Windham is a town in Windham County, United States. It contains the city suburb of Willimantic as well as the boroughs of Windham Center, North Windham, South Windham. Willimantic, an incorporated city since 1893, was consolidated with the town in 1983; the population was 25,268 at the 2010 census. Prior to colonization, the region was occupied by Algonquian peoples, including the Pequot, Mohegan and Nipmuck. After the conclusion of the Pequot War in 1638, the Pequots ceased to exist as a tribe; the settlement of Windham was left to settlers by Joshua Uncas, son of Uncas, in a will dated 1675. Settlers moved in, held their first town meeting on May 18, 1691; the tract was named the town of Windham in May of 1692, was incorporated into Hartford County in fall of 1693.:82-83Starting in the early nineteenth century, the town's center of activity moved from Windham to Willimantic, as the water power available there led to the establishment of factories.:104 First established as a borough in 1833, it was incorporated as a separate city in 1893 reincorporated into the town of Windham in 1983 as its industry declined.
Dr. Chester Hunt Office—Windham Center Road Forty-Seventh Camp of Rochambeau's Army Fourth Camp of Rochambeau's Army Main Street Historic District —32, 50 and 54 North St. March Route of Rochambeau's Army: Scotland Road—Scotland Road, from intersection with Back Rd. to 80 Scotland Rd. Willimantic Armory—Pleasant Street Windham Center Historic District—state Routes 14 and 203 According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 27.9 square miles, of which, 27.1 square miles of it is land and 0.9 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 22,857 people, 8,342 households, 5,088 families residing in the town; the population density was 844.4 people per square mile. There were 8,926 housing units at an average density of 329.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 74.02% White, 5.06% African American, 0.56% Native American, 1.30% Asian, 0.12% Pacific Islander, 15.16% from other races, 3.78% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 26.85% of the population.
There were 8,342 households out of which 30.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.4% were married couples living together, 16.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.0% were non-families. 29.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.05. In the town, the population was spread out with 23.0% under the age of 18, 18.1% from 18 to 24, 27.2% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, 12.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.0 males. The median income for a household in the town was $35,087, the median income for a family was $42,023. Males had a median income of $32,742 versus $25,703 for females; the per capita income for the town was $16,978. About 12.7% of families and 17.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.9% of those under age 18 and 9.6% of those age 65 or over.
Public Schools Windham Early Childhood Center Natchaug School North Windham School W. B. Sweeney School Windham Center School Windham Middle School Windham High School Windham Technical High SchoolMagnet Schools Charles H. Barrows STEM AcademyPrivate Schools St Mary-St Joseph School Route 32 runs through South Windham and north-western Willimantic. Route 66 goes east to west from North Windham to Columbia. Route 14 severs Willimantic to Windham Center. Route 203 severs the eastern section of town from North Windham to South Windham. Route 195 goes from Willimantic to Mansfield going to the University of Connecticut. Route 289 starts in southern Willimantic and shortly after going into Lebanon to Route 87. US 6 severs North Windham. Bus service is available around the town Monday thru Saturday. Airport service is from Windham Airport in North Windham. There is no passenger train service, but a freight train stop is found in Willimantic for the Providence and Worcester Railroad. Bus service is provided by the Windham Region Transit District.
