeles Times, a total of 21,764 people lived in West Adams's 1.48 square miles, according to the 2000 U. S. census—averaging 14,686 people per square mile, among the highest population densities in the city as a whole. Population was estimated at 22,857 in 2008; the median age was 28, considered young.
The percentages of residents aged birth to 18 were among the county's highest. Latinos made up 56.2% of the population, with black people at 37.6%, white people 2.4%, Asian 1.7%, other 2%. Mexico and El Salvador were the most common places of birth for the 36.9% of the residents who were born abroad, an average percentage of foreign-born when compared with the city or county as a whole. The $38,209 median household income in 2008 dollars was considered low for the county; the percentage of households earning $20,000 or less was high, compared to the county at large. The average household size of 3.1 people was about average for the city. Renters occupied 62.8% of the housing units, homeowners occupied the rest. In 2000, there were 1,078 families headed by single parents, or 21.8%, a rate, high for the county and the city. The percentages of never-married women and divorced women were among the county's highest. According to the "Mapping L. A." project of the Los Angeles Times, West Adams is flanked by Mid-City to the north—across the Santa Monica Freeway—Jefferson Park to the east, Baldwin Hills/Crenshaw to the south and Palms to the west.
The neighborhood's street boundaries are the Santa Monica Freeway on the north, Crenshaw Boulevard on the east and Jefferson Boulevards on the south and the Culver City line on the west. Project leader Doug Smith reported that, in response by the public to advance posting of the proposed maps, "Among the bitter rifts we encountered were the competing claims to the name West Adams." Historical purists would reserve the designation West Adams for the once-upper-crust district of Victorian mansions now falling in the shadow of USC. But residents farther west have appropriated the name for that hard-to-define area between the 10 Freeway and Baldwin Hills. To bolster their case, the area's Neighborhood Empowerment Zone bears that name; the discussion has taken on powerful emotional content in recent years as part of a larger debate over gentrification and changing demographics in that part of the city. We resolved the argument as best we could, using the West Adams label for the region west of Crenshaw Boulevard and including the old mansions east of Ve
Los Angeles City Council
The Los Angeles City Council is the governing body of the City of Los Angeles. The council is composed of fifteen members elected from single-member districts for four-year terms; the president of the council and the president pro tempore are chosen by the council at the first regular meeting of the term. An assistant president pro tempore is appointed by the President; as of 2015, council members receive an annual salary of $184,610 per year, among the highest city council salary in the nation. Regular council meetings are held in the City Hall on Tuesdays and Fridays at 10 am except on holidays or if decided by special resolution. A current annual schedule of all Council meetings, broken down by committee, is available as a.pdf download from the Office of the City Clerk. Officers: President of the Council: Herb Wesson President Pro Tempore: Nury Martinez Assistant President Pro Tempore: Joe Buscaino Los Angeles was governed by a seven-member Common Council under general state law from 1850 to 1889, when a city charter was put into effect.
Under the first charter of the city, granted by the Legislature in 1889, the city was divided into nine wards, with a councilman elected from each one by plurality vote. The first election under that system was held on February 21, 1889, the last on December 4, 1906. Two-year terms for the City Council began and ended in December, except for the first term, which started in February 1889 and ended in December 1890; the term of office was lengthened to three years effective with the municipal election of December 4, 1906, the last year this ward system was in use. Between 1909 and 1925, the council was composed of nine members elected at large in a first-past-the-post voting system. Council membership in those years was as follows: City population in 1910: 319,200 Election: December 7, 1909 / Term: December 10, 1909, to December 13, 1911 Election: December 5, 1911 / Term: December 13, 1911, to July 1, 1913 Election: June 3, 1913 / Term: July 1913 to July 1915 Election: June 1, 1915 / Term: July 1915 to July 1917 Election: June 5, 1917 / Term: July 1917 to July 1919 City population in 1920: 576,700 Election: June 3, 1919 / Term: July 7, 1919, to July 5, 1921 Election: June 7, 1921 / Term: July 1921 to July 1923 Election: June 5, 1923 / Term: July 1923 to July 1925 Regular terms begin on July 1 of odd-numbered years until 2017 and on the second Monday in December of even-numbered years starting with 2020.
Los Angeles Common Council List of Los Angeles municipal election returns Chronological Record of Los Angeles City Officials: 1850—1938, Compiled under Direction of Municipal Reference Library City Hall, Los Angeles March 1938 Official website Map of Los Angeles City Council districts
My Three Sons
My Three Sons is an American sitcom. The series ran from 1960 to 1965 on ABC, moved to CBS until the end of its run on April 13, 1972. My Three Sons chronicles the life of widower and aeronautical engineer Steven Douglas as he raises his three sons; the series featured William Frawley as the boys' live-in maternal grandfather and housekeeper, William Michael Francis "Bub" O'Casey. William Demarest, playing Bub's brother, "Charley", replaced Frawley in 1965 due to Frawley's illness. In September 1965, eldest son Mike married, his character was written out of the show. To keep the emphasis on "three sons", original youngest son Chip's friend Ernie was adopted. In the program's years, Steven Douglas remarried and adopted his new wife's young daughter Dorothy; the series was a cornerstone of the CBS lineups in the 1960s. With 380 episodes produced, it is third only to The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet and It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia as television's longest-running live-action sitcom. Disney producer Bill Walsh mused on whether the concept of the show was inspired by the film The Shaggy Dog, as in his view they shared "the same dog, the same kids, Fred MacMurray".
