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Winchester College

Winchester College is an independent boarding school for boys in the British public school tradition, situated in Winchester, Hampshire. It has existed in its present location for over 600 years, it is the oldest of the original nine English public schools defined by the Clarendon Commission, seven of which were regulated by the Public Schools Act 1868. According to its 1382 charter and final statutes, the school is called in Latin Collegium Sanctae Mariae prope Wintoniam, or Collegium Beatae Mariae Wintoniensis prope Winton, which translates as St Mary's College, near Winchester, or The College of the Blessed Mary of Winchester, near Winchester, it is sometimes referred to by pupils, former pupils and others as "Win: Coll:", is more known as just "Winchester". Current pupils of Winchester College are known as Wykehamists, in memory of the school's founder, William of Wykeham. Winchester College was founded in 1382 by William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester and Chancellor to both Edward III and Richard II, the first 70 poor scholars entered the school in 1394.

In the early 15th century the specific requirements was that that scholars come from families where the income was less than five marks sterling per annum. It was founded in conjunction with New College, for which it was designed to act as a feeder: the buildings of both colleges were designed by master mason William Wynford; this double foundation was the model for Eton College and King's College, some 50 years and for Westminster School, Christ Church and Trinity College, Cambridge, in Tudor times. In addition to the 70 scholars and 16 "Quiristers", the statutes provided for ten "noble Commoners"; these Commoners were paying guests of the Headmaster or Second Master in his official apartments in College. Other paying pupils, either guests of one of the Masters in his private house or living in lodgings in town, grew in numbers till the late 18th century, when they were all required to live in "Old Commoners" and town boarding was banned. In the 19th century this was replaced by "New Commoners", the numbers fluctuated between 70 and 130: the new building was compared unfavourably to a workhouse, as it was built over an underground stream, epidemics of typhus and malaria were common.

In the late 1850s four boarding houses were planned, to be headed by housemasters: the plan, since dropped, was to increase the number of scholars to 100 so that there would be "College", "Commoners" and "Houses" consisting of 100 pupils each. In the 1860s "New Commoners" was closed and converted to classrooms, its members were divided among four further boarding houses. At the same time two more houses were added to the "Houses" category. There are therefore now ten houses in addition to College, which continues to occupy the original 14th-century buildings, the total number of pupils is 700. From the late 1970s there has been a continual process of extension to and upgrading of College Chambers; the seventy Scholars live in the original buildings, known as College. College is not referred to as a house: hence the terms'housemaster of College' and'College house' are not used; the schoolmaster in charge of College is now known as the Master in College, although these duties belonged to the Second Master.

The same title, Master in College, is used by the housemaster of the King's Scholars at Eton. Within the school, ` College', without ` the', means both the body of their buildings; every pupil at Winchester, apart from the Scholars, lives in a boarding house, chosen or allocated when applying to Winchester. It is here that he studies and sleeps; each house is presided over by a number of house tutors. Houses compete in school competitions in sporting competitions; each house has an official name based on the family name of the first housemaster, used as a postal address. Each house has an informal name, more used in speech based on the name or nickname of an early housemaster; each house has a letter assigned to it, in the order of their founding, to act as an abbreviation on laundry tags. A member of a house is described by the informal name of the house with "-ite" suffixed, as "a Furleyite", "a Toyeite", "a Cookite" and so on; the houses have been ordered by their year of founding. College does not have an informal name, although the abbreviation Coll is sometimes used on written work.

It has a letter assigned to it, X, but it is considered bad form to use this except as a laundry mark or in lists of sporting fixtures. Each house had a set of house colours, which adorned the ribbon worn around boys' "strats". New Men sported a strat with a 3-inch strat-band and if they became a Three-Year Men, they could sport a strat with a thinner 1 inch strat band. Up to the mid-1970s, Three-Year Men

Evidence-based design

Evidence-based design is the process of constructing a building or physical environment based on scientific research to achieve the best possible outcomes. Evidence-based design is important in evidence-based medicine, where research has shown that environment design can affect patient outcomes, it is used in architecture, interior design, landscape design, facilities management and city planning. Evidence-based design is part of the larger movement towards evidence-based practices. Evidence-based design was popularized by the seminal study by Ulrich that showed the impact of a window view on patient recovery. Studies have since examined the relationships between design of the physical environment of hospitals with outcomes in health, the results of which show how the physical environment can lower the incidence of nosocomial infections, medical errors, patient falls, staff injuries. Evidence in EBD may include a wide range of sources of knowledge, from systematic literature reviews to practice guidelines and expert opinions.

