Ethel Gordon Fenwick
Ethel Gordon Fenwick was a British nurse who played a major role in the History of Nursing in the United Kingdom. She was born Ethel Gordon Manson in the Morayshire town of Elgin in Scotland, ethels mother married George Storer, a Member of Parliament. She was educated privately at Middlethorpe Hall, Yorkshire, at the age of 21 she commenced nurse training at the Childrens Hospital in Nottingham as a paying probationer nurse, and at Manchester Royal Infirmary. Her expertise was soon noted and it was not long before she left for London, where she worked in hospitals in Whitechapel, and Richmond. She was instrumental in founding Florence Nightingale International Foundation, the foundation of the International Council of Nurses. She extended significantly the training period for nurses, and campaigned for the registration of nurses in the United Kingdom. This was achieved through the Nurses Registration Act 1919, and Ethel Gordon Fenwick appears as Nurse No.1 when the register opened in 1923, Ethel Fenwick acquired the Nursing Record in 1893 and became its editor in 1903.
It was renamed The British Journal of Nursing and through its pages for the next 54 years her thinking and she believed that there was a need for training to a recognised standard and was instrumental in forming the British Nurses Association, now the Royal British Nurses Association. In 1999 an English Heritage blue plaque was attached to her home at 20 Upper Wimpole Street. British nursing matrons from the 19th century McGann, Fenwick, Ethel Gordon, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press,2004, online edn, Jan 2010 accessed 7 Oct 2010 ETHEL GORDON FENWICK, S. R. N. A SHORT OUTLINE OF HER LIFE AND WORK, the Evolution Of The Trained Nurse. Battle of the Nurses, a study of eight women who influenced the development of professional nursing 1880-1930, RCN, Historical biographies - Mrs Bedford Fenwick, A Restless Genius
Elizabeth Barrett Browning
Elizabeth Barrett Browning was one of the most prominent English poets of the Victorian era, popular in Britain and the United States during her lifetime. Born in County Durham, the eldest of 12 children, Elizabeth Barrett wrote poetry from about the age of six and her mothers collection of her poems forms one of the largest collections extant of juvenilia by any English writer. At 15 she became ill, suffering intense head and spinal pain for the rest of her life, in life she developed lung problems, possibly tuberculosis. She took laudanum for the pain from an age, which is likely to have contributed to her frail health. In the 1830s Elizabeth was introduced to society through her cousin. Her first adult collection of poems was published in 1838 and she wrote prolifically between 1841 and 1844, producing poetry and prose and she campaigned for the abolition of slavery and her work helped influence reform in the child labour legislation. Her prolific output made her a rival to Tennyson as a candidate for poet laureate on the death of Wordsworth, Elizabeths volume Poems brought her great success, attracting the admiration of the writer Robert Browning.
Their correspondence and marriage were carried out in secret, following the wedding she was indeed disinherited by her father. The couple moved to Italy in 1846, where she would live for the rest of her life and they had one son, Robert Barrett Browning, whom they called Pen. She died in Florence in 1861, a collection of her last poems was published by her husband shortly after her death. Elizabeths work had a influence on prominent writers of the day, including the American poets Edgar Allan Poe. She is remembered for such poems as How Do I Love Thee. some of Elizabeth Barretts family had lived in Jamaica since 1655. Their wealth derived mainly from Edward Barrett, owner of 10,000 acres in the estates of Cinnamon Hill, Cambridge, Elizabeths maternal grandfather owned sugar plantations, mills and ships that traded between Jamaica and Newcastle. What the family believed to be their genealogy in relation to Jamaica is unclear, the family wished to hand down their name, stipulating that Barrett should always be held as a surname.
