Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale. On the surface of the Earth, wind consists of the bulk movement of air. In outer space, solar wind is the movement of gases or charged particles from the Sun through space, while planetary wind is the outgassing of light chemical elements from a planet's atmosphere into space. Winds are classified by their spatial scale, their speed, the types of forces that cause them, the regions in which they occur, their effect; the strongest observed winds on a planet in the Solar System occur on Saturn. Winds have various aspects: velocity. Wind is an important means of transportation for seeds and small birds. In meteorology, winds are referred to according to their strength, the direction from which the wind is blowing. Short bursts of high-speed wind are termed gusts. Strong winds of intermediate duration are termed squalls. Long-duration winds have various names associated with their average strength, such as breeze, gale and hurricane. Wind occurs on a range of scales, from thunderstorm flows lasting tens of minutes, to local breezes generated by heating of land surfaces and lasting a few hours, to global winds resulting from the difference in absorption of solar energy between the climate zones on Earth.
The two main causes of large-scale atmospheric circulation are the differential heating between the equator and the poles, the rotation of the planet. Within the tropics, thermal low circulations over terrain and high plateaus can drive monsoon circulations. In coastal areas the sea breeze/land. In human civilization, the concept of wind has been explored in mythology, influenced the events of history, expanded the range of transport and warfare, provided a power source for mechanical work and recreation. Wind powers the voyages of sailing ships across Earth's oceans. Hot air balloons use the wind to take short trips, powered flight uses it to increase lift and reduce fuel consumption. Areas of wind shear caused by various weather phenomena can lead to dangerous situations for aircraft; when winds become strong and human-made structures are damaged or destroyed. Winds can shape landforms, via a variety of aeolian processes such as the formation of fertile soils, such as loess, by erosion. Dust from large deserts can be moved great distances from its source region by the prevailing winds.
Wind affects the spread of wildfires. Winds can disperse seeds from various plants, enabling the survival and dispersal of those plant species, as well as flying insect populations; when combined with cold temperatures, wind has a negative impact on livestock. Wind affects animals' food stores, as well as defensive strategies. Wind is caused by differences in the atmospheric pressure; when a difference in atmospheric pressure exists, air moves from the higher to the lower pressure area, resulting in winds of various speeds. On a rotating planet, air will be deflected by the Coriolis effect, except on the equator. Globally, the two major driving factors of large-scale wind patterns are the differential heating between the equator and the poles and the rotation of the planet. Outside the tropics and aloft from frictional effects of the surface, the large-scale winds tend to approach geostrophic balance. Near the Earth's surface, friction causes the wind to be slower. Surface friction causes winds to blow more inward into low-pressure areas.
Winds defined by an equilibrium of physical forces are used in the decomposition and analysis of wind profiles. They are useful for simplifying the atmospheric equations of motion and for making qualitative arguments about the horizontal and vertical distribution of winds; the geostrophic wind component is the result of the balance between Coriolis force and pressure gradient force. It flows parallel to isobars and approximates the flow above the atmospheric boundary layer in the midlatitudes; the thermal wind is the difference in the geostrophic wind between two levels in the atmosphere. It exists only in an atmosphere with horizontal temperature gradients; the ageostrophic wind component is the difference between actual and geostrophic wind, responsible for air "filling up" cyclones over time. The gradient wind is similar to the geostrophic wind but includes centrifugal force. Wind direction is expressed in terms of the direction from which it originates. For example, a northerly wind blows from the north to the south.
Weather vanes pivot to indicate the direction of the wind. At airports, windsocks indicate wind direction, can be used to estimate wind speed by the angle of hang. Wind speed is measured by anemometers, most using rotating cups or propellers; when a high measurement frequency is needed, wind can be measured by the propagation speed of ultrasound signals or by the effect of ventilation on the resistance of a heated wire. Another type of anemometer uses pitot tubes that take advantage of the pressure differential between an inner tube and an outer tube, exposed to the wind to determine the dynamic pressure, used to compute the wind speed. Sustained wind
Lake Bonavista is a neighbourhood in Southeast Calgary, Canada. It is bounded by Anderson Road to the north, Macleod Trail to the west, Canyon Meadows Drive to the south, Bow Bottom Trail to the east; the small community of Bonavista Downs resides in the northeast corner of the neighbourhood. Lake Bonavista was developed by the Keith Construction company starting in 1967, it was the first community in Canada to be built around a man-made lake, served as a prototype for other lake communities in Calgary. Two trailer courts were on the west side of Bonavista, north of the Avenida Shopping Centre, alongside Macleod Trail. One trailer court was relocated to Northeast Calgary in the late 1990s; the Bonavista Square shopping complex, Calgary Honda, Kramer Mazda and Hyundai Gallery, as well as two apartments, a retirement home, an office building were built in its place, accessed by an extended Lake Fraser Drive, as well as an interchange, built at Anderson Road and Macleod Trail, in 2001. The Avenida shopping centre, opened in 1988, was built to cater to the increasing size of the neighbourhood.
