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Wiltz is a commune with town status in north-western Luxembourg, capital of the canton Wiltz. Wiltz is situated on the banks of the river Wiltz, it was a battleground in the Battle of the Bulge, near the end of World War II. A local airfield was used depending on the location of the Front; as of 2014, the town of Wiltz, which lies in the south of the commune, has a population of 5,469.. The commune consists of the following villages: The name "Wiltz" comes from a Celtic word meaning "on the creek." Wiltz was inhabited by the Celts, was first documented in 764AD. It received its town rights in 1240; the counts of Wiltz are among the oldest in Luxembourg. One of the main features of the town is Wiltz Castle; this castle, situated on 600 acres of lawns and gardens, contains hundreds of rooms. It was completed in 1727, the final Count died in 1793, it served as a private girls school from 1851 until 1950, became a retirement home after that. The industrialisation of Wiltz was advanced in the late 19th and early 20th century by the leather industry, namely by IDÉAL Tannerie de Wiltz S.

A. belonging to the Adler & Oppenheimer trust. During World War II, Luxembourg was occupied 10 May 1940. On 31 August 1942, a general strike was initiated in Wiltz. On 16 December 1944, the Wehrmacht began the Ardennes Offensive. Norman Cota, the commander of the 28th Infantry Division and his staff left Wiltz when the Germans came nearer. In the evening of 19 December, after some combat, the last Americans left Wiltz. On January 1945, Wiltz was liberated by American troops after intensive combats during the days before. Wiltz was named Martyr Town after the war. A monument representing a lighthouse was erected to commemorate the victims of the repression following the 1942 General Strike. In 2015, Wiltz absorbed the neighbouring commune of Eschweiler. Wiltz has a quiet town centre. There is an outdoor musical hall with bands and classical musical shows held every fortnight. Looking out from the hill on the music hall one will see the largest lake in the country at Esch-sur-Sure, located around 20 km away.

A local multi-carriage tourist "road-train" takes visitors around the village and its surroundings on the hour. There is an international soccer training pitch. In the heart of Wiltz there is plenty to see with a second world war tank parked in the main plaza. One of the most popular nights out is the summer rave held 10 km in the wilderness. A local farm has been transformed into a pub and rave club, this is a favourite night out for scout units. Wiltz is a major centre for the international scouting movement. There are many scout buildings surrounding the town; the International Scouting One Penny Monument, dedicated to Robert Baden-Powell, is located in Wiltz. Nearby Wiltz, on a hill overlooking the town, the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fatima is the site of an annual pilgrimage on Ascension Day. In particular it attracts many of the Portuguese people who form a sizeable proportion of the population of Luxembourg; the Festival of Wiltz, a music and performing arts festival, takes place every summer.

In 2015 it was the venue for the Linuxbierwanderung. Paul Wilwertz a Luxembourgian politician Romain Schneider a Luxembourgian politician Kevin Malget a Luxembourgish international footballer Richard Brookins, honorary citizen, the "American St. Nick" FC Wiltz 71 Wiltz Castle Wiltz railway station Wiltz municipality official site Festival of Wiltz RadioLNW – Local broadcast station in Wiltz Scouts de Wiltz

Engineering Critical Assessment

Engineering Critical Assessment is a procedure by which the safety of a welded structure with defects or flaws can be determined. ECAs utilize the material properties and expected stress history to determine a flaw acceptance criteria which will ensure that welds will not fail during the construction or service life of the welded structure; the assessment can be used before the structure is in use, or during in-service inspection, to determine whether a given weld is in need of repair. ECAs are used throughout the energy and infrastructure industries. ECAs are based upon fracture mechanics principles, reflect an improvement over traditional methods of weld quality assurance, which can be arbitrary or overly conservative. During welding, defects or flaws can develop. In some cases, these flaws could affect the integrity of the weld, resulting in failure by fatigue, brittle fracture, or yielding. Therefore, codes to determine weld quality must be developed. Traditionally, welding codes have been based off workmanship criteria.