In some cases inheritance was given on condition that the name was used by the beneficiary, given this strong tradition, Elizabeth used Elizabeth Barrett Moulton Barrett on legal documents and before she was married often signed herself Elizabeth Barrett Barrett or EBB. Elizabeths father chose to raise his family in England while his business enterprises remained in Jamaica, the fortune of Elizabeths mothers line, the Graham Clarke family, derived in part from slave labour, and was considerable. Elizabeth Barrett Moulton-Barrett was born on 6 March 1806, in Coxhoe Hall and her parents were Edward Barrett Moulton Barrett and Mary Graham Clarke, Elizabeth was the eldest of 12 children. All lived to adulthood except for one girl, who died at the age of three, when Elizabeth was eight, the children all had nicknames, Elizabeth was Ba
Evelyn Baring, 1st Earl of Cromer
Evelyn Baring, 1st Earl of Cromer GCB OM GCMG KCSI CIE PC FRS, was a British statesman and colonial administrator. He was British controller-general in Egypt during 1879, part of the international Control which oversaw Egyptian finances after the 1876 Egyptian bankruptcy and he became the agent and consul-general in Egypt from 1883 to 1907 during the British occupation prompted by the Urabi revolt. This position gave Baring de facto control over Egyptian finances and governance and his policies are considered to be representative of colonial white mans burden attitudes. Baring was the son of Henry Baring and his second wife. The English Baring family descends from John Baring, who emigrated from Germany in 1717, johns son Sir Francis was the founder of Barings Bank. Henry was the son of Sir Francis. When he died in 1848, 7-year old Evelyn was sent to boarding school, when he was 14, he entered the Royal Military Academy, graduating at 17 with a lieutenants commission in the Royal Artillery. He was initially posted to a battery on the island of Corfu, while on Corfu, Baring became aware of his own lack of education, and began a campaign of self-education, learning Greek and fluent Italian.
He took a mistress, and fathered a daughter out of wedlock, in 1862, he accepted a position as aide-de-camp to Sir Henry Storks, High Commissioner of the Ionian Islands. This position ended in 1864, with the union of Corfu to Greece, in 1864, Storks was appointed governor of Malta, again employing Baring as an aide-de-camp. The next year Baring accompanied Storks to Jamaica, where Storks headed the inquiry into the Morant Bay rebellion. In 1868, Baring was selected to attend the Armys Staff College and he worked for two years in the War Office, helping to implement post-Crimean War reforms. With Northbrooks resignation in 1876, Baring returned to England and he received the C. S. I. and was promoted to major. Baring married Ethel Errington in 1876 and the year resigned from the army. Later in Egypt, he became convinced that native rulers were hopelessly corrupt. When Baring first arrived in Egypt in 1877, the finances were in shambles. Ismail Pasha, Khedive of Egypt, borrowed millions of pounds from European financiers for projects to build the Suez Canal, his personal use and his finances depended on money obtained from Egypts cotton industry, which flourished during the American Civil War.
But after the war, as American cotton entered European markets once again, as a result, Egypts cotton was no longer the cash crop it used to be
Royal Society of Medicine
The Royal Society of Medicine is one of the major providers of accredited postgraduate medical education in the United Kingdom. Each year, the RSM organises over 400 academic and public events, spanning 60 areas of special interest providing a multi-disciplinary forum for discussion and debate. Videos of many key lectures are available online, increasing access to the Society’s education programme. The RSM is home to one of the largest medical libraries in Europe, with a collection of books, electronic journals. The Society is not a body and does not issue guidelines or standards of care. In 1834 the Society moved to Berners Street and was granted a Royal Charter by King William IV. In 1889 under the leadership of Sir John MacAlister, a Building Committee chaired by Timothy Holmes supervised the move of the quarters of the Society from Berners Street to 20 Hanover Square. In 1905 an eleven-member committee headed by Sir Richard Douglas Powell organised the celebration of the Societys centenary, in 1910 the Society acquired the site on the corner of Wimpole Street and Henrietta Place, which was opened by King George V and Queen Mary in May 1912.