Eleazar Wheelock, a Congregational minister, orator and founder of Dartmouth College, was born in town. Eliphalet Dyer, a lawyer and delegate for Connecticut to the Continental Congress, was born in town. William Hebard, a United States Representative from Vermont was born in town. George Hewitt Cushman and painter of miniature paintings and portraits. Samuel Huntington - Signed the Declaration of Independence and the Articles of Confederation. Benjamin Hanks, instrument maker, first maker of bronze cannons and church bells in America. Gardiner Means, economist. Town of Windham, Connecticut
Alice Anne LeBaron is a United States composer and harpist. Anne LeBaron holds a B. A. in music from the University of Alabama, an M. A. in music from the State University of New York at Stony Brook, a doctorate in music from Columbia University, where she studied with Chou Wen-chung and Mario Davidovsky. As a Fulbright Scholar in 1980 -- 81, she studied with György Ligeti. LeBaron has studied Korean traditional music at The National Center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts in Seoul. Although trained in piano from childhood, she took up the harp in college. LeBaron served as composer-in-residence in Washington, DC, sponsored by Meet the Composer from 1993 until 1996, she was Assistant Professor of Music at the University of Pittsburgh from 1996 to 2000. Beginning in 2001, she was appointed Professor of Music at the California Institute of the Arts, where she has held the Roy E. Disney Family Chair in Musical Composition since 2013, her awards include an ASCAP Foundation Grant and a BMI Student Composer Award, the GEDOK International Prize in Mannheim, a Guggenheim Fellowship, the Alpert Award in the Arts, a Cultural Exchange International Grant in 2009 from the City of Los Angeles Department of Cultural Affairs for The Silent Steppe Cantata, the Toulmin Grant from Opera America.
LeBaron's composition in instrumental and performance realms embraces a wide range of media and styles. Combining tonal and atonal techniques, she has utilized elements of blues, pop and folk music in such scores as the opera The E & O Line, American Icons for orchestra, Traces of Mississippi for chorus, poet narrators, rap artists, she has used American literary sources with Devil in the Belfry for violin and piano, inspired by Edgar Allan Poe, the Gertrude Stein setting Is Money Money for soprano and chamber ensemble. Among her multi-cultural compositions are Lamentation/Invocation for baritone and three instruments, using Korean-derived gestures and long sustained tones for the voice. Writing about LeBaron's 1989 Telluris Theoria Sacra, musicologist Susan McClary notes that the work "...points to LeBaron's more pervasive interest in music's ability to mold temporality, immersing the listener in a sound world in which time bends, stands still, dances, or conforms to the mechanical measure of the clock".
Theater has played an important role in LeBaron's music, with such scores as Concerto for Active Frogs for voices, three instruments, tape, the harp solos I Am an American... My Government Will Reward Hsing, she has composed a series of monodramas for female voice and chamber musicians: Pope Joan, Transfiguration and Some Things Should Not Move. LeBaron's operas The E & O Line and Wet were all collaborative works that led her to develop the genre she terms "hyperopera": "an opera resulting from intensive collaboration across all the disciplines essential for producing opera in the 21st century – in a word, a'meta-collaborative' undertaking". With her hyperopera Crescent City, LeBaron went a step beyond the nineteenth-century concept of the Gesamtkunstwerk, championed by Richard Wagner. A more lateral and intensive collaboration of artists occurs with hyperopera, breaking down the usual hierarchical structures of traditional opera, which define and limit the roles of individuals on creative and production teams.
The genre of hyperopera involves the collaborations of a diverse group of artists that can portray a variety of meanings or realities. In the postmodern tradition of redefining opera seen in the work of Robert Ashley, Meredith Monk, Robert Wilson, LeBaron replaced the Wagnerian orchestra with smaller and more specialized forces of instruments and electronic sound for Crescent City, with musicians who move among stylistic genres, just as the vocalists do; the opera's theatrical action is refracted through a prism of video work, lighting effects, performance freedoms and simultaneities. For its world premiere production in Los Angeles in 2012, Crescent City engaged six visual artists to participate in the collaborative process by designing and building set pieces as various locales in the opera; as an improviser LeBaron employs a wide array of extended techniques for the harp, including preparing the harp and bowing the strings, as well as a variety of electronic enhancements. Her development of a new performance vocabulary for the instrument began in the early 1970s, when she played in the Alabama improvising ensemble Trans Museq along with Davey Williams and LaDonna Smith.
