The Savinja is a river in northeast Slovenia which flows in the Upper and Lower Savinja Valley and through the cities of Celje and Laško. The Savinja is the main river of the Savinja Alps, it flows into the Sava River at the town of Zidani Most. It has flooded, such as in the 1960s, 1990, 1995; the Savinja has a length of 101.75 kilometres and a catchment area of 1,847.7 km2. The stream is created by Rinka Falls, which flows along a regulated riverbed to the lower end of the Logar Valley, where it flows into Jezera Creek, from which point it becomes the Savinja River; this spring has been proclaimed a natural heritage object, Rinka Falls is one of the most beautiful and best-known waterfalls in Slovenia. It is the highest waterfall of the 20 waterfalls in the Logar Valley and is visited throughout the year. In the winter it is popular for ice-climbers; the best view of the waterfall is from Kamnik Saddle. The main tributaries of the Savinja are the Jušef and the Klobaša at Solčava, the Lučnica at Luče, the Ljubnica at Ljubno, the Dreta at Nazarje, the Paka at Šmartno ob Paki, the Ložnica and Voglajna with the Hudinja at Celje.
The quality of water is first-class to Radmirje it falls to second class and after to third. The name Savinja is derived from *Savьn′a, in turn derived from the hydronym Sava, of which it is a tributary; the German name Sann was attested later. In the local dialect, the river is known as Sáu̯ńe; the form *Savьn′a should have yielded Savnja as the current Slovene name, but it was reshaped on the model of Hudinja. The name is believed to not be of Slavic origin, but of older pre-Slavic origin; the German name Sann was used in some older English sources. Some other names for the river include: fluvius Sana Souina inter fluenta Souuuę et Sounę Seuna Souna inter fluenta Souuuae et Sounae Sounital The Roman goddess Adsaluta, whose altars were found in the area of the settlement of Sava, was long identified with the Savinja. Modern scholars have rejected the connection. Raftsmen from Ljubno traveled along the river until the 1950s. In their memory, a bronze sculpture of a raftsman, created in 1961 by Boris Kalin, stands on the river's left bank in Celje.
Condition of Savinja at several locations: Nazarje - graphs, in the following order, of water level and flow data for the past 30 days Letuš - graphs, in the following order, of water level and temperature data for the past 30 days Medlog - graphs, in the following order, of water level and temperature data for the past 30 days Laško - graphs, in the following order, of water level and temperature data for the past 30 days Veliko Širje - graphs, in the following order, of water level and temperature data for the past 30 days
Ottokar II of Bohemia
Ottokar II, the Iron and Golden King, was a member of the Přemyslid dynasty who reigned as King of Bohemia from 1253 until his death in 1278. He held the titles of Margrave of Moravia from 1247, Duke of Austria from 1251, Duke of Styria from 1260, as well as Duke of Carinthia and Margrave of Carniola from 1269. With Ottokar's rule, the Přemyslids reached the peak of their power in the Holy Roman Empire, his expectations of the imperial crown, were never fulfilled. Ottokar was the second son of King Wenceslaus I of Bohemia. Through his mother, daughter of Philip of Swabia, he was related to the Holy Roman Emperors of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, which became extinct in the male line upon the execution of King Conradin of Sicily in 1268. Named after his grandfather King Přemysl Ottokar I, he was educated for the role of an ecclesiastical administrator, while his elder brother Vladislaus was designated heir of the Bohemian kingdom, he was educated by the Bohemian chancellor Philip of Spanheim, who would become a rival for the rule of the Duchy of Carinthia.
When his brother Vladislaus died in 1247, Ottokar became the heir to the Bohemian throne. According to popular oral tradition, he was profoundly shocked by his brother's death and did not involve himself in politics, becoming focused on hunting and drinking, his father appointed the new heir as Margrave of Moravia, Ottokar took up residence in Brno, where he was occupied with the reconstruction of the Moravian lands devastated by Mongol raids of 1242. In 1248 some discontented nobles enticed him into leading a rebellion against his father King Wenceslaus. During this rebellion he was elected "the younger King" on 31 July 1248 and temporarily expelled his father from Prague Castle. Přemysl Ottokar II held the title of King of Bohemia until November 1249. However, Pope Innocent IV excommunicated Ottokar, whereafter Wenceslaus managed to defeat the rebels and imprisoned his son at Přimda Castle. Father and son reconciled to assist the king's aim of acquiring the neighbouring Duchy of Austria, where the last Babenberg duke, Frederick II had been killed in the 1246 Battle of the Leitha River.
