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Winchester Repeating Arms Company

The Winchester Repeating Arms Company was a prominent American maker of repeating firearms, located in New Haven, Connecticut. The Winchester brand is today owned by the Olin Corporation and the name is used under license by two subsidiaries of the Herstal Group: Fabrique Nationale of Belgium and the Browning Arms Company of Ogden, United States; the ancestor of the Winchester Repeating Arms Company was the Horace Smith and Daniel Wesson partnership of Norwich, Connecticut. Smith and Wesson acquired Lewis Jennings' improved version of inventor Walter Hunt's 1848 "Volition Repeating Rifle" and its caseless "Rocket Ball" ammunition, produced in small numbers by Robbins & Lawrence of Windsor, Vermont. Jennings' rifle was a commercial failure and Robbins & Lawrence ceased production in 1852. Smith designed a much-improved rifle based on Jennings', the partners hired away Robbins & Lawrence shop foreman Benjamin Tyler Henry. In 1855, the Smith and Wesson partnership, in order to manufacture what they called the "Volcanic" lever-action rifle and pistol, sought investors and incorporated as the Volcanic Repeating Arms Company.

Its largest stockholder was clothing manufacturer Oliver Winchester. The Volcanic rifle had only limited success; the company moved to New Haven in 1856, but by the end of that year became insolvent. Oliver Winchester and his partner John M. Davies purchased the bankrupt firm's assets from the remaining stockholders, reorganized it as the New Haven Arms Company in April 1857. After Smith's departure, Benjamin Henry continued to work with a Smith development project, the self-contained metallic rimfire cartridge, perfected the much larger, more powerful.44 Henry round. Henry supervised a new rifle design based loosely on the Volcanic to use the new ammunition, retaining only the general form of the breech mechanism and the tubular magazine; this became the Henry rifle of 1860, manufactured by the New Haven Arms Company and used in considerable numbers by certain Union army units in the American Civil War. The Henry rifle ensured New Haven Arms' success, together with the Spencer rifle, established the lever-action repeater in the firearms market.

In 1866, Benjamin Henry, angered over what he believed was inadequate compensation, attempted to have the Connecticut legislature award ownership of New Haven Arms to him. Oliver Winchester, hastening back from Europe, forestalled the move and reorganized New Haven Arms yet again as the Winchester Repeating Arms Company. Winchester had the basic design of the Henry rifle modified and improved to become the first Winchester rifle, the Model 1866, which fired the same.44 caliber rimfire cartridges as the Henry but had an improved magazine and, for the first time, a wooden forend. The Henry and the 1866 Winchester shared a unique double firing pin which struck the head of the rimfire cartridge in two places when the weapon was fired, increasing the chances that the fulminate in the hollow rim would ignite the 28 or so grains of black powder inside the case. Another popular model was rolled out in 1873; the Model 1873 introduced the first Winchester center fire cartridge, the.44-40 WCF. These rifle families are known as the "Gun That Won the West."The Model 1873 was followed by the Model 1876, a larger version of the'73, which used the same toggle-link action and brass cartridge elevator used in the Henry.

It was chambered for longer, more powerful cartridges such as.45-60 WCF.45-75 WCF, and.50-95 WCF. The action was not long enough to allow Winchester to achieve their goal of producing a repeating rifle capable of handling the.45-70 Government cartridge. Oliver Winchester died in December 1880. William Wirt Winchester's widow, Sarah Winchester, used her inheritance and income from the company to build what is now known as the Winchester Mystery House. From 1883, John Browning worked in partnership with the Winchester Repeating Arms Company and designed a series of rifles and shotguns, most notably the Winchester Model 1885 Single Shot, Winchester Model 1887 lever-action shotgun, Model 1897 pump-action shotgun. Several of these are still in production today through companies such as Browning, Navy Arms and others which have revived several of the discontinued models or produced reproductions; the early years of the twentieth century found the Winchester Repeating Arms Company competing with new John Browning designs, manufactured under license by other firearm companies.

The race to produce the first commercial self-loading rifle brought forth the.22 rimfire Winchester Model 1903 and centerfire Model 1905, Model 1907, Model 1910 rifles. Winchester engineers, after ten years of work, designed the Model 1911 to circumvent Browning's self-loading shotgun patents, prepared by the company's own patent lawyers. One of Winchester's premier engineers, T. C. Johnson, was instrumental in the development of these self-loading firearms and went on to superintend the designs of Winchester's classic Model 1912, Model 52 and Model 54; the company was a major producer of the.303 Pattern 1914 Enfield rifle for the British Government and the similar.30-06 M1917 Enfield rifle for the United States during World War I. Working at the Winchester plant during the war, Browning developed the final desig

Salvador Garriga Polledo

Salvador Garriga Polledo is a Spanish politician and Member of the European Parliament with the People's Party, part of the European People's Party and sits on the European Parliament's Committee on Budgets. He is a substitute for the Committee on Budgetary Control and the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs. Garriga joined the Spanish Congress of deputies as a substitute member in 1990 for Madrid serving until 1993. 1982: Economist 1983: Diploma in foreign trade 1981-1994: Businessman specialising in external trade 1982-1987: Responsible for external relations of Nuevas Generaciones del PP 1984-1989: Economic adviser 1987-1989 and since 1994: Member of the European Parliament 1987-1989: Deputy Chairman of the DEMYC 1987-1993: Secretary for Sectoral Relations in the PPSee also: 2004 European Parliament election in Spain Personal profile of Salvador Garriga Polledo in the European Parliament's database of members Declaration of financial interests