The show began on ABC in black-and-white. The first season, consisting of 36 episodes, was directed in its entirety by Peter Tewksbury, who produced and scripted the programs. During the 1964 fall season, William Frawley, who played Bub, was declared too ill to work by Desilu Studios, as the company was informed that insuring the actor would be too costly. Frawley continued in the role, he was replaced by William Demarest, who played his hard-nosed brother Uncle Charley part way through the 1964-1965 season. According to the storyline, Bub returns to Ireland to help his Aunt Kate celebrate her 104th birthday. Soon after, brother Charley stays on. Charley, a cello-playing merchant sailor, was a soft-hearted curmudgeon, who proved to be a responsible caregiver. Frawley left the series before the end of the 1964-1965 season. Peter Tewksbury directed the first season; the succeeding director, Richard Whorf, took over the reins for one season and was in turn followed by former actor-turned-director Gene Reynolds from 1962 to 1964.
James V. Kern, an experienced Hollywood television director who had helmed the "Hollywood" and "Europe" episodes of I Love Lucy, continued in this role for two years until his untimely death in late 1966, aged 57. Director James Sheldon was contracted to finish episodes, completed by Kern to complete that season. Fred De Cordova was the show's longest and most consistent director of the series until he left in 1971 to produce The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson. Earl Bellamy rounded out the series as director of the show's final year. My Three Sons moved to the CBS television network for the 1965-1966 season after ABC declined to underwrite the expense of producing the program in color. Along with the change in networks and the transition to color, Tim Considine, playing eldest son Mike, had chosen not to renew his contract due to a clash with executive producer Don Fedderson over Considine's wish to direct but not co-star in the series. In an August 1989 interview on the Pat Sajak Show, he explained that he was devoted to automobile racing, which his contract forbade.
His character was written out, along with Meredith MacRae, who had played his fiancée Sally, in a wedding episode, the premiere of the 1965–1966 season on CBS. After this episode, Mike is mentioned in only four succeeding episodes, is never seen again at Robbie and Steve's weddings. In the episode "Steve and the Huntress", Mike is mentioned as teaching at a college. MacRae joined Petticoat Junction the following year, the last of three actresses to play Billie Jo Bradley. To keep the show's title plausible, the show's head writer, George Tibbles, fashioned a three-part story arc in which an orphaned friend of youngest brother Richard, Ernie Thompson, awaits adoption when his current foster parents are transferred to the Orient. Steve offers to adopt Ernie, but faces antagonism from Uncle Charley, who finds Ernie a bit grating, forecasts major headaches over both the boy and his dog, it transpires that a law requires a woman to live in the home of an adoptive family. A likable female social worker supervises the case, the Douglases speculate that Steve might marry the woman, to make the adoption possible, but they both agree this is not reason enough for them to be married.
The family does not need to hire a housekeeper, since Uncle Charley has things running smoothly. The family soon appears before a judge who researches the law, determines that its intent is to ensure a full-time caregiver is in the household. With Charley meeting that role, having had a change of heart about Ernie, Charley assents to a legal fiction declaring him "housemother" to the Douglas family. While the three sons were always central to the storyline, several major changes took place by the late 1960s. In the spring of 1967, the ratings for the series began to sag and My Three Sons finished its s
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument
Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments are sites in Los Angeles, which have been designated by the Los Angeles Cultural Heritage Commission as worthy of preservation based on architectural and cultural criteria. The Historic-Cultural Monument process has its origin in the Historic Buildings Committee formed in 1958 by the Los Angeles chapter of the American Institute of Architects; as growth and development in Los Angeles threatened the city's historic landmarks, the committee sought to implement a formal preservation program in cooperation with local civic and business organizations and municipal leaders. On April 30, 1962, a historic preservation ordinance proposed by the AIA committee was passed; the original Cultural Heritage Board was formed in the summer of 1962, consisting of William Woollett, FAIA, Bonnie H. Riedel, Carl S. Dentzel, Senaida Sullivan and Edith Gibbs Vaughan; the board met for the first time in August 1962, at a time when the owner of the historic Leonis Adobe was attempting to demolish the structure and replace it with a supermarket.