These criteria are determined empirically by estimating the level of weld quality expected from a skilled welder. While these criteria have been reliable improvements made in welding technology and materials science are not taken into account; as a result, over time, workmanship criteria have become conservative. This conservatism results in unnecessary repairs, which can increase construction costs and can yield undesirable residual stresses at the location of the repair weld. Beginning in the late 1970s to early 1980s, engineering critical assessments began to emerge as an alternative to traditional workmanship criteria; these ECAs relied on recent developments in the field of fracture mechanics. Where workmanship criteria were developed with a limited understanding of material characteristics, considered only the length of a given weld flaw, these ECA-based flaw acceptance criteria considered additional factors such as: The stress history of the weld, including all cyclic and static stresses expected throughout the life cycle of the welded structure The strength of the base metal and weld material The fracture toughness of the base metal and the weld material The flaw orientation Together, these additional factors allow for more generous flaw acceptance criteria, resulting in fewer unnecessarily repaired welds.

To comply with the flaw acceptance criteria developed during ECA, non-destructive examination must be utilized. Ultrasonic testing is used due to its high accuracy, ability to identify flaw size and orientation, its ability to provide feedback instantly. ECA-based flaw acceptance criteria are used in the oil and gas industry with regard to qualification of girth welds on cross-country oil and gas transmission pipelines; this is because girth welds are uniform from weld to weld, allowing construction contractors to utilize mechanized welding. Mechanized welding increases productivity over manual welding techniques by allowing for better, more uniform control over weld characteristics. ECA-based flaw acceptance criteria are able to take advantage of the high strength and toughness of the welds produced to develop more generous flaw acceptance criteria. In addition, the flaws created during mechanized welding are oriented differently than flaws developed from manual welding. ECA-based flaw acceptance criteria more assess these flaws, by considering flaw orientation, rather than just flaw length.

Several standards specific to ECAs for oil and gas pipelines have been developed. The most used of these are API 1104 Appendix A, API 579, CSA Z662 Annex K, BS 7910; the standard used depends on the location of the pipeline being installed. The standards differ in methodology and in extreme cases, can result in different flaw acceptance criteria. However, for typical operating conditions, the criteria are easy enough to follow that practical differences between the standards are small

Simmie Knox

Simmie Lee Knox is an American painter who painted the official White House portrait of former United States President Bill Clinton and First Lady Hillary Clinton. He was the first black American artist. Simmie Knox was born on August 18, 1935 in Aliceville, Alabama to Simmie Knox Sr. a carpenter and mechanic, Amelia Knox. At a young age Simmie's parents divorced and he was sent to live on his aunt and uncle's sharecropper farm with his eight cousins in Leroy, Alabama. At age 13 he was hit in the eye by a baseball while playing a game, it was suggested that drawing would aid his recovery, his segregated school did not have an art program, but the Catholic nuns who taught him recognized his talent and found someone to teach him. He attended Central High School in Mobile. Subsequently, Knox studied at Delaware State College, he enrolled at Tyler School of Art, where he attained his masters degree. Knox began his career teaching at the Bowie State College and the Duke Ellington School of the Arts, Washington D.

C.. He sold them on a market stall. On leaving college abstract art was in vogue, he continued in this style through the 1970s before committing himself to portraiture in 1981. "With abstract painting I didn't feel the challenge. The face is the most complicated thing; the challenge is finding that thing, that makes it different from another face," he said. Comedian Bill Cosby is credited with raising his profile in the 1990s when Knox was commissioned to paint 12 members of the Cosby family, he subsequently painted notable figures such as Muhammad Ali, Supreme Court Justices Thurgood Marshall and Ruth Bader Ginsburg, before coming to the attention of the U. S. Senate and the White House. In 2000 he was selected to create portraits of Senator Blanche Bruce and of President Bill Clinton, he became the first black American painter to paint an official portrait of an American president. The paintings of Bill and Hillary Clinton took two years to complete, finished in 2002 and unveiled in June 2004, hanging in the White House's East Wing.

As a professional artist Knox works from a small converted garage next to his home in Silver Spring, Maryland. In 2004 he claimed to charge up to $60,000 for a portrait commission. Knox has been described as "the unofficial portraitist for trailblazing African Americans", adding paintings to his portfolio of U. S. Attorney General Eric Holder, Governor Andrew Cuomo and a sculpture of mayor of Baltimore, Clarence Burns. In 2013 a short film was shown about Knox's life, by the Delaware Humanities Forum. Knox did the portraits of Joseph A. Johnson Jr. James Lawson, Walter R. Murray Jr. and Perry Wallace, four African-American alumni of Vanderbilt University, in 2018. They hang in the administration building. Corcoran Gallery of Art, Washington D. C. 1971 Citizens Bank Center, Delaware, January to March 2013 Mount Rainier Artist Lofts, Mount Rainier, August 2013 - group exhibition in protest at the 2012 murder of Trayvon Martin Knox's paintings are held in a number of public art collections, including the Maryland State Art Collection, Oklahoma State Capitol Collection, the United States Senate.