The Council is the body of the Society and Council members are the Society’s Trustees. A permanent team of Directors and their support the work of Council. The Audit Committee reports directly to Council and is responsible for audit, the remit of the Academic Board is to provide academic initiatives and to consider changes and improvements to the organisation of meeting programmes for the Sections and the Society. The Dean is responsible for Continuing Professional Development, Society Conferences, the RSM Council meets throughout the year. Only RSM members and fellows can access the Minutes of RSM Council meetings, associate membership is open to those who do not qualify for Fellowship but who work within the healthcare sector or have an interest in healthcare issues. The Society welcomes student members of medicine and veterinary science as members plus other healthcare students, edited by Dr Kamran Abbasi, JRSM has been published continuously since 1809. JRSM has full editorial independence of the RSM and features well-argued debate, although UK-based, it publishes articles of interest and relevance to clinicians internationally.
JRSM Open is a publication to the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. Previously known as JRSM Short Reports, JRSM Open is a successful peer-reviewed, open-access journal, the aim of JRSM Open is to influence clinical practice and policy making across the whole range of medicine. JRSM Open has an international and multispecialty readership that includes primary care and it accepts articles of interest to any reader involved with improving patient care and publishes case reports, research papers and clinical reviews
Sir Frederick Treves, 1st Baronet
Sir Frederick Treves, 1st Baronet, GCVO, CH, CB was a prominent British surgeon of the Victorian and Edwardian eras, now known for his friendship with Joseph Merrick, the Elephant Man. Frederick Treves was born 15 February 1853 in Dorchester, the son of William Treves, an upholsterer, as a small boy, he attended the school run by the Dorset dialect poet, William Barnes, and the Merchant Taylors School and London Hospital Medical College. He passed the examinations for the Royal College of Surgeons of England in 1875. He was a Knight of Grace of the Order of St John, Treves became a surgeon, specialising in abdominal surgery, at the London Hospital in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. He performed the first appendectomy in England, on 29 June 1888 and he was appointed a Surgeon Extraordinary to Queen Victoria. In 1884, Treves first saw Joseph Merrick, known as the Elephant Man, around 1886 Treves brought Merrick to the London Hospital where Merrick lived until his death in April 1890.
Treves reminiscences mistakenly names Joseph Merrick as John Merrick, an error widely recirculated by biographers of Merrick, during the Second Boer War, Treves volunteered to work at a field hospital in South Africa treating the wounded. He published an account of his experiences in The Tale of a Field Hospital, Treves was Medical Officer to the Suffolk Yeomanry until he resigned in May 1902. In late March 1901, Treves was appointed one of several Honorary Serjeants Surgeon to King Edward VII, in January 1902, the King was treated for an Achilles tendon, and in June he found a hard swelling in the abdomen. Treves did not remove the abscess, which was perityphlitis, the coronation of the new king was scheduled for 26 June 1902, but on 24 June, Edward was diagnosed with appendicitis. This was at a time when appendicitis was generally not treated operatively, the King had opposed surgery for this reason but Treves insisted, stating that if he was not permitted to operate, there would instead be a funeral.
The next day, Edward was sitting up in bed, smoking a cigar, for this operation, Treves was honoured with a baronetcy on 24 July 1902, and appendix surgery entered the medical mainstream in the UK. He was granted the use of Thatched House Lodge in Richmond Park and was able to take early retirement. He published a book about his experiences of the kings illnesses, Treves continued to serve the royal family as Serjeant Surgeon to the King and to the Royal Household from July 1902 until 1910. In November 1905, the King fell down a rabbit hole straining the Achilles tendon and he received the Freedom of the Borough from his native town Dorchester in July 1902. He was chairman of the Executive Committee from 1905 to 1912 of the British Red Cross, from 1905–8, he was Rector of the University of Aberdeen. Around 1920 Sir Frederick went to live in Switzerland where he died in Lausanne on 7 December 1923 at the age of 70 and he died from peritonitis, ironically, in the days before antibiotics commonly resulted from a ruptured appendix.
