London Victoria station
Victoria station known as London Victoria, is a central London railway terminus and connected London Underground station in Victoria, in the City of Westminster, managed by Network Rail. Named after the nearby Victoria Street, the main line station is a terminus of the Brighton main line to Gatwick Airport and Brighton and the Chatham main line to Ramsgate and Dover via Chatham. From the main lines, trains can connect to the Catford Loop Line, Dartford Loop Line, the Oxted line to East Grinstead and Uckfield. Southern operates most commuter and regional services to south London and parts of east Surrey, while Southeastern operates trains to south east London and Kent. Gatwick Express trains run direct to Gatwick; the Underground station is on the Circle and District lines between Sloane Square and St. James's Park, the Victoria line between Pimlico and Green Park; the area around the station is an important interchange for other forms of transport: a local bus station is in the forecourt and Victoria Coach Station is nearby.
Victoria was built to serve both the Brighton and Chatham main lines, has always had a "split" feel of being two separate stations. The Brighton station opened in 1860 with the Chatham station following two years later, it replaced a temporary terminus at Pimlico and construction involved building the Grosvenor Bridge over the River Thames. It became popular as a London terminus, causing delays and requiring upgrades and rebuilding, it was well known for luxury Pullman train services and continental boat train trips and became a focal point for soldiers during World War I. Like other London termini, steam trains were phased out of Victoria by the 1960s, to be replaced by suburban electric and diesel multiple unit services. Despite the end of international services following the opening of the Channel Tunnel, Victoria still remains an important London station, its Underground facilities, in particular, suffer from overcrowding; the Gatwick Express service provides easy access between Central London and Gatwick Airport for international travellers.
The station complex is in Victoria in the City of Westminster south of the London Inner Ring Road. It is located south of Victoria Street, east of Buckingham Palace Road and west of Vauxhall Bridge Road. Several different railways lead into the station line by way of Grosvenor Bridge from the south west and south east, it is one of 19 stations managed by Network Rail. It has been a Grade II listed building since 1970. Victoria Coach Station is about 300 metres south-west of the railway stations, it serves all parts of the UK and mainland Europe. London Buses routes 2, 11, 13, 16, 24, 36, 38, 44, 52, 148, 170, 185, 211, 390, 507, C1, C2 and C10 and night routes N2, N11, N16, N38, N44, N73 and N136 serve the station at the Victoria bus station or neighbouring streets. By 1850, railways serving destinations to the south of London had three termini available – London Bridge, Bricklayers' Arms and Waterloo. All three were inconvenient for Central London as they terminated south of the river Thames, whereas the main centres of population and government were north of the river in the City of London, the West End and Westminster.
Victoria Station was designed in a piecemeal fashion to help address this problem for the London Brighton and South Coast Railway and the London Chatham and Dover Railway. It consisted of two adjacent main line railway stations which, from the viewpoint of passengers, were unconnected; the London and Brighton Railway terminus at London Bridge provided reasonable access to the City of London but was inconvenient for travellers to and from Westminster. As early as 1842 John Urpeth Rastrick had proposed that the railway should build a branch to serve the West End, but his proposal was unsuccessful. However, the transfer of the Crystal Palace from Hyde Park to Sydenham Hill between 1851 and 1854 created a major tourist attraction in the rural area south of London, the LB&SCR opened a branch line from the Brighton main line at Sydenham to the site in 1854. While this was under construction the West End of London and Crystal Palace Railway planned a line from Crystal Palace, to a new station at Battersea Wharf, at the southern end of the new Chelsea Bridge.
Despite its location, the new station was called Pimlico. It opened on 27 March 1858, but was much regarded as a temporary terminus, composed of a small number of wooden huts, positioned next to a proposed bridge over the Thames. Shortly afterwards the LB&SCR leased most of the lines of the new railway, built a further connection from Crystal Palace to the Brighton main line at Norwood Junction, thereby providing itself with a route into west London, although it was recognised that a terminus would be needed on the north side of the river. During the summer of 1857 a scheme for an independent "Grosvenor Basin Terminus" in the West End of London, "for the use of the Southern Railways of England" was mooted; the station was referred to as the "Grosvenor Terminus" but renamed Victoria as it was sited at the end of Victoria Street. Three other railway companies were seeking a terminus in Westminster: the Great Western, the London & North Western, the East Kent Railway; the first two had rail access to Battersea through their joint ownership of the West London Line with the LB&SCR.