It includes assorted upmarket restaurants. In the City of Calgary's 2012 municipal census, Lake Bonavista had a population of 10,475 living in 4,106 dwellings, a 1.3% decrease from its 2011 population of 10,610. With a land area of 5.2 km2, it had a population density of 2,014/km2 in 2012. In the 2012 municipal census, Bonavista Downs had a population of 925 living in 370 dwellings, a 2.3% decrease from its 2011 population of 947. With a land area of 0.5 km2, it had a population density of 1,850/km2 in 2012. Residents in this community had a median household income of $101,025 in 2005, there were 4.4% low income residents living in the neighbourhood. In Bonavista Downs, the median household income was $81,761, there were 8.4% low income residents living in the neighbourhood. Lake Bonavista Promenade is a small commercial development within Lake Bonavista that includes both retail space and professional offices. There is convenient access in Southcentre Mall. Fish Creek Park borders the community to the south, provides a variety of outdoor recreation opportunities.
The Lake Bonavista Community Association owns a community centre within the district. The centre includes two ice rinks, a gym, a variety of multipurpose rooms. There is a City of Calgary ice rink, Frank McCool Arena, within the community; the area was flat treeless prairie with no distinctive natural features. In order to make the area more attractive, Lake Bonavista, a 52-acre manmade lake, was constructed in 1968, with a portion of the earth excavated from the lake used to construct a 65-foot hill with a waterfall adjacent to the lake; the lake and park provide a variety of year-round recreational opportunities for residents, including fishing, boating, tennis and tobogganing. The Lake Bonavista Homeowners Association, membership of, mandatory for homeowners in the area, provides for the upkeep of the lake and park; the neighbourhood contains a second manmade lake, Lake Bonaventure. This 35-acre lake is only accessible from houses built directly around the lake itself. Homeowners with access to Lake Bonaventure must pay their share of the upkeep on both Lake Bonavista and Lake Bonaventure.
Bonavista Downs residents share many of the amenities with Lake Bonavista, but they do not have access to the lakes and do not pay for their upkeep. Lake Bonavista is home to the following schools: Lake Bonavista, Public Elementary Andrew Sibbald, Public Elementary Sam Livingston, Public Elementary Nickle, Public Junior High St. Boniface, Catholic Elementary St. Bonaventure, Catholic Junior High The following churches are located in Lake Bonavista: Bonavista Baptist Church Bonavista Evangelical Missionary Church Holy Nativity Anglican Church St. Bonaventure Church Lake Bonavista is served by Calgary Transit Bus Route 29 to the north, Route 35 in the middle, Route 81 in the south; the Canyon Meadows CTrain Station serves Lake Bonavista. Lake Bonavista is part of the Calgary Southeast Federal Electoral District, the Calgary Fish Creek Provincial Riding, Calgary Municipal Ward 14. List of neighbourhoods in Calgary Lake Bonavista Community Association Bonavista Downs Community Association
Patricia Stallings is an American woman, wrongfully convicted of murder after the death of her son Ryan on September 7, 1989. Because testing seemed to indicate an elevated level of ethylene glycol in Ryan's blood, authorities suspected antifreeze poisoning and they arrested Patricia Stallings the next day, she was sentenced to life in prison. After she went to prison, Stallings gave birth to another child. Prosecutors did not believe that the sibling's diagnosis had anything to do with Ryan's case and Stallings’ own lawyer failed to produce available evidence as proof of the possibility. After a professor in biochemistry and molecular biology had some of Ryan’s blood samples tested, he was able to prove that the child had died from MMA and not ethylene-glycol poisoning. After spending nearly two years incarcerated, Stallings was released from prison in July 1991. Prosecutors decided to close the case two months later. There were test samples sent out to several commercial labs to test using the same technique, performed on Ryan’s in the beginning.
Nearly half of the labs resulted with incorrect results. Stallings sued the hospital and laboratories that were involved in Ryan's care and reached an out-of-court settlement. Stallings was a convenience store clerk in the mid-1980s. David Stallings came into her store and they began to date in 1986, they got married in 1988. Their first son, was born in April 1989. Patricia took Ryan to Cardinal Glennon Children's Hospital in early July 1989, he was experiencing vomiting and difficulty breathing, he was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. Noting a high level of what they believed to be ethylene glycol in the baby's blood, physicians suspected that the boy had been poisoned with antifreeze; the infant was placed in protective custody. On August 31 of that year, Stallings was allowed a short visit with her son. Ryan's illness seemed to recur 4 days after the visit, Stallings was arrested on assault charges on September 5. Ryan was treated for ethylene glycol poisoning but Ryan died two days later.