King Wenceslaus had attempted to acquire Austria by marrying his heir, Vladislaus, to the last duke's niece Gertrude of Babenberg. That marriage came to an end after half a year with Vladislaus's death in January 1247, in 1248 Gertrude married the Zähringen margrave Herman VI of Baden. Herman, rejected by the Austrian nobility, could not establish his rule. Wenceslaus used this as pretext to invade Austria when Herman died in 1250 — according to some sources, the estates called upon him to restore order. Wenceslaus released Přemysl Ottokar soon and in 1251 again made him Margrave of Moravia and installed him, with the approval of the Austrian nobles, as governor of Austria; the same year Ottokar entered Austria. To legitimize his position, Přemysl Ottokar married the late Duke Frederick II's sister Margaret of Babenberg, his senior by 30 years and the widow of the Hohenstaufen king Henry of Germany, their marriage took place on 11 February 1252 at Hainburg. In 1253 King Wenceslaus died and Přemysl Ottokar succeeded his father as King of Bohemia.
After the death of the German King Konrad IV in 1254 while his son Conradin was still a minor, Ottokar hoped to obtain the Imperial dignity - as King of the Romans - for himself. However, his election bid was unsuccessful and Count William II of Holland, the German anti-king since 1247, was recognised. Feeling threatened by Ottokar's growing regional power beyond the Leitha River, his cousin King Béla IV of Hungary challenged the young king. Béla formed a loose alliance with the Wittelsbach duke Otto II of Bavaria and tried to install his own son Stephen as Duke of Styria, which since 1192 had been ruled in personal union with Austria under the terms of the Georgenberg Pact of 1186. Papal mediation settled the conflict: the parties agreed that Ottokar would yield large parts of Styria to Béla in exchange for recognition of his right to the remainder of Austria. Subsequently King Ottokar II led the two crusade expeditions against the pagan Old Prussians. Königsberg, founded in 1255 by the Teutonic Order, was named in his honour and became the capital of the Duchy of Prussia.
After a few years of peace the conflict with Hungary resumed: Ottokar defeated the Hungarians in July 1260 at the Battle of Kressenbrunn, ending years of disputes over Styria with Béla IV. Béla now ceded Styria back to Ottokar, his claim to those territories was formally recognized by Richard of Cornwall king of Germany and nominal ruler of all the German lands; this peace agreement was sealed by a royal marriage. Ottokar ended his marriage to Margaret and married Béla's young granddaughter Kunigunda of Halych, who became the mother of his children; the youngest of them became his only legitimate son, Wenceslaus II. During the Imperial Imperial interregnum of 1250 to 1273, Ottokar could increase his personal influence while Richard of Cornwall and Alfonso of Castile jostled to attain the Imperial dignity. In 1266 he occupied the Egerland in north-west Bohemia, in 1268 he signed an inheritance treaty with the Sponheim duke Ulrich III of Carinthia, succeeding him in Carinthia and the Windic March the next year.