In 1858, the EKR leased the remaining lines of the West End of London and Crystal Palace Railway from Shortlands railway station, negotiated temporary running powers over the lines acquired by the LB&SCR, pending the construction of its own line into west London. On 23 July 1859 these four companies together formed
Grosvenor Crescent is a street in London's Belgravia district, that in December 2017 was ranked as the UK's most expensive residential street, with an average house price of £16,918,000. Grosvenor Crescent runs from the north-east corner of Belgrave Square to the northern end of Grosvenor Place at Hyde Park Corner, forms part of the B310. In 1897, the progressive women's Pioneer Club was due to move to 15 Grosvenor Crescent, but there was a split in membership after its founder Emily Massingberd's death that January, many remained at the old location; the new location became the Grosvenor Crescent Club, which by 1900 was describing itself as "purely social".3-10 Grosvenor Crescent is a Grade II* listed terrace of eight houses on the north/west side of the crescent, built after 1836 by Seth Smith, that were individual houses, before becoming offices and are now 15 flats, with underground parking. In November 2017, four of the residents, including Iouri Chliaifchtein, a financier, who bought his apartment for £18 million, Oleg Smirnov who paid £15.7 million, were suing the management company for alleged inadequate levels of concierge staff.
They were opposed by Simon Arora, whose family own three of the flats, who said that Chliaifchtein was being "completely unreasonable". Judge Nigel Gerald ruled in favour of Chliaifchtein, agreed that two staff members should be on duty at all times, that the management company would have to pay the £320,000 legal bill; the Embassy of Belgium is at no 17 since 2006. The building was designed by George Basevi in the 1860s, is Grade II listed. Media related to Grosvenor Crescent at Wikimedia Commons
Stucco or render is a material made of aggregates, a binder, water. Stucco is applied wet and hardens to a dense solid, it is used as a decorative coating for walls and ceilings, as a sculptural and artistic material in architecture. Stucco may be used to cover less visually appealing construction materials, such as metal, cinder block, or clay brick and adobe. In English, "stucco" refers to a coating for the outside of a building and "plaster" to a coating for interiors. However, other European languages, notably including Italian, do not have the same distinction; this has led to English using "stucco" for interior decorative plasterwork in relief. The difference in nomenclature between stucco and mortar is based more on use than composition; until the latter part of the nineteenth century, it was common that plaster, used inside a building, stucco, used outside, would consist of the same primary materials: lime and sand. Animal or plant fibers were added for additional strength. In the latter nineteenth century, Portland cement was added with increasing frequency in an attempt to improve the durability of stucco.
At the same time, traditional lime plasters were being replaced by gypsum plaster. Traditional stucco is made of lime and water. Modern stucco is made of Portland cement and water. Lime is added to increase the workability of modern stucco. Sometimes additives such as acrylics and glass fibers are added to improve the structural properties of the stucco; this is done with what is considered a one-coat stucco system, as opposed to the traditional three-coat method. Lime stucco is a hard material that can be broken or chipped by hand without too much difficulty; the lime itself is white. Lime stucco has the property of being self-healing to a limited degree because of the slight water solubility of lime. Portland cement stucco is hard and brittle and can crack if the base on which it is applied is not stable, its color was gray, from the innate color of most Portland cement, but white Portland cement is used. Today's stucco manufacturers offer a wide range of colors that can be mixed integrally in the finish coat.
Other materials such as stone and glass chips are sometimes "dashed" onto the finish coat before drying, with the finished product known as "rock dash", "pebble dash", or as roughcast if the stones are incorporated directly into the stucco, used from the early 20th through the early 21st Century. As a building material, stucco is a durable and weather-resistant wall covering, it was traditionally used as both an interior and exterior finish applied in one or two thin layers directly over a solid masonry, brick, or stone surface. The finish coat contained an integral color and was textured for appearance. With the introduction and development of heavy timber and light wood-framed construction methods, stucco was adapted for this new use by adding a reinforcement lattice, or lath, attached to and spanning between the structural supports and by increasing the thickness and number of layers of the total system; the lath added support for the wet tensile strength to the brittle, cured stucco. The traditional application of stucco and lath occurs in three coats — the scratch coat, the brown coat and the finish coat.
The two base coats of plaster are either hand-applied or machine sprayed. The finish coat can be floated to a sand finish or sprayed; the lath material was strips of wood installed horizontally on the wall, with spaces between, that would support the wet plaster until it cured. This lath and plaster technique became used. In exterior wall applications, the lath is installed over a weather-resistant asphalt-impregnated felt or paper sheet that protects the framing from the moisture that can pass through the porous stucco. Following World War II, the introduction of metal wire mesh, or netting, replaced the use of wood lath. Galvanizing the wire made it corrosion resistant and suitable for exterior wall applications. At the beginning of the 21st century, this "traditional" method of wire mesh lath and three coats of exterior plaster is still used. In some parts of the United States, stucco is the predominant exterior for both residential and commercial construction. Stucco has been used as a sculptural and artistic material.