His funeral took place at St Peters church, Dorchester on 2 January 1924 and his lifelong friend Thomas Hardy attended and chose the hymns
My Fair Lady
My Fair Lady is a musical based on George Bernard Shaws Pygmalion, with book and lyrics by Alan Jay Lerner and music by Frederick Loewe. The story concerns Eliza Doolittle, a Cockney flower girl who takes speech lessons from professor Henry Higgins, the original Broadway and film versions all starred Rex Harrison. The musicals 1956 Broadway production was a critical and popular success. It set a record for the longest run of any show on Broadway up to that time and it was followed by a hit London production, a popular film version, and numerous revivals. My Fair Lady has frequently called the perfect musical. Act I On a rainy night in Edwardian London, opera patrons are waiting under the arches of Covent Garden for cabs, Eliza Doolittle, a Cockney flower girl, runs into a young man called Freddy. She admonishes him for spilling her bunches of violets in the mud and she flies into an angry outburst when a man copying down her speech is pointed out to her. The man explains that he studies phonetics and can identify anyones origin by their accent and he laments Elizas dreadful speech, asking why so many English people dont speak properly and explaining his theory that this is what truly separates social classes, rather than looks or money.
He declares that in six months he could turn Eliza into a lady by teaching her to speak properly, the older gentleman introduces himself as Colonel Pickering, a linguist who has studied Indian dialects. The phoneticist introduces himself as Henry Higgins, and, as both have always wanted to meet each other, Higgins invites Pickering to stay at his home in London. He distractedly throws his change into Elizas basket, and she and her friends wonder what it would be like to live a comfortable, Elizas father, Alfred P. Doolittle, and his drinking companions and Jamie, all dustmen, stop by the next morning. He is searching for money for a drink, and Eliza shares her profits with him and Higgins are discussing vowels at Higginss home when Mrs. Pearce, the housekeeper, informs Higgins that a young woman with a ghastly accent has come to see him. It is Eliza, who has come to take speech lessons so she can get a job as an assistant in a florists shop, Pickering wagers that Higgins cannot make good on his claim and volunteers to pay for Elizas lessons.
An intensive makeover of Elizas speech and dress begins in preparation for her appearance at the Embassy Ball, Higgins sees himself as a kindhearted, patient man who cannot get along with women. To others he appears self-absorbed and misogynistic, Alfred Doolittle is informed that his daughter has been taken in by Professor Higgins, and considers that he might be able to make a little money from the situation. Doolittle arrives at Higginss house the morning, claiming that Higgins is compromising Elizas virtue. Higgins is impressed by the natural gift for language and brazen lack of moral values. He and Doolittle agree that Eliza can continue to take lessons, Higgins flippantly recommends Doolittle to an American millionaire who has written to Higgins seeking a lecturer on moral values
Royal Institute of British Architects
After the grant of the royal charter it had become known as the Royal Institute of British Architects in London, eventually dropping the reference to London in 1892. In 1934, it moved to its current headquarters on Portland Place, with the building being opened by King George V and it was granted its Royal Charter in 1837 under King William IV. Supplemental Charters of 1887,1909 and 1925 were replaced by a single Charter in 1971, any revisions to the Charter or Byelaws require the Privy Councils approval. The design of the Institutes Mycenean lions medal and the motto ‘Usui civium, decori urbium has been attributed to Thomas Leverton Donaldson and it was again redesigned in 1931 by Eric Gill and in 1960 by Joan Hassall. His School, was one of the twenty schools named for the purpose of constituting the statutory Board of Architectural Education when the 1931 Act was passed. The RIBA Guide to its Archive and History has a section on the Statutory registration of architects with an extending from a draft bill of 1887 to one of 1969.
This led to proposals for reconstituting ARCUK, eventually, in the 1990s, before proceeding, the government issued a consultation paper Reform of Architects Registration. RIBA Visiting Boards continue to assess courses for exemption from the RIBAs examinations in architecture, under arrangements made in 2011 the validation criteria are jointly held by the RIBA and the Architects Registration Board, but unlike the ARB, the RIBA validates courses outside the UK. The RIBA is an organisation, with 44,000 members. Chartered Members are entitled to call themselves chartered architects and to append the post-nominals RIBA after their name, fellowships of the institute were granted, although no longer, those who continue to hold this title instead add FRIBA. Members gain access to all the services and receive its monthly magazine. The RIBA has been recognised as a business Superbrand since 2008, RIBA is based at 66 Portland Place, London—a 1930s Grade II* listed building designed by architect George Grey Wornum with sculptures by Edward Bainbridge Copnall and James Woodford.