In 1272 he acquired Friuli. His rule was once again contested by the Hungarians on the field of battle. After another victory, Ottokar became the most powerful king within the Empire. After Richard of Cornwall died in April 1272 and Pope Gregory X rejected the claims raised by Alfonso of Ca
The Baltic Sea is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark, Finland, Lithuania, northeast Germany, Poland and the North and Central European Plain. The sea stretches from 53 ° N from 10 ° E to 30 ° E longitude. A mediterranean sea of the Atlantic, with limited water exchange between the two bodies, the Baltic Sea drains through the Danish islands into the Kattegat by way of the straits of Øresund, the Great Belt, the Little Belt, it includes the Gulf of Bothnia, the Bay of Bothnia, the Gulf of Finland, the Gulf of Riga, the Bay of Gdańsk. The Baltic Proper is bordered on its northern edge, at the latitude 60°N, by the Åland islands and the Gulf of Bothnia, on its northeastern edge by the Gulf of Finland, on its eastern edge by the Gulf of Riga, in the west by the Swedish part of the southern Scandinavian Peninsula; the Baltic Sea is connected by artificial waterways to the White Sea via the White Sea Canal and to the German Bight of the North Sea via the Kiel Canal. Administration The Helsinki Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area includes the Baltic Sea and the Kattegat, without calling Kattegat a part of the Baltic Sea, "For the purposes of this Convention the'Baltic Sea Area' shall be the Baltic Sea and the Entrance to the Baltic Sea, bounded by the parallel of the Skaw in the Skagerrak at 57°44.43'N."Traffic history Historically, the Kingdom of Denmark collected Sound Dues from ships at the border between the ocean and the land-locked Baltic Sea, in tandem: in the Øresund at Kronborg castle near Helsingør.
The narrowest part of Little Belt is the "Middelfart Sund" near Middelfart. Oceanography Geographers agree that the preferred physical border of the Baltic is a line drawn through the southern Danish islands, Drogden-Sill and Langeland; the Drogden Sill is situated north of Køge Bugt and connects Dragør in the south of Copenhagen to Malmö. By this definition, the Danish Straits are part of the entrance, but the Bay of Mecklenburg and the Bay of Kiel are parts of the Baltic Sea. Another usual border is the line between Falsterbo and Stevns Klint, Denmark, as this is the southern border of Øresund. It's the border between the shallow southern Øresund and notably deeper water. Hydrography and biology Drogden Sill sets a limit to Øresund and Darss Sill, a limit to the Belt Sea; the shallow sills are obstacles to the flow of heavy salt water from the Kattegat into the basins around Bornholm and Gotland. The Kattegat and the southwestern Baltic Sea have a rich biology; the remainder of the Sea is poor in oxygen and in species.
Thus, the more of the entrance, included in its definition, the healthier the Baltic appears. Tacitus called it Mare Suebicum after the Germanic people of the Suebi, Ptolemy Sarmatian Ocean after the Sarmatians, but the first to name it the Baltic Sea was the eleventh-century German chronicler Adam of Bremen; the origin of the latter name is speculative and it was adopted into Slavic and Finnic languages spoken around the sea likely due to the role of Medieval Latin in cartography. It might be connected to the Germanic word belt, a name used for two of the Danish straits, the Belts, while others claim it to be directly derived from the source of the Germanic word, Latin balteus "belt". Adam of Bremen himself compared the sea with a belt, stating that it is so named because it stretches through the land as a belt, he might have been influenced by the name of a legendary island mentioned in the Natural History of Pliny the Elder. Pliny mentions an island named Baltia with reference to accounts of Xenophon.
It is possible. Baltia might be derived from belt and mean "near belt of sea, strait." Meanwhile, others have suggested that the name of the island originates from the Proto-Indo-European root *bhel meaning "white, fair". This root and its basic meaning were retained in both Latvian. On this basis, a related hypothesis holds that the name originated from this Indo-European root via a Baltic language such as Lithuanian. Another explanation is that, while derived from the aforementioned root, the name of the sea is related to names for various forms of water and related substances in several European languages, that might have been associated with colors found in swamps, yet another explanation is that the name meant "enclosed sea, bay" as opposed to open sea. Some Swedish historians believe. In the Middle Ages the sea was known by a variety of names; the name Baltic Sea became dominant only after 1600. Usage of Baltic and similar terms to denote the region east of the sea started only in 19th century.