The charges were revised to first-degree murder. While she was in jail awaiting trial, Stallings gave birth to another son, David Jr. on February 17, 1990. He was placed in foster care, but in March, he developed similar symptoms as those that had affected Ryan, he was diagnosed with methylmalonic acidemia, a genetic condition in which the body produces propionic acid, a compound that differs from ethylene glycol by one carbon atom. David Jr. was placed in foster care. During the investigation and ensuing trial, Stallings's defense attorney wanted to introduce the theory that Ryan had died of MMA, but the prosecutor, George B. McElroy, considered the sibling's diagnosis irrelevant to Ryan's death and the judge, Gary Kramer, would not allow him to advance the theory without any evidence that Ryan was affected by MMA. Stallings wanted her attorney to call character witnesses to testify on her behalf, but he did not do so, she was given a life sentence. In May 1990, defense attorney Eric Rathbone obtained copies of notes which determined to have been written by assistant prosecutor John S. Appelbaum.
The notes indicated that the doctor who pronounced Ryan dead had considered the possibility of an MMA diagnosis, but that he had not tested Ryan for it at the time. After the discovery of the note, prosecutors said that they believed that there were important differences between ethylene glycol and propylene glycol, they said that if Ryan had had MMA, they thought that he had been poisoned; the Stallings case was featured on the Unsolved Mysteries television program, biochemist William Sly of Saint Louis University saw the episode. He agreed to test Ryan's blood, gave it to Dr. James Shoemaker, M. D. Ph. D. Director of the Metabolic Screening Lab at St Louis University. Dr. Shoemaker confirmed that Ryan had had MMA. However, ethylene glycol is not a human metabolite in cases of MMA, Patricia Stallings went to trial with no explanation linking MMA to ethylene glycol. Much after the case was featured on Unsolved Mysteries, Dr. Shoemaker asked prosecutor George McElroy for the methods, used to measure ethylene glycol in Ryan's blood, McElroy supplied that information.
When the method was used on blood from Ryan and DJ, it was seen that propionic acid, produced in methylmalonic acidemia, caused a result that careless observers might mistake for ethylene glycol.. Dr. Shoemaker sent samples of propionate-spiked blood to several laboratories, who tested it with the same methods used in the Stallings case; some of the laboratories came to the incorrect conclusion that the blood reflected ethylene glycol poisoning. At Sly's and Shoemaker's request, Piero Rinaldo of Yale University looked at the case and concluded that Ryan had died of MMA, his testimony helped to convince McElroy. In July 1991, Stallings was released from jail pending a new trial, she was placed on house arrest. In September 1991, prosecutors dropped the case against her. Stallings said, she said. Stallings won a settlement against Cardinal Glennon Children's Hospital and the laboratory that tested Ryan's blood, she said that the perception of her case may have been influenced by the case of Paula Sims, which had unfolded around the same
Cuney Homes is a public housing complex in the Third Ward area of Houston, Texas. It is operated by the Houston Housing Authority Housing Authority of the City of Houston, was the first complex opened by the authority; as of 2017 there were about 595 people living there. Some were students at area universities, Texas Southern University and the University of Houston, seeking affordable accommodations, it is named after Norris Wright Cuney, a Texas politician who assisted African-Americans during the Reconstruction. Cuney Homes first opened in 1938, its establishment resulted in a large group of African-Americans residing in this area, as Cuney Homes housed poor African-Americans. It was modernized in 1997, when it won an award from the National Association of Housing & Redevelopment for its modernization. Cuney Homes is north of Blodgett Street. Cuney is next to Texas Southern University, Yates High School. Washington Terrace is across the railroad from Cuney. In 2006 METRO rerouted some area bus services, prompting Cuney Homes resident council vice president Veronica Deboest to ask for them to restore them to their original locations as they were further away from Cuney Homes.
METRO restored Route 68 Brays Bayou to its original routing. The Houston Independent School District operates area public schools; the Texas Southern University /Houston Independent School District Charter Laboratory School, a charter school serving grades Kindergarten through 3, is located in Cuney Homes, making it the sole public school located on the property of public housing. The school, operated in conjunction with the TSU School of Education, opened in August 1995, occupying two former apartment buildings. A new building for the school opened in 1999 with a capacity of 1,200 students. In 1999 62% of the students passed all TAAS tests, in 2000 49% of the students tested passed all TAAS tests. In 2006 the school had 118 students; that year the HISD board voted to close the school, but area residents sought to reverse this by making it a charter school. That year it became a charter school affiliated with HISD; the school served grades Kindergarten through 5. The zoned public elementary schools serving sections of Cuney Homes are Blackshear Elementary School and Lockhart Elementary School.
