Willem "Wim" Kok was a Dutch politician who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 22 August 1994 until 22 July 2002. He was a member of the Labour Party. Kok, a trade union leader by profession, worked for the Netherlands Association of Trade Unions from 1961 until 1976, when it merged to form the Federation Netherlands Labour Movement. Kok served as its first chairman from 1976 until 1986 when he left to enter the House of Representatives as a Labour politician. After the general election of 1994 Kok became Prime Minister of the Netherlands, taking office on 22 August 1994. On 15 December 2001 Kok announced his retirement from national politics and stood down as Leader of the Labour Party that same day, he remained Prime Minister of the Netherlands until the First Balkenende cabinet was installed on 22 July 2002, semi-retiring from active politics at the age of 63. After his premiership, Kok became a lobbyist for the European Union and presided over several "high-level groups", he served various roles on supervisory boards in the worlds of business and industry as well as several international non-governmental organizations.
Kok was known for his abilities as a negotiator. During his premiership, his cabinets were responsible for implementing several social reforms and further reducing the deficit, he held the distinction of leading the first purple coalitions as Prime Minister of the Netherlands. On 11 April 2003, he was granted the honorary title of Minister of State. Willem Kok was born on 29 September 1938, in Bergambacht in the Netherlands Province of South Holland, the son of Willem Kok a carpenter, Neeltje de Jager, he had one younger brother, born in 1945. After completing his studies in business at the Nyenrode Business Universiteit, he started his career in 1961 at the socialist Netherlands Association of Trade Unions, where he was chairman from 1973 until 1982. In 1982, the NVV merged with Nederlands Katholiek Vakverbond, the Catholic trade union, to form the Federatie Nederlandse Vakbeweging, of which he served as chair until 1986. Kok was elected as a Member of the House of Representatives on 3 June 1986, after the Dutch general election of 1986.
Soon after the election Joop den Uyl the Leader of the Labour Party and Parliamentary leader of the Labour Party in the House of Representatives announced that he was stepping down after serving twenty years as Leader of the Labour Party. Kok was elected to succeed him and became Party and Parliamentary leader of the Labour Party in the House of Representatives on 21 July 1986 and served as Opposition leader during the parliamentary period of the Cabinet Lubbers II. Kok lead his party in the Dutch general election of 1989; the Labour Party lost three seats but the following cabinet formation resulted in a coalition agreement with the Christian Democratic Appeal which formed the Cabinet Lubbers III. Kok entered government for the first time and became both Deputy Prime Minister of the Netherlands and Minister of Finance, serving from 7 November 1989 until 22 August 1994. In the 1994 general election, the Labour Party lost twelve seats but the CDA with new leader Elco Brinkman lost twenty seats.
The Labour Party became the largest party in the House of Representatives, after an arduous cabinet formation with the conservative liberal People's Party for Freedom and Democracy and the social liberal Democrats 66 a deal was struck that resulted in the Cabinet Kok I, with Kok as Prime Minister. It was considered groundbreaking in Dutch politics this was the first Cabinet of the Netherlands since 1908 without a Christian democratic party; the main aim of the Cabinet Kok I was to create employment. The Dutch economy had been in a deep recession for years; the market was allowed more influence in the economy. This led to a policy of tax reduction and trying to keep people out of social care by supporting employment. Another aim was to put an end to the enormous debt of the Dutch government; the Treaty of Amsterdam was signed during this cabinet. The Srebrenica massacre occurred under the responsibility of this government, which led to the fall of the second Kok cabinet. In the 1998 general election, the Labour party gained eight seats.
The second cabinet was the successor of the first cabinet was formed from the same coalition of PvdA, VVD and D66. It was known as the "second purple cabinet" called such because it contained both the social-democratic PvdA and the liberal VVD; the aim of the cabinet was to continue the policy of cabinet Kok I, concerned with economizing, tax reduction, making an end to unemployment. Kok was the prime minister, Annemarie Jorritsma as the deputy prime minister for the VVD, Els Borst for D66; the cabinet had right-wing political parties as a part of it. There was no strong opposition in the House of Representatives; this did not mean. In May 1999, D66 stepped out of the coalition when proposed legislation on referenda, entered by this party, was blocked. Moreover, allegations of expenses abuse were made against Minister of the Interior and Kingdom Relations Bram Peper from the time he was mayor of Rotterdam. On 13 March 2000 Peper resigned as minister, according to himself to no longer bring problems to the public government, to be better able to defend himself.
On the other hand, Kok's second term is known for legalizing same-sex marr
Gustave Jean-Jacques Saintenoy was a Belgian architect. He married into the Cluysenaar family of Architects. In 1861 he married Adèle-Clothilde Cluysenaar, they had one son born in 1862 named Paul, who became a famous architect. After his death he was buried in Schaerbeek Cemetery, he was a student at the Académie Royale des Beaux-Arts in Brussels. In 1866 he became the titular architect of the Count of Flanders, he built important buildings in royal command such as the Palace of the Count of Flanders and the Royal castle of Amerois. Brussels-Luxembourg railway station Palace of the Count of Flanders, Brussels Royal City Theater, Brugge. Chateau des Amerois
Margaret Fiedler McGinnis is a London-based American vocalist, multi-instrumentalist and noted guitarist. She is best known as a founding member of UK indie groups Moonshake and Laika and as live guitarist with PJ Harvey and Wire, she was born as Margaret Fiedler in Chicago, United States, grew up in Winnetka, Illinois and in Connecticut. As a child, she was trained as a cellist, was educated at Sarah Lawrence College and at Trinity College in Dublin. McGinnis was involved in college in New York, she formed Child's Play with Moby and was in an early incarnation of Ultra Vivid Scene with Kurt Ralske. After a move to London, England she formed Moonshake in 1991 with David Callahan of The Wolfhounds, she and Callahan shared vocals, guitar and songwriting duties, the band was augmented by John Frenett and Mig Morland. Moonshake were signed to Alan McGee's Creation Records for their debut First EP released in Spring 1991; the group moved to Too Pure Records, released the Secondhand Clothes EP and the Eva Luna LP in 1992, the mini-album Big Good Angel in 1993.
In 1993, McGinnis formed Laika with John Frenett, renowned engineer and producer Guy Fixsen, flautist Louise Elliott and drummers Lou Ciccotelli and Rob Ellis. The band produced four albums and five singles for Too Pure between 1994 and 2003. Fixsen has said the band is "taking a break" with about half an album in the works. In 2000, she joined PJ Harvey to play lead guitar, cello and percussion on the band's "Stories From The City, Stories From The Sea" world tour. In 2008, McGinnis joined post-punk pioneers Wire replacing Bruce Gilbert on guitar for an ongoing world-wide tour. Following Laika's last album in 2003, McGinnis studied at the College of Law where she received a post-graduate law qualification. After graduation, she went to work at the BBC. In addition, she is a candle maker and instructor, who uses vintage teacups and environmentally friendly materials, she is an animal-rights supporter. In 2007, she married Head of Mute Song, she had attended grade school in Winnetka with Liz Phair.