Knox has married twice. He has a daughter, from his earlier marriage and children Zachary and Amelia with his current wife, Roberta. Official website

Actias selene

Actias selene, the Indian moon moth or Indian luna moth, is a species of saturniid moth from Asia. It was first described by Jacob Hübner in 1807; this species is popular among amateur entomologists and is reared from eggs or cocoons that are available from commercial sources. They fly at night; this moth is quite widespread, found from India to Japan and south into Nepal, Sri Lanka and other islands in eastern Asia. Many subspecies live in Pakistan, the Philippines, China, Sri Lanka, Sumatra and Borneo. Actias selene selene Actias selene eberti Rougeot, 1969 Actias selene taprobanis U. Paukstadt & L. H. Paukstadt, 1999 Graellsia isabellae × Actias selene is a hybrid of the Spanish moon moth and the Indian moon moth. Male: Head and abdomen white. Forewing pale green, white at base. Hindwing similar to the forewing. Female: The outer margin less excised and waved. Eggs are 2 mm, coloured white with brown mottling. Incubation lasts 12 days and newly hatched larvae are red with a black abdominal saddle.

Second-instar larvae are all red with black heads. It is not until the third instar; the developing larvae prefer humid conditions. Larva apple green. Cocoon pale oval. Liquidambar Rhododendron Prunus Malus Coriaria Pieris Hibiscus Salix Crataegus Photinia Juglans regia Musa Fourth instar eating Fifth instar eating Part 2 Part 3 Moth emerging from pupa Part 2 Part 3

Hakea tuberculata

Hakea tuberculata is a shrub in the family Proteacea, endemic to several isolated areas along the coast in the Peel, South West, Great Southern and Goldfields-Esperance regions of Western Australia. Hakea tuberculata is an upright and columnar shrub growing to 2.5 metres high with ascending branches. The branchlets are thickly covered in coarse, rusty or white hairs; the stiff leaves are narrowly egg-shaped or elliptic, 1–2 cm long and 2–6 mm wide with 3-8 lobes or teeth toward the apex. The leaves are moderately or faintly covered in flattened, silky, rusty coloured hairs becoming smooth and ending in a sharp point 1–2 mm long; the inflorescence consists of 18-26 large, white scented flowers in leaf axils along a stem 2–4 mm long. The overlapping bracts are covered with long, white hairs; the pedicels are 3 -- 5.5 mm long, the pistil 5 -- the white perianth 2.8 -- 3.5 mm long. The small ovoid fruit are 1.7–1.8 cm wide and 0.8–0.9 cm and have prominent coarse tubercles on the surface or are smooth, ending with two distinct horns at the apex about 3 mm long.

Flowering occurs from March to April. This species was first formally described by Robert Brown in 1830 and published in Supplementum primum prodromi florae Novae Hollandiae. Named from the Latin tuberculum - a small swelling, referring to the tubercles on the surface of the fruit. Hakea tuberculata grows from the south coast at Augusta - Albany. Found growing in low lying areas along creek and drainage lines in sand and lateritic gravel. Found in wet winter locations near ironstone. Hakea tuberculata is classified as "not threatened" by the Western Australian Government Department of Parks and Wildlife

Battle of Konotop

The Battle of Konotop or Battle of Sosnivka was fought between a coalition led by the Hetman of Ukrainian Cossacks Ivan Vyhovsky and cavalry units of the Russian Tsardom under the command of Semyon Pozharsky and Semyon Lvov, supported by Cossacks of Ivan Bezpaly, on 29 June 1659, near the town of Konotop, during the Russo-Polish War. Vyhovsky's coalition, in which the Crimean Tatars of Mehmed IV Giray played a major role, defeated the Russians and their allies and forced the main Russian army to interrupt the siege of Konotop. However, the result of the battle only intensified political tensions in Ukraine and led to Vyhovsky's removal from power several months later; the Battle of Konotop took place during the period of Ukrainian history, referred to as the Ruin. This was the time after the death of Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky, during which many power struggles within the Cossack elite took place. Arguably, these power struggles were instigated by the Russian tsar, in an effort to undermine the authority of the Cossacks.