The Baltic Sea was known in ancient Latin language sources as Mare Suebicum or Mare Germanicum. Older native names in languages that used to be spoken on the shores of the sea or near it indicate the geographical location of the sea, or its size in relation to smaller gulfs, or tribes associated with it. In modern lang
Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Henry IV became King of the Germans in 1056. From 1084 until his forced abdication in 1105, he was referred to as the King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperor, he was the third emperor of the Salian dynasty and one of the most powerful and important figures of the 11th century. His reign was marked by the Investiture Controversy with the Papacy, he was excommunicated five times by three different popes. Civil wars over his throne took place in both Germany, he died soon after defeating his son's army near Visé, in Lorraine, France. In 1056 at Aachen, Henry IV was enthroned as the King of the Germans by Pope Victor II, while his mother, Agnes of Poitou, became regent. In 1062 the young king was kidnapped as a result of the Coup of Kaiserswerth, a conspiracy of German nobles led by Anno II, Archbishop of Cologne. Henry, at Kaiserwerth, was persuaded to board a boat on the Rhine. Agnes retired to a convent, the government was placed in the hands of Anno, his first action was to back Pope Alexander II against the antipope Honorius II, whom Agnes had recognized but subsequently left without support.
Anno's rule proved unpopular. The education and training of Henry were supervised by Anno, called his magister, while Adalbert of Hamburg, archbishop of Bremen, was styled Henry's patronus. Henry's education seems to have been neglected, his willful and headstrong nature developed under the conditions of these early years; the malleable Adalbert of Hamburg soon became the confidante of the ruthless Henry. During an absence of Anno from Germany, Henry managed to obtain control of his civil duties, leaving Anno with only an ecclesiastical role. Henry's entire reign was marked by apparent efforts to consolidate Imperial power. In reality, however, he worked to maintain the loyalty of the nobility and the support of the pope. In 1066, he expelled from the Crown Council Adalbert of Hamburg, who had profited from his position for personal enrichment. Henry adopted urgent military measures against the Slav pagans, who had invaded Germany and besieged Hamburg. In June 1066 Henry married Bertha of Savoy/Turin, daughter of Otto, Count of Savoy, to whom he had been betrothed in 1055.
In the same year, at the request of the Pope, he assembled an army to fight the Italo-Normans of southern Italy. Henry's troops had reached Augsburg when he received news that Godfrey of Tuscany, husband of the powerful Matilda of Canossa, marchioness of Tuscany, had attacked the Normans. Therefore, the expedition was halted. In 1068, driven by his impetuous character and his infidelities, Henry attempted to divorce Bertha, his peroration at a council in Mainz was rejected, however, by the Papal legate Pier Damiani, or Peter Damian, who hinted that any further insistence towards divorce would lead the new pope, Alexander II, to deny his coronation. Henry obeyed and his wife returned to Court. Henry believed that the Papal opposition was less about his marriage than about overthrowing lay power within the Empire, in favour of an ecclesiastical hierarchy. In the late 1060s, Henry demonstrated his determination to reduce any opposition and to enlarge the empire's boundaries, he led the margrave of a district east of Saxony.
Much more serious was Henry's struggle with Otto of duke of Bavaria. This prince, who occupied an influential position in Germany and was one of the protagonists of Henry's early kidnapping, was accused in 1070 by a certain Egino of being privy to a plot to murder the king, it was decided that a trial by combat should take place at Goslar, but when Otto's demand for safe conduct to and from the place of meeting was refused, he declined to appear. He was declared deposed in Bavaria, his Saxon estates were plundered. However, he obtained sufficient support to carry on a struggle with the king in Saxony and Thuringia until 1071, when he submitted at Halberstadt. Henry aroused the hostility of the Thuringians by supporting Siegfried, archbishop of Mainz, in his efforts to exact tithes from them. More formidable still was the enmity of the Saxons, who had several causes of complaint against the king—he was the son of one enemy, Henry III, the friend of another, Adalbert of Hamburg-Bremen; the momentum for a reform of the church had its clear beginning during the reign of Henry's father, in the short but effective pontificate of Leo IX, whom Henry III had nominated.