Parts of the London building are open to the public, including the Library and it has a large architectural bookshop, a café, restaurant and lecture theatres. Rooms are hired out for events, the Institute maintains a dozen regional offices around the United Kingdom, it opened its first regional office for the East of England at Cambridge in 1966. It employs over 250 staff, approximately 180 of whom are based in Newcastle and its services include RIBA Insight, RIBA Appointments, and RIBA Publishing. It publishes the RIBA Product Selector and RIBA Journal, in Newcastle is the NBS, the National Building Specification, which has 130 staff and deals with the building regulations and the Construction Information Service. RIBA Bookshops, which operates online and at 66 Portland Place, is part of RIBA Enterprises. The British Architectural Library, sometimes referred to as the RIBA Library, was established in 1834 upon the founding of the institute with donations from members
Mansfield Park is the third published novel by Jane Austen, first published in 1814. The novel tells the story of Fanny Price starting when her family sends her at age 10 to live in the household of her wealthy aunt and uncle. The novel was first published by Thomas Egerton, a second edition was published in 1816 by John Murray, still within Austens lifetime. The novel did not receive any attention when it was initially published. The critical reception from the late 20th century onward has been controversial, paula Byrne, writing in the 21st century, found this to be one of Austens best novels, and called it pioneering for being about meritocracy. Some critics characterize Thomass trip to Antigua as nothing more than an excuse for his long absence, the late Edward Said criticized the novel for failing to clearly criticize Sir Thomass profiteering in the West Indies. Frances Fanny Price, at age 10, is sent from her home to live with her uncle. It is a change, from the elder sister of many, to the youngest at the estate of Sir Thomas Bertram.
Her cousin Edmund finds her one day and helps her. She wants to write to her older brother William, Edmund provides the writing materials, the first kindness to her in this new family. Her cousins are Julia, age 12, age 13, age 15 and her aunt is kind but her uncle frightens her with his authoritative demeanor. Fanny’s mother has another sister, Mrs Norris and she is the wife of the clergyman at Mansfield parsonage. Mrs Norris has no children and takes a great interest in her nieces, Mrs Norris keeps up a strict difference between her Bertram nieces and lowly Fanny. Sir Thomas helps the sons of the Price family find occupations as they are old enough, William joins the Navy as a midshipman not long after Fanny is at Mansfield Park. He visits them once before going to sea, and writes to his sister, five years after Fanny arrives, Aunt Norris is widowed and moves into a cottage of her own. Her visits to Mansfield Park increase, as does her mistreatment of Fanny, Tom Bertram incurs a large debt and to pay it, Sir Thomas sells the living of the parsonage, freed up by the death of Uncle Norris, to clergyman Dr Grant.
When Fanny is 16, Sir Thomas leaves to deal with problems on his plantation in Antigua and he takes Tom along and trusts to Aunt Norris for the others. Mrs Norris takes on the task of finding a husband for Maria and finds James Rushworth, with income of ₤12,000 a year, Maria accepts his marriage proposal, subject to Sir Thomass approval on his return
Pygmalion is a play by George Bernard Shaw, named after a Greek mythological figure. It was first presented on stage to the public in 1913, the play is a sharp lampoon of the rigid British class system of the day and a commentary on womens independence. In ancient Greek mythology, Pygmalion fell in love one of his sculptures. Shaw would have been familiar with the version, Galatea. Shaws play has been adapted numerous times, most notably as the musical My Fair Lady, Shaw wrote the play in early 1912 and read it to famed actress Mrs. Patrick Campbell in June. She came on board almost immediately, but her mild nervous breakdown contributed to the delay of a London production, Pygmalion premiered at the Hofburg Theatre in Vienna on 16 October 1913, in a German translation by Shaws Viennese literary agent and acolyte, Siegfried Trebitsch. Its first New York production opened on 24 March 1914 at the German-language Irving Place Theatre and it opened in London on 11 April 1914, at Sir Herbert Beerbohm Trees His Majestys Theatre and starred Mrs.