Stucco relief was used in the architectural decoration schemes of many ancient cultures. Examples of Egyptian and Etruscan stucco reliefs remain extant. In the art of Mesopotamia and ancient Persian art there was a widespread tradition of figurative and ornamental internal stucco reliefs, which continued into Islamic art, for example in Abbasid Samarra, now using geometrical and plant-based ornament; as the arabesque reached its full maturity, carved stucco remained a common medium for decoration and calligraphic inscriptions. Indian architecture used stucco as a material for sculpture in an architectural context, it is rare in the countryside. In Roman art of the late Republic and early Empire, stucco was used extensively for the decoration of vaults. Though marble was the preferred sculptural medium in most regards, stucco was better for use in vaults because it was lighter and better suited to adapt to the curvature of the ceiling
Embassy of Luxembourg, London
The Embassy of Luxembourg in London is the diplomatic mission of Luxembourg in the United Kingdom. It was the home of the Luxembourg government-in-exile during the Second World War; the building forms one of a group of Grade II listed stucco buildings along the eastern side of Wilton Crescent. Official site
A cornice is any horizontal decorative molding that crowns a building or furniture element – the cornice over a door or window, for instance, or the cornice around the top edge of a pedestal or along the top of an interior wall. A simple cornice may be formed just with a crown; the function of the projecting cornice of a building is to throw rainwater free of the building’s walls. In residential building practice, this function is handled by projecting gable ends, roof eaves, gutters. However, house eaves may be called "cornices" if they are finished with decorative molding. In this sense, while most cornices are eaves, not all eaves are considered cornices – eaves are functional and not decorative, a cornice has a decorative aspect to it; the projecting cornice of a building may appear to be heavy and hence in danger of falling on commercial buildings, but it may be light, made of pressed metal. In Ancient Greek architecture and its successors using the classical orders in the tradition of classical architecture, the cornice is the topmost element of the entablature which consists of the cornice, the frieze, the architrave.
A rake is an architectural term for an eave or cornice which runs along the gable of the roof of a modern residential structure. It may be called a sloping cornice, a raking cornice; the trim and rafters at this edge are called rake-, verge-, or barge-board or verge- or barge-rafter. It is a sloped timber on the outside facing edge of a roof running between the eave. On a typical house, any gable will have one on each sloped side; the rakes are supported by a series of lookouts and may be enclosed with a rake fascia board on the outside facing edge and a rake soffit along the bottom. The cornices of a modern residential building will be one of three types: a box cornice, a close or closed cornice, or an open cornice. Box cornices enclose the cornice of the building with what is a long narrow box. A box cornice may further be divided into either the narrow box cornice or the wide box cornice type. A narrow box cornice is one in which "the projection of the rafter serves as a nailing surface for the soffit board as well as the fascia trim."
This is possible if the slope of the roof is steep and the width of the eave narrow. A wide box cornice, common practice on houses with gentle roof slopes and wide eaves, requires the use of lookouts to give it support and to provide a surface to which to securely attach the soffits. Box cornices have ventilation screens laid over openings cut in the soffits in order to allow air to circulate within the cornice. A close, closed, or snub cornice is one in which there is no projection of the rafters beyond the walls of the building, therefore no soffit and no fascia; this type of cornice is easy to construct, but provides little aid in dispersing water away from the building and lacks aesthetic value. In an open cornice, the shape of the cornice is similar to that of a wide box cornice except that both the lookouts and the soffit are absent, it is a lower-cost treatment that requires fewer materials, may have no fascia board, but lacks the finished appearance of a box cornice. Ancient Egyptian architectural tradition made special use of large cavetto mouldings as a cornice, with only a short fillet above, a torus moulding below.
This cavetto cornice is sometimes known as an "Egyptian cornice", "hollow and roll" or "gorge cornice", has been suggested to be a reminiscence in stone architecture of the primitive use of bound bunches of reeds as supports for buildings, the weight of the roof bending their tops out. The cavetto cornice forming less than a quarter-circle, influenced Eygpt's neighbours and as well as appearing in early Ancient Greek architecture, it is seen in Syria and ancient Iran, for example at the Tachara palace of Darius I at Persepolis, completed in 486 BC. Inspired by this precedent, it was revived by Ardashir I, the founder of the Sasanian dynasty; the cavetto took the place of the cymatium in many Etruscan temples painted with vertical "tongue" patterns, combined with the distinctive "Etruscan round moulding" painted with scales. Additional more-obscure varieties of cornice include the architrave cornice, bracketed cornice, modillion cornice. A cornice return is an architectural detail that occurs where the horizontal cornice of a roof connects to the rake of a gable.