Since that time, the reforming initiative had been carried on by men like Cardinal Bishop Humbert of Moyenmoutier and St. Peter Damian. After the death of Cardinal Humbert, who had called for a return to the old canonical principles of free election of the papacy and the emancipation of the Church from the control of the secular power, the leadership of the reform movement passed to younger men, of whom the Tuscan monk Hildebrand, a follower of Humbert, stood foremost. Hildebrand ascended the papacy in 1073 as Gregory VII. While Henry adhered to Papal decrees in religious matters to secure the Church's support for his expeditions in Saxony and Thuringia, Gregory saw the opportunity to press the Church's agenda; the high tensions between the Empire and the Church culminated in the ecclesiastical councils of 1074-75, many of the measures passed attempted to undo substantial portions of Henry III's policies. Among other measures, the councils denied secular rulers the right to place members of the clergy in any ecclesiastical office.
Prince-Archbishopric of Salzburg
The Prince-Archbishopric of Salzburg was an ecclesiastical principality and state of the Holy Roman Empire. It comprised the secular territory ruled by the archbishops of Salzburg, as distinguished from the much larger Catholic diocese founded in 739 by Saint Boniface in the German stem duchy of Bavaria; the capital of the archbishopric was the former Roman city of Iuvavum. From the late 13th century onwards, the archbishops reached the status of Imperial immediacy and independence from the Bavarian dukes. Salzburg remained an ecclesiastical principality until its secularisation to the short-lived Electorate of Salzburg in 1803. Members of the Bavarian Circle from 1500, the prince-archbishops bore the title of Primas Germaniae, though they never obtained electoral dignity; the last prince-archbishop exercising secular authority was Count Hieronymus von Colloredo, an early patron of Salzburg native Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The prince-archbishopric's territory was congruent with the present-day Austrian state of Salzburg.
It stretched along the Salzach river from the High Tauern range—Mt. Großvenediger at 3,666 m —at the main chain of the Alps in the south down to the Alpine foothills in the north. Here it comprised the present-day Rupertiwinkel on the western shore of the Salzach, which today is part of Bavaria; the former archepiscopal lands are traditionally subdivided into five historic parts: Flachgau with the Salzburg capital and Tennengau around Hallein are both located in the broad Salzach valley at the rim of the Northern Limestone Alps. In the north and east, the prince-archbishopric bordered on the Duchy of Austria, a former Bavarian margraviate, which had become independent in 1156 and, raised to an archduchy in 1457, developed as the nucleus of the Habsburg Monarchy; the Salzkammergut border region, today a UNESCO World Heritage Site, as an important salt trade region was seized by the mighty House of Habsburg and incorporated into the Upper Austrian lands. In the southeast, Salzburg adjoined the Duchy of Styria ruled by the Habsburg dukes in personal union since 1192.
By 1335, the Austrian regents had acquired the old Duchy of Carinthia in the south, the Styrian and Carinthian territories were incorporated into Inner Austria in 1379. The Habsburg encirclement was nearly completed, when in 1363 the archdukes attained the County of Tyrol in the west. Only in the northwest did Salzburg bordered on the Duchy of Bavaria, the tiny Berchtesgaden Provostry, able to retain its independence until the Mediatisation in 1803; the Vita Sancti Severini biography by the Early Christian chronicler Eugippius reported that during the Decline of the Roman Empire about 450 AD the local capital Iuvavum in the Noricum ripense province was home to two churches and a monastery. Little is known of the early bishopric during the Migration Period, the legendary Saint Maximus of Salzburg is the only abbot-bishop known by name. A disciple of Saint Severinus, he was martyred in the retreat from Noricum, after the Germanic Western Roman officer Odoacer had deposed the last Emperor Romulus Augustulus and declared himself King of Italy in 476.