Evidence-based design was first defined as "the deliberate attempt to base design decisions on the best available research evidence" and that "an evidence-based designer, together with an informed client, makes decisions based on the best available information from research and project evaluations". The Center for Heath Design, a non-profit organization that supports healthcare and design professionals to improve the understanding and application of design that influence the performance of healthcare, patient satisfaction, staff productivity and safety, base their model on the importance of working in partnership with the client and interdisciplinary team to foster understanding of the client and resources; the roots of evidence-based design could go back to 1860 when Florence Nightingale identified fresh air as "the first canon of nursing," and emphasized the importance of quiet, proper lighting and clean water. Nightingale applied statistics to nursing, notably with "Diagram of the causes of mortality in the army in the East".

This statistical study led to advances in sanitation, although the germ theory of disease was not yet accepted. The evidence-based design movement began much in the 1970s with Archie Cochranes's book "Effectiveness and Efficiency: Random Reflections on Health Services". to collect and disseminate "evidence" gathered in randomised controlled trials relative to the built environment. A 1984 study by Roger Ulrich found that surgical patients with a view of nature suffered fewer complications, used less pain medication and were discharged sooner than those who looked out on a brick wall. Studies exist about the psychological effects of lighting and noise on critical-care patients, evidence links physical environment with improvement of patients and staff safety and satisfaction. Architectural researchers have studied the impact of hospital layout on staff effectiveness, social scientists studied guidance and wayfinding. Architectural researchers have conducted post-occupancy evaluations to provide advice on improving building design and quality.

While the EBD process is suited to healthcare, it may be used in other fields for positive health outcomes and provision of healing environments. There is a growing awareness among healthcare professionals and medical planners for the need to create patient-centered environments that can help patients and family cope with the stress that accompanies illness. There is growing supporting research and evidence through various studies. Numerous studies have demonstrated improved patient health outcomes through environmental measures. Patients have an increased need for sleep during illness, but suffer from poor sleep when hospitalised. Approaches such as single-bed rooms and reduced noise have been shown to improve patient sleep. Natural daylight in patient rooms help to improve sleep. According to Heerwagen, an environmental psychologist, medical models of health integrate behavioral, social and mental processes. Contact with nature and daylight has been found to enhance emotional functioning. Positive feelings such as calmness increase, while anxiety, anger, or other negative emotions diminish with views of nature.

In contrast there is convincing evidence that stress could be worsened and ineffective in fostering restoration in built environments that lack nature. Few studies have shown the restorative effects of gardens for stressed patients and staff. Behavioural observation and interview methods in post occupancy studies of hospital gardens have shown a faster recovery from stress by nearly all garden users. Limited evidence suggest increased benefits when these gardens contain foliage, water, pleasant nature sounds, such as birds and water. EBD is related to performance-based building design practices; as an approach to design, PBBD tries to create clear statistical relationships between design decisions and satisfaction levels demonstrated by the building systems. Like EBD, PBBD u

Moscow State Textile University

A. N. Kosygin Moscow State Textile University was formed as Moscow State Textile Institute in 1919, it institutes for higher studies in textiles in Russia. In 1981, the institute was named in honor of Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin, who died the previous year and whose profession was in the textile industry; the institute was upgraded to "Academy" in 1990. It was renamed to A. N. Kosygin Moscow State Textile Academy. Nine years the Academy was approved as University and renamed as the A. N. Kosygin Moscow State Textile University in 1999; the university has its own complex. It comprises 8 different korpuc at the center of the city of Russia; the teaching staff at the university is above 560, with 110 of them are Ph. D. and Professors. The university has the following major departments: Technology and Production Management Chemical Technology and Ecology Weaving, Information Technology Automation and Energy Economics and Management Fashion DesigningThe university offers specialization and bachelors in 18 different categories.

University has 41 departments, where it offer studies to 6700 students. The university has 100 auditoriums; the university has its own sports hall and three hostels. The University has served as a center of education for students from Russia and from all over the world. Many students from China, Morocco, Iran and India have completed their higher education at the university; the university has a one-room mosque, built by Muslim students of the university in the hostel at Shablovskaya. The 7th floor of the university hostel is assigned to foreign students. Grisha Bruskin Slava Zaitsev Victoria Gres Larisa Sergeeva Denis Simachev Moscow State Textile University Official Website