During his reign, Bohdan Khmelnytsky managed to wrestle Ukraine out of Polish domination, but was forced to enter into a new and uneasy relation with Russia in 1654. His successor, general chancellor and close adviser Ivan Vyhovsky, was left to deal with Moscow's growing interference in Ukraine's internal affairs and overt instigation of a civil war by way of supporting Cossack factions opposing Vyhovsky. In 1656, Russia signed a peace accord in Vilno with Poland in violation of the Treaty of Pereyaslav of 1654, increased pressure on the Cossack Hetmanate; as a result, Vyhovsky entered into negotiations with the Poles, concluded the Treaty of Hadiach on 16 September 1658. Under the planned new treaty three voyevodships of central Ukraine were to become an equal constituent nation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth along with Poland and Lithuania under the name of Grand Principality of Rus', forming the Polish–Lithuanian–Ruthenian Commonwealth. However, the Sejm ratified the treaty in a limited version, where the idea of an independent Ruthenian Principality was abandoned.

The news of a Cossack-Polish alliance alarmed Moscow and the Ukrainian cossacks opposing Vyhovsky to the extent that an expeditionary force was dispatched to Ukraine in the autumn of 1658 headed by Prince Grigory Romodanovsky. Moscow's military commander not only supported the election by Vyhovsky's opponents of a new rival hetman, but started to occupy towns held by Vyhovsky's supporters; the latter were mercilessly exterminated along with widespread abuse and robbery of the civilian population. The situation having escalated that far, open hostilities followed. Skirmishes and attacks occurred in different towns and regions throughout the country, the most prominent of, the capture of Konotop by Cossacks of the Nizhyn and Chernihiv Regiments headed by Hryhoriy Hulyanytsky, a colonel of Nizhyn. In the spring of 1659 a Russian army of 28,600 men according to documents of Razryadny prikaz or 100,000–150,000 according to "The Сhronicle of the Witness" and Sergey Solovyov was dispatched to Ukraine to assist Romodanovsky.

The latter numbers are being criticized by modern historians as exaggerated. The army came to the Ukrainian border on 30 January 1659 and stood 40 days till Trubetskoy negotiated with Vyhovsky since the Russian commander had instructions to persuade the Cossacks. Vyhovsky's rivals, the Cossack forces of commanders Bezpalyi and the Zaporizhian Cossacks of Barabash joined the Russian troops. After the negotiations failed, hostilities began; the Russian army together with anti-Vyhovsky insurgents defeated Vyhovsky's troops in the battle of Romny and the battle of Lokhvytsya. After that, the supreme military commander Prince Aleksey Trubetskoy decided to finish off the small 4,000 garrison of Konotop Castle held by Cossacks of Hulyanytsky before proceeding in his pursuit of Vyhovsky. Prince Trubetskoy's hopes for a quick resolution of the Konotop stand-off were dimmed when Hulyanytsky and his Cossacks refused to betray hetman Vyhovsky and mounted a fierce and protracted defence of Konotop with only 4,000 Cossacks.

According to a historian Markevych, on 21 April 1659, after a morning prayer, Trubetskoy ordered an all-out assault on the fortress's fortifications. The city was shelled, a few incendiary bombs were dropped inside, the army moved on to capture the city. At one point Trubetskoy's troops broke inside the city walls, but were repelled by the fierce resistance of the Cossacks inside. After the fiasco of the initial assault, Trubetskoy abandoned his plans of a quick assault and proceeded to shell the city and to fill the moat with earth; the Cossacks stubbornly held on in spite of all the fire unleashed on the city: during the night, the earth filled into the moat was used to strengthen the city walls, the besieged undertook several counterattacks on Trubetskoy's besieging army. These attacks forced Prince Trubetskoy to move his military camp 10 km away from the city and thereby split his forces between the main army at his headquarters and the army besieging Konotop. Another attack on 29 April was repelled and the Russians lost close to 400 men and suffered around 3000 wounded.

Instead of a quick campaign the siege dragged on for 70 days and gave Vyhovsky the much-needed time to prepare for the battle with the Russian army. The hetman not only managed to organize his own troops, but secured support of his allies — the Crimean Tatars and the Poles. By agreement with the Tatars, the Khan Mehmed IV Giray, at the head of his 30,000-strong army, made his way towards Konotop in early summer of 1659, as did the 4000-man Polish detachment with the support of Serbian and German mercenaries. By 24 June 1659 Vyhovsky and hi