In his conflict with the Rugii tribes, Odoacer had his brother Onoulphus evacuate the Noricum ripense province in 487/88, whereby Iuvavum was abandoned and with it the bishopric. Saint Severinus had died in 482 in the castrum of Favianis, six years before the departure of the Roman legions from the region. From the 6th century onwards, the northern areas of the archbishopric were resettled by Germanic Bavarii tribes, who established themselves among the remaining Romance population, while Slavic tribes moved into the southern Pongau and Lungau parts. About 696 Saint Rupert Bishop of Worms in Frankish Austrasia and called the apostle of Bavaria and Carinthia, came to the region from the Bavarian town Regensburg and laid the foundations for the re-establishment of the Salzburg diocese. After erecting a church at nearby Seekirchen he discovered the ruins of Iuvavum overgrown with brambles and remnants of the Romance population, who had maintained Christian traditions; the former theory that he arrived in c. 543 during the time of the unsourced early Bavarian dukes appears less than that he worked during the reign of the Agilolfing duke Theodo II, when the Bavarian stem duchy came under Frankish supremacy.
In either case, it was not until after 700 that Christian civilisation re-emerged in the region. Rupert established a monastery dedicated to Saint Peter at the site of a Late Antique church in former Iuvavum. St Peter's Abbey received large estates in the Flachgau and Tennengau regions from the hands of Duke Theodon II, including several brine wells and salt evaporation ponds which earned Iuvavum its German name Salzburg. In 711 Rupert founded the Cella Maximiliana in the Pongau region, the town of Bischofshofen, his niece Erentrude established a Bendictine nunnery at nearby Nonnberg about 713. In 739 Archbishop Boniface, with the blessing of Pope Gregory III, completed the work of Saint Rupert and raised Salzburg to a bishopric, placed under the primatial see of the Archdiocese of Mainz. St. Vergilius, abbot of St. Peter's since about 749, had quarrelled with St. Boniface over the existence of antipodes, he became bishop about 767, had
Carantania known as Carentania, was a Slavic principality that emerged in the second half of the 7th century, in the territory of present-day southern Austria and north-eastern Slovenia. It was the predecessor of the March of Carinthia, created within the Carolingian Empire in 889; the name Carantania is of pre-Slavic origin. Paul the Deacon mentions Slavs in Carnuntum, erroneously called Carantanum. Another possible etymology is that it may have been formed from a toponymic base carant- which derives from pre-Indo-European root *karra meaning'rock', or that it is of Celtic origin and derived from *karantos meaning'friend, ally', its Slovene name *korǫtanъ was adopted from the Latin *carantanum. The toponym Carinthia is claimed to be etymologically related, deriving from pre-Slavic *carantia; the name, like most toponyms beginning with *Kar- in this area of Europe, are in turn most linked to the pre-Roman tribe of the Carni that once populated the eastern Alps. Carantania's capital was most Karnburg in the Zollfeld Field, north of modern-day town of Klagenfurt.
The principality was centered in the area of modern Carinthia, included territories of modern Styria, most of today's East Tyrol and of the Puster Valley, the Lungau and Ennspongau regions of Salzburg, parts of southern Upper Austria and Lower Austria. It most also included the territory of the modern Slovenian province of Carinthia; the few existing historical sources distinguish between two separate Slavic principalities in the Eastern Alpine area: Carantania and Carniola. The latter, which appears in historical records dating from the late 8th century, was situated in the central part of modern Slovenia, it was the predecessor of the Duchy of Carniola. The borders of the Carantania state, under the feudal overlordship of the Carolingians, its successor, as well as of the Duchy of Carinthia, extended beyond historical Carantania. In the 4th century Chur became the seat of the first Christian bishopric north to the Alps. Despite a legend assigning its foundation to an alleged Briton king, St. Lucius, the first known bishop is one Asinio in AD 451.
In the 6th century, the Alpine Slavs, who are ancestors of present-day Slovenes, settled the eastern areas of the Friulia region. They settled in the easternmost mountainous areas of Friuli, known as the Friulian Slavia, as well as the Karst Plateau and the area north and south from Gorizia. After the fall of the Ostrogothic Kingdom in 553, the Germanic tribe of the Lombards invaded Italy via Friuli and founded the Lombard Kingdom of Italy, which no longer included all of Tyrol, only its southern part; the northern part of Tyrol came under the influence of the Bavarii, while the west was part of Alamannia. In 568, the Langobards receded into northern Italy. Subsequently, in the last decades of the 6th century, Slavs settled in the depopulated territory with the help of their Avar overlords. In 588 they reached the area of the Upper Sava River and in 591 they arrived in the Upper Drava region, where they soon fought the Bavarians under Duke Tassilo I. In 592 the Bavarians won, but three years in 595 the Slavic-Avar army gained victory and thus consolidated the boundary between the Frankish and the Avar territories.