It is a short horizontal extension of the cornice that occurs on each side of the gable end of the building. The two most common types of cornice return are the soffit return; the former includes a sloped hip-shape on the inside of the cornice under the eaves, sheathed or shingled like the rest of the roof above it and is considered attractive. The term cornice may be used to describe a form of hard window treatment along the top edge of a window; when used in this context, a cornice represents a board placed above the window to conceal the mechanism for opening and closing drapes. If covered in a layer of cloth and given padding, it is sometimes called a soft cornice rather than a hard cornice. Geison Eaves Window cornice Media related to Cornices at Wikimedia Commons
A garden square is a type of communal garden in an urban area wholly or surrounded by buildings and continues to be applied to public and private parks formed after such a garden becomes accessible to the public at large. The archetypal garden square is surrounded by other types of townhouse, it is subtly distinguished from a public-access version throughout the existence of the square – the town square. Due to its inherent private history it may have a pattern of dedicated footpaths and tends to have more plants than hard surfaces and/or large monuments. At their conception in the early 17th century each such garden was a private communal amenity for the residents of the overlooking houses akin to a garden courtyard within a palace or community; such community courtyards date back to at least Ur in 2000 BC where two-storey houses were built of fired brick around an open square. Kitchen and public spaces were located on the ground floor, with private rooms located upstairs; the conversion of many during the 20th century into public parks renders those garden squares a subset of town squares, those with a garden square heritage.
Some remain private — they may open intermittently or — but many today are open to the public at least during part of every day, serving as small parks. London is famous for them. Many were built or rebuilt during the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, at the height of Georgian architecture, are surrounded by elegant townhouses. Large projects, such as the Bedford Estate, included garden squares in their development; the Notting Hill and Bloomsbury neighbourhoods both have many garden squares, with the former still restricted to residents, the latter open to all. Other UK cities prominent in the Georgian era such as Edinburgh, Bath and Leeds have several garden squares. Householders with access to a private garden square are required to pay a maintenance levy; the charge is set annually by a garden committee. Sometimes private garden squares are opened to the public, such as during Open Garden Squares Weekend. Owned squares which survived the decades after the French Revolution and 19th century Haussmann's renovation of Paris include the Place des Vosges and Square des Épinettes in Paris.
It was a fashionable and expensive square to live in during the 17th and 18th centuries, one of the central reasons that Le Marais district became so fashionable for French nobility. It was inaugurated in 1612 with a grand carrousel to celebrate the engagement of Louis XIII to Anne of Austria and is a prototype of the residential squares of European cities that were to come. What was new about the Place Royale as it was known in 1612 was that the house fronts were all built to the same design by Baptiste du Cerceau. In town squares green but publicly accessible from the outset, is the Square René Viviani. Gardens cover a few of the famous Places in the capital. Inspired by ecological interests and a 21st century focus on pollution mitigation, an increasing number of the Places in Paris today many have a focal tree, or surrounding raised flower beds/and or rows of trees such as the Place de la République; the enclosed garden terraces and courtyards of some French former palaces have resulted in redevelopments into spaces equivalent to garden squares.
The same former single-owner scenario applies to at least one garden square in London. Grandiose instances of garden-use town squares are a part of many French cities, others opt for solid material town squares; the Square de Meeûs and Square Orban are notable examples in Brussels. Dublin has several Georgian examples, including Merrion Square. Rittenhouse Square in the Center City, Philadelphia encases a public garden, one of the five original open-space parks planned by William Penn and his surveyor Thomas Holme during the late 17th century, it was first named Southwest Square. Nearby Fitler Square is a similar garden square named for late 19th century Philadelphia mayor Edwin Henry Fitler shortly after his death in 1896; the Square, cared for through a public private partnership between the Department of Parks and Recreation and the Fitler Square Improvement Association. In Boston tens of squares exist, some having a residential use. Communal garden Private park Courtyard Urban open space Architecture of the United Kingdom Parks and open spaces in London List of garden squares in London Squares in London Terraced houses in the United Kingdom Townhouse
High Commission of Singapore, London
The High Commission of Singapore in London is the diplomatic mission of Singapore in the United Kingdom. Singapore maintains a Liaison Office at 2nd Floor, 53 Monument Street, City of London and Commercial and Maritime Section at 1-3 Strand; the building forms one of a group of Grade II listed stucco buildings along the western side of Wilton Crescent. Official site