Cullen Middle School and Yates High School serve all of Cuney Homes. Cuney Homes was zoned to Ryan Middle School. Baylor College of Medicine Academy at Ryan, a magnet school which occupies the former Ryan Middle School, is in the surrounding area. Beginning in 2018 the school serves as a boundary option for students zoned to Blackshear and MacGregor elementary schools; the former location of DeBakey High School is nearby. TSU and University of Houston are in proximity. There is the Cuney Homes Adopt-A-Family Program which allows area residents to "sponsor" Cuney Homes residents by giving them charitable assistance. Cuney Homes Cuney Homes - Houston Housing Authority TSU/HISD Lab School Profile at the Wayback Machine Houston Independent School District TSU/HISD Lab School at the Wayback Machine - Houston Housing Authority
The Ipswich Mills Historic District encompasses a major textile mill complex and associated worker housing along the Ipswich River near the center of Ipswich, Massachusetts. The district includes the factories of the Ipswich Mill Company, several blocks of modest worker cottages on side streets off Estes and Kimball Streets; the site had been used as for mills since the 17th century, was purchased by the Ipswich Mill Company in 1868. Mill worker housing was built surrounding the complex through the early 20th century, when River Court, Peatfield Street, 1st through 6th Streets were laid out; the district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1996. The Ipswich Mills district is located just south of the Ipswich central business district, on the west bank of the Ipswich River and south of the Choate Bridge, it is bounded on the west by the Ipswich commuter rail station. The northern part of the district is where the mill complex was located, with the mill-related residential area stretching out to its south.
The mill complex at its height was a large collection of masonry structures that were for the most part interconnected in some way, all but two of which were demolished in the 1970s. One of these, the yarn mill, was one the major visual elements of the mill complex, it was built in 1880, is a four-story brick structure with several side wings that were added in the early 20th century. The second building, used for finishing, is a two-story structure that directly abuts the river, is now separated from the first building by a passage connecting two parking lots. Most of the residences to the south of the mill complex post-date the establishment in 1868 of the Ipswich Mills. One notable house that stood in the area until the 1890s was the John Whipple House, now a National Historic Landmark, used as mill tenement housing prior to being moved to its present location on Ipswich's South Green; the majority of the residential structures are houses that were built by the Ipswich Mill Company in the first two decades of the 20th century.
The company built three basic types, which were clustered together on the side streets off Estes and Kimball Streets: single-family houses either 1-1/2 or 2-1/2 stories in height, duplexes. The Ipswich Mill Company was founded in 1868 by Amos Adams Lawrence, developed this area, which had seen a variety of industrial uses since the 18th century; the company manufactured hosiery, one of the community's early industries, grew to become the largest hosiery maker in the world between 1916 and 1919, with mills in five New England locations. Demand for the mill's products declined after the First World War, its mills were shuttered one by one, with the Ipswich mill closing in 1928; the mill complex was acquired by Sylvania Electric in 1941, responsible for the demolition of much of the complex in the 1970s. National Register of Historic Places listings in Ipswich, Massachusetts National Register of Historic Places listings in Essex County, Massachusetts
Batrachedra agaura is a species of moth in the family Batrachedridae. It is endemic to New Zealand; this species is distributed throughout the country. This species was described in 1901 by Edward Meyrick. George Hudson discussed and illustrated this species both in his 1928 publication The Butterflies and Moths of New Zealand, in his 1950 book Fragments of New Zealand entomology. John S. Dugdale criticised the quality of Hudson's illustrations arguing that the images were not as brown as specimens of the moth; the lectotype was collected by Meyrick at Mount Arthur below Flora Saddle in the Nelson district. This specimen is held at London. Meyrick described the species as follows: ♂♀. 13-17 m.m. Head pale whitish-ochreous. Palpi whitish, second joint dark fuscous towards apex, scale-projection slight, terminal joint more or less suffused with dark fuscous except base and apex. Antennae and thorax whitish-ochreous, reddish-tinged. Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Legs dark fuscous, suffusedly ringed with ochreous-whitish.
Forewings whitish-ochreous or pale reddish-ochreous, more or less suffused with dark fuscous or dark reddish-fuscous irroration. Hindwings rather dark fuscous. Alfred Philpott described the proboscis of the adult of this species as being long and well developed; the female of the species is lighter in appearance than the male. The colour and markings of this species shows considerable variation; this species is endemic to New Zealand. Specimens have been collected from Kaeo in the North Island to Invercargill in the South Island and it is regarded as being distributed throughout the country; this species has been recorded at Pitt Island in the Chatham Islands. Adults are on the wing from October to February, they are nocturnal and are attracted to light. The larvae pupate there; this moth prefers native forest habitat beech forest and manuka scrubland. It is known to inhabit kanuka forest; the larvae of this species is associated with sooty beech scale. It has been hypothesised; however they may feed on the sooty mold itself.
If B. agaura are found to consume scale insects this species will be one of the few that have larvae that are predatory. Image of lectotype specimen