Her career as an improviser has included performance collaborations with such creative composer/musicians as Anthony Braxton, Muhal Richard Abrams, Evan Parker, George Lewis, Derek Bailey, Leroy Jenkins, Lionel Hampton, and
The Grave Creek Mound in the Ohio River Valley in West Virginia is one of the largest conical-type burial mounds in the United States, now standing 62 feet high and 240 feet in diameter. The builders of the site, members of the Adena culture, moved more than 60,000 tons of dirt to create it about 250–150 BC. Present-day Moundsville has developed around it near the banks of the Ohio River; the first recorded excavation of the mound took place in 1838, was conducted by local amateurs Abelard Tomlinson and Thomas Biggs. The largest surviving mound among those built by the Adena, this was designated a National Historic Landmark in the mid-20th century. In 1978 the state opened the Delf Norona Museum at the site, it interprets the ancient Adena Culture. In 2010, under an agreement with the state, the US Army Corps of Engineers gave nearly 450,000 artifacts to the museum for archival storage; these were recovered in archeological excavations at the site of the Marmet Lock, represent 10,000 years of indigenous habitation in the area.
Grave Creek Mound is the largest conical type of any of the mound builder structures. Construction of the earthwork mound took place in successive stages from about 250–150 B. C. as indicated by the multiple burials at different levels within the structures. In 1838, road engineers measured its height at its base as 295 feet. A moat of about 40 feet in width and five feet in depth, with one causeway across it, encircled the mound for defensive purposes. Inside the mound, archaeological researchers have discovered Adena ornaments. In addition, they discovered a small sandstone tablet, the Grave Creek Stone, which modern scholars believe to be a hoax. Grave Creek mound was created during the Woodland time period; the people who lived in West Virginia during this time are among those groups classified as Mound Builders. This particular tumulus or burial mound was built in successive stages over a period of a hundred years; the Grave Creek Mound was believed first seen by a European American in 1770, when Joseph Tomlinson and his brother built a log cabin at Grave Creek Flats.
Joseph discovered the mound accidentally while hunting. Two years he built a cabin for his family 300 feet from the mound; this was 33 years. It was visited in 1775 by the young Englishman Nicholas Cresswell on his canoe expedition down the Ohio River, he describes its history and surrounding structures in his journal. On March 19, 1838, the landowner Jesse Tomlinson's nephew, Abelard Tomlinson, Abelard's brother-in-law Thomas Briggs began excavation on the first of three shafts into Grave Creek Mound; the first shaft was begun 4 feet feet up on the north face of the mound so that the excavated soil could be deposited in the ditch rather than be carted away. At 111 feet into the mound a burial chamber was discovered, dug into the original ground surface; the burial chamber was reported to have been a cuboid measuring 8 feet by 12 feet aligned north-south and dug 7–8 ft into the natural ground surface. While contemporary reports indicate that the lower burial was central to the mound, given the 295 feet diameter of the mound recorded in 1838, the 111 feet tunnel, this may have been a simplification, with the burial "central", rather than in the exact center.
The lower tomb contained one on the eastern side and the other on the western. The western was found with 650 beads of either shell or ivory depending on the historical accounting; the second two tunnels were dug following the discovery of the lower vault, one vertical from the top into the mound and the second halfway up on the northern face. These two shafts intersected at a second burial chamber, containing a single burial, discovered June 9, 1838. Among the artifacts reported were 1700 ivory beads, 500 sea shells, five copper bracelets; the tunnels they made destroyed valuable evidence that could have been used by researchers to compare with data from other mounds. Once the mound was excavated, Tomlinson expanded the lower burial chamber and opened a museum inside the mound, charging an admission fee for visitors though it was abandoned in 1847. In 1843, Henry Rowe Schoolcraft, an early ethnologist of Native Americans, mapped the area, he was appointed as the US Indian Agent along the northern frontier and based in Michigan.
In 1908 the mound was saved from demolition for development by local women of the Wheeling Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution, who raised funds to acquire an option on the property. In 1909 the state of West Virginia purchased the site for preservation, it was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1964. Further archaeological investigation led to the discovery that the appearance of the earth of the mound is quite different underneath the surface compared to the land around it. Although it was built of the same dirt, the remains of dead bodies that were burned changed the color of some dirt to blue; the Delf Norona Museum displays many artifacts found at the site. It is operated by the West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Opened in 1978, the museum has exhibits that interpret the culture of the Adena people and theories about how the mound was constructed. In the 21st century, the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers transferred nearly 450,000 artifacts t