In its first day of official business, the board designated the Leonis Adobe and four other sites as Historic-Cultural Monuments. The designation of a property as a Historic-Cultural Monument does not prevent demolition or alteration. However, the designation requires permits for demolition or substantial alteration to be presented to the commission; the commission has the power to delay the demolition of a designated property for up to one year. In the commission's first decade of operation, it designated 101 properties as Historic-Cultural Monuments. By March 2010, there were 979 designated properties. Leonis Adobe Bolton Hall 1913 Eastern Columbia Building Griffith Park CBS Columbia Square Studios Historic-Cultural Monuments in Downtown Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments on the East and Northeast Sides Historic-Cultural Monuments in the Harbor area Historic-Cultural Monuments in Hollywood Historic-Cultural Monuments in the San Fernando Valley Historic-Cultural Monuments in Silver Lake, Angelino Heights, Echo Park Historic-Cultural Monuments in South Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments on the Westside Historic-Cultural Monuments in the Wilshire and Westlake areas City of Los Angeles' Historic Preservation Overlay Zones National Register of Historic Places listings in Los Angeles List of California Historical Landmarks Los Angeles Office of Historic Resources: Designated L.
A. Historic-Cultural Monuments website — with'ever-updated' LAHCM List via PDF link. Official Los Angeles Office of Historic Resources website — Homepage Los Angeles Cultural Heritage Commission website Designated LAHCM Landmarks by Neighborhood — L. A. Department of City Planning website Big Orange Landmarks: "Exploring the Landmarks of Los Angeles, One Monument at a Time" — online photos and in-depth history of Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monuments — Website curator: Floyd B. Bariscale. Big Orange Landmarks: Floyd B. Bariscale's Flickr Photostream — Big Orange Flickr Gallery of L. A. H. C. Monuments
Olympic Boulevard (Los Angeles)
Olympic Boulevard is a major arterial road in Los Angeles, California. It stretches from Ocean Avenue on the western end of Santa Monica to East Los Angeles—farther than Wilshire Boulevard and most other streets, its path runs parallel to and north of Pico Boulevard from Santa Monica to Downtown Los Angeles, parallel to and south of Santa Monica Boulevard on its western end and Wilshire Boulevard past Beverly Hills. Like other major Los Angeles streets, Olympic is at least four lanes in width. Unlike other east-west arterial roads such as Wilshire Boulevard, Santa Monica Boulevard, Sunset Boulevard, it does not cross major attractions and sites and therefore contains far less traffic. While Wilshire crosses through the heart of Los Angeles, Olympic runs through the southern end of principal areas such as West Los Angeles, Century City, Beverly Hills, Hancock Park, Koreatown and Downtown Los Angeles. Little Ethiopia is east of Fairfax Olympic. Proceeding east on Olympic, it breaks off in Downtown LA's Fashion District but continues on from there, passing the southern areas of Boyle Heights, East Los Angeles and Montebello with an eastern terminus in Montebello as a small neighborhood street.
Olympic Boulevard is a commercial, urban street. There is a grass divider with trees in the Santa Monica portion. Around Carthay, Olympic passes through residential neighborhoods. A number of schools are located on Olympic as well. Crossroads School is located at Olympic and 20th in Santa Monica, New Roads Middle School is located at the Franklin/Berkeley St. area in Santa Monica. and Wildwood School is located in between Bundy and Barrington. Los Angeles High School is located to the east of Olympic and Highland Avenue. Olympic expands to six lanes starting east of Santa Monica and maintains a speed limit of 45 miles per hour. So, due to Los Angeles traffic, Olympic becomes congested, it was named 10th Street, but was renamed Olympic Boulevard for the 1932 Summer Olympics, as, the occasion of the tenth modern event. Tenth Street School, at Olympic and Grattan, has kept the original name. Parts of the old 10th Street exist as smaller streets near Hancock Park, in Westlake, in the Central City East area southeast of Downtown.
Bus service throughout Olympic Boulevard is served between Santa Monica and Century City by Santa Monica Transit line 5, between Century City and Downtown LA by Metro Local line 28 and Metro Rapid line 728, from The Fashion District east by Metro Local lines 62 and 66. Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, Los Angeles Branch The Grammy Museum LA Live Loyola Law School Sammy Lee Square, at the corner of Normandie Avenue Los Angeles High School National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences headquarters Byron B. Brainard, Los Angeles City Council member who accessed state money for the widening of the boulevard
Minimal Traditional is a style of architecture that emerged in mid 20th century America as a vernacular form that incorporates influences from earlier styles such as American Colonial, Colonial Revival, Spanish Revival, Tudor Revival, American Craftsman while adhering to modern architecture's avoidance of ornament. The Minimal Traditional style evolved during the 1930s and was a dominant style in domestic architecture until the Ranch-style house emerged in the early 1950s. Descending in part from the bungalows and foursquare houses of the early 20th century, Minimal Traditional houses represent a "stripped-down version of the historic-eclectic styles popular in the 1920s", they are detached single-family houses that are on the smaller side and retain simplified versions of the built-in cabinets that were popular features of the Craftsman era. Typical features include gabled roofs without much in the way of eaves; the Minimal Traditional house "fulfilled aesthetic and social needs for affordable single-family housing" and was used by the Federal Housing Administration as a prototype for a "minimum house that the majority of American wage earners could afford".
Minimal Traditional houses have been tagged with some other names: FHA house, Depression-era cottage, Victory cottage, American small house. Traditionalist School