By that time, today's East Tyrol and Carinthia came to be referred to in historical sources as Provincia Sclaborum. In the 6th century, the Alpine Slavs, who are reckoned to be among the ancestors of present-day Slovenes, settled the eastern areas of the Friuli region, they settled in the easternmost mountainous areas of Friuli, known as the Friulian Slavia, as well as the Kras Plateau and the area north and south from Gorizia. In the 6th century Chur was conquered by the Franks. Slavic settlement in the Eastern Alps region is proven by the collapse of local dioceses in the late 6th century, a change in population and material culture, most in the establishment of a Slavic language group in the area; the territory settled by Slavs, was inhabited by the remains of the indigenous Romanized population, which preserved Christianity. Slavs in both the Eastern Alps and the Pannonian region were subject to Avar rulers. After Avar rule weakened around 610, a independent March of the Slavs, governed by a duke, emerged in southern Carinthia in the early 7th century.
Historical sources mention Valuk as the duke of Slavs. In 623 Slavs of the Eastern Alps joined Samo's Tribal Union, a Slavic tribal alliance governed by the Frankish merchant Samo; the year 626 brought an end to Avar dominance over Slavs, as the Avars were defeated at Constantinople. In 658 Samo died and his Tribal Union disintegrated. A smaller part of the original March of the Slavs, centred north of modern Klagenfurt, preserved independence and came to be known as Carantania; the name Carantania itself begins to appear in historical sources soon after 660. The first clear indication of a specific ethnic identity and political organisation may be recognised in the geographical term Carantanum which Paul the Deacon used in reference to the year 664, in connection to which he mentioned a specific Slavic people living there; when about 740 Prince Boruth asked the Bavarian duke Odilo for help against the pressing danger posed by Avar tribes from the east, Carantania lost its independence. Boruth's successors had to accept the overlordship of Bavaria and the semi
Višnja Gora is a town in the Municipality of Ivančna Gorica in central Slovenia. It is one of the best-preserved medieval towns in Slovenia; the area is part of the historical region of Lower Carniola. The municipality is now included in the Central Slovenia Statistical Region, it includes the hamlets of Žabjek, Na Štacjonu, Grintavec, as well as the former hamlet of Suhi Malen. The town is located in the Višnjica Valley 20 km southeast of Ljubljana just south of the A2 Slovenian motorway. Nearby is the Kosca Valley with the highest waterfall on a travertine foundation in Slovenia. Regular long-distance bus and rail-lines connect Višnja Gora to Ivančna Ljubljana. Višnja Gora was granted town rights in 1478. In the same period, a coat of arms showing a masonry wall with doors and two roofed towers was adopted; the snail representing a local legend was added later. The citizens of the town were given a golden snail shell for nursing the Venetian doge's son wounded in the Battle of Sisak by his relatives.
The golden shell has since been lost. During the Second World War, Višnja Gora was bombarded by German forces on 22 September 1943. At the end of October 1943, Partisan forces burned Turn Castle, the courthouse, the school in the town; the old centre is built on a hill under the ruins of Višnja Gora Castle known as Old Castle, once home of the Višnja Gora knights. A second castle, Turn Castle, stood west of the town center, it was later known as the Codelli Manor and was burned by the Partisans in October 1943. The 12 km Jurčič Trail is named after Josip Jurčič, author of the first Slovene novel, Deseti brat, who attended primary school in Višnja Gora. Part of the trail has been turned into a forest trail known as Po poteh višnjanskega polža. Notable people that were born or lived in Višnja Gora include: Josip Jurčič, author Ive Krevs, Yugoslav Olympic athlete Višnja Gora at Geopedia.si Višnja Gora Višnja Gora Višnja Gora