Fort Allen (Puerto Rico)

Fort Allen Fort Allen Training Center, is a Puerto Rico National Guard military installation located on a 921-acre facility in Juana Díaz, Puerto Rico. 1941: The United States Army Air Corps established an airfield 4 miles south of the town of Juana Díaz, 10 miles east of Ponce, Puerto Rico during World War II known as Losey Army Airfield in honor of Captain Robert M. Losey, an aeronautical meteorologist who in April 1940 became the United States' first military casualty in World War II. Units assigned were: 4th Tactical Reconnaissance Squadron, 20th Troop Carrier Squadron, 36th Fighter Group, 22d Fighter Squadron, 23rd Fighter Squadron, 32d Fighter Squadron, 417th Bombardment Squadron 1949: Losey Army Airfield was transferred to United States Army ground forces and became Camp Losey. 1950: Camp Losey was renamed Fort Allen. 1959: Fort Allen was transferred to the Army's Caribbean Signal Agency. 1963: The United States Navy took control of the military post and redesignated as Naval Radio Station Fort Allen, Puerto Rico.

1970: The Headquarters & Communications Center of Naval Communication Station Puerto Rico relocated from San Juan to Fort Allen. 1980: The U. S. Navy moved the Naval Communication Station Puerto Rico Headquarters & Communication Center from Fort Allen to Naval Station Roosevelt Roads. 1980: On 16 November 1980 Fort Allen became the home for the United States Army Reserve 35th Expeditionary Signal Battalion. 1981: The United States Immigration and Naturalization Service under a presidential order reconfigured Fort Allen as a processing center for Cuban and Haitian refugees. 1983: Fort Allen was transferred to the Puerto Rico National Guard. The 35th Signal Battalion, along with other U. S. Army Reserve units remain as tenants. 1985: The Puerto Rico National Guard Language Center relocated to Fort Allen. 1997: The U. S. Navy built a receiver site for the Relocatable Over-the-horizon radar on government land at Fort Allen. 1999: The National Guard Youth Challenge Program was established on post. 2007: Soldiers from the 35th Signal Battalion, 1st Mission Support Command, were deployed from Fort Allen to support Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom.

2011: The Fort Allen Armed Forces Reserve Center was inaugurated and dedicated posthumously to the 6th Adjutant General of the Puerto Rico National Guard and founder of the Language Center at Fort Allen, Major General Salvador Padilla Escabi. Since the Navy left Fort Allen in 1980 there's been no regular Active Duty military personnel assigned on post, but the Puerto Rico Army National Guard and U. S. Army Reserve do have permanent Active Guard Reserve personnel present. Fort Allen still a federal owned facility operated by the Puerto Rico National Guard, its mission is educational in scope and that of providing support to the Puerto Rico Army National Guard and Army Reserve units stationed in southern Puerto Rico. There is not a Commissary at Fort Allen but NGX operates a PX on base for authorized patrons. Army National Guard 296th Infantry Regiment 240th Military Police Company 192nd Support Battalion, C Company 105th Quartermaster Company 482nd Chemical Company 714th Quartermaster Company U.

S. Army Reserve 35th Expeditionary Signal Battalion Headquarters and Headquarters Company 5th Brigade, 94th Training Division 807th Signal Company 613th Military Police Detention Company 276th Ordnance Company 941st Quartermaster Company LTC Hernan G. Pesquera United States Army Reserve Center is located on 39 acres within the grounds of Fort Allen, Puerto Rico; this facility is named after Army Reserve Lieutenant Colonel and federal judge Hernan Gregorio Pesquera. On March 4, 2011 a 55,037 square feet Armed Forces Reserve Center was inaugurated at Fort Allen to relocate the U. S. Army Reserve 8th Multifunctional of the 180th Division and retention office; the Puerto Rico Army National Guard 201st Regiment Multifunctional Training Brigade was located to the Fort Allen Armed Forces Reserve Center. A 155 square feet Unheated storage building was built, it has a fitness room, locker rooms, weapons simulator and private offices and an armory/vault. The Fort Allen Armed Forces Reserve Center can accommodate 150 Guard and Reserve Soldiers on a rotating basis, 126 military personnel per weekend.

This facility was dedicated posthumously to the 6th Adjutant General of the Puerto Rico National Guard and founder of the Language Center at Fort Allen, Major General Salvador Padilla Escabi. The Puerto Rico Army National Guard Officer Candidate School, NCO Academy and the Language Center for the Puerto Rico Army and Air National Guard recruits are located at Fort Allen; the U. S. Navy Relocatable Over the Horizon receiver site was built in 1997 on government land at Fort Allen as part of a surveillance network, designed to monitor flights over an area encompassing more than 1,000,000 square miles in South America; the radar consists of support structure from 71 to 123 feet tall. The National Guard Youth Challenge Program Community Outreach Youth Program came aboard to Fort Allen in 1999 to intervene and reclaim the lives of 16- to 18-year-old high school dropouts, producing program graduates with the values, life skills and self-discipline necessary to succeed as productive citizens. Participants of the Youth Challenge Program live in Fort Allen during the program.

Army National Guard Puerto Rico National Guard Losey Field Military of Puerto Rico http://www.ngycp.org/state/pr_es/contactus.php http://www.navy-radio.com/commsta/puerto-rico.htm http://www2.webster.edu/~corbetre/haiti-archive/msg09149.html Fort Allen at GlobalSecurity.org