Campbell as Eliza and Tree as Higgins, running for 118 performances. Shaw directed the actors through tempestuous rehearsals often punctuated by at least one of the two storming out of the theatre in a rage, Shaw was conscious of the difficulties involved in staging a complete representation of the play. Of these, a scene at the end of Act One in which Eliza goes home. The others are the scene at the Embassy Ball in Act Three, neither the Gutenberg edition referenced throughout this page nor the Wikisource text linked below contain these sequences. Portico of Saint Pauls Church –11. 15p. m, a group of people are sheltering from the rain. Among them are the Eynsford-Hills, superficial social climbers eking out a living in poverty, consisting initially of Mrs. Eynsford-Hill. Claras brother Freddy enters having earlier been dispatched to them a cab. As he goes off again to find a cab, he bumps into a flower girl. Her flowers drop into the mud of Covent Garden, the flowers she needs to survive in her poverty-stricken world, shortly they are joined by a gentleman, Colonel Pickering.
While Eliza tries to sell flowers to the Colonel, a bystander informs her that a man is writing down everything she says, the man is Henry Higgins, a professor of phonetics. Eliza worries that Higgins is an officer and will not calm down until Higgins introduces himself. Higgins tells Pickering that he could pass off the girl as a duchess merely by teaching her to speak properly
I Want to Hold Your Hand
I Want to Hold Your Hand is a song by the English rock band the Beatles. Written by John Lennon and Paul McCartney, and recorded in October 1963, taking two weeks to dislodge its predecessor, I Want to Hold Your Hand stayed at number one for five weeks and remained in the UK top 50 for 21 weeks in total. It was the groups first American number one, entering the Billboard Hot 100 chart on 18 January 1964 at number 45 and starting the British invasion of the American music industry. By 1 February it held the spot, and stayed there for seven weeks before being replaced by She Loves You. It remained on the Billboard chart for 15 weeks, I Want to Hold Your Hand became the Beatles best-selling single worldwide. In 2013, Billboard magazine named it the 44th biggest hit of all-time on the Billboard Hot 100 charts. Capitol Records rejection of the recordings in the USA was now Brian Epstein’s main concern and encouraged Lennon. This location briefly became Lennon and McCartneys new writing base, taking over from McCartney’s Forthlin Road home in Liverpool.
Margaret Asher taught the oboe in the small, rather stuffy music room in the basement where Lennon and McCartney sat at the piano, in September 1980, Lennon told Playboy magazine, We wrote a lot of stuff together, one on one, eyeball to eyeball. Like in I Want to Hold Your Hand, I remember when we got the chord that made the song and we were in Jane Ashers house, downstairs in the cellar playing on the piano at the same time. And we had, Oh you-u-u/ got that something, and Paul hits this chord and I turn to him and say, Thats it. In those days, we used to absolutely write like that — both playing into each others noses. In 1994, McCartney agreed with Lennons description of the surrounding the composition of I Want to Hold Your Hand, saying. I Want to Hold Your Hand was very co-written and it was our big number one, the one that would eventually break us in America. The song is in the key of G major and opens on Ill tell you with a D-B, B-D melody note drop, controversy exists over the landmark chord that Lennon stated McCartney hit on the piano while they were composing the song.
Marshall considers it is the vi chord. Everett is of the same opinion, pedler claims, that more surprising is the melody note drop from B to F# against a III7 chord on understand. Music theorists are divided over whether this chord is a iii, lyrically bland, random phrases were most likely called out and if they fitted the overall sound would stay