In ancient Greek religion and mythology, the Muses are the inspirational goddesses of literature and the arts. They are considered the source of the knowledge embodied in the poetry, lyric songs, myths that were related orally for centuries in these ancient cultures. In current English usage, "muse" can refer in general to a person who inspires an artist, musician, or writer; the word "Muses" came from the o-grade of the Proto-Indo-European root *men- or from root *men- since all the most important cult-centres of the Muses were on mountains or hills. R. S. P. Beekes suggests a Pre-Greek origin; the earliest known records of the Nine Muses are from the homeland of Hesiod. Some ancient authorities thought. There, a tradition persisted. In the first century BC, Diodorus Siculus cited Homer and Hesiod to the contrary, observing: Writers disagree concerning the number of the Muses. Diodorus states that Osiris first recruited the nine Muses, along with the satyrs, while passing through Ethiopia, before embarking on a tour of all Asia and Europe, teaching the arts of cultivation wherever he went.
According to Hesiod's account followed by the writers of antiquity, the Nine Muses were the nine daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne, figuring as personifications of knowledge and the arts literature and music. The Roman scholar Varro relates that there are only three Muses: one born from the movement of water, another who makes sound by striking the air, a third, embodied only in the human voice, they were called Melete or "Practice", Mneme or "Memory" and Aoide or "Song". Three ancient Muses were reported in Plutarch's Quaestiones Convivales. However, the classical understanding of the Muses tripled their triad and established a set of nine goddesses, who embody the arts and inspire creation with their graces through remembered and improvised song and mime, traditional music, dance, it was not until Hellenistic times that the following systematic set of functions was assigned to them, then there was some variation in both their names and their attributes: Calliope, Euterpe, Melpomene, Erato and Urania.
According to Pausanias in the second century AD, there were three Muses, worshipped on Mount Helicon in Boeotia: Aoide and Mneme. Together, these three form the complete picture of the preconditions of poetic art in cult practice. In Delphi three Muses were worshiped as well, but with other names: Nete and Hypate, which are assigned as the names of the three chords of the ancient musical instrument, the lyre. Alternatively they were called Cephisso and Borysthenis, names which characterize them as daughters of Apollo. In a tradition, a set of four Muses were recognized: Thelxinoë, Archē, Melete, said to be daughters of Zeus and Plusia or of Ouranos. One of the people associated with the Muses was Pierus. By some he was called the father of a total of seven Muses, called Neilṓ, Tritṓnē, Asōpṓ, Heptápora, Achelōís, Tipoplṓ, Rhodía. According to Hesiod's Theogony, they were daughters of Zeus, king of the gods, Mnemosyne, Titan goddess of memory. For Alcman and Mimnermus, they were more primordial, springing from the early deities Ouranos and Gaia.
Gaia is Mother Earth, an early mother goddess, worshipped at Delphi from prehistoric times, long before the site was rededicated to Apollo indicating a transfer to association with him after that time. Sometimes the Muses are referred to as water nymphs, associated with the springs of Helicon and with Pieris, it was said that the winged horse Pegasus touched his hooves to the ground on Helicon, causing four sacred springs to burst forth, from which the Muses were born. Athena tamed the horse and presented him to the Muses. Classical writers set Apollo as Apollon Mousagetēs. In one myth, the Muses judged a contest between Marsyas, they gathered the pieces of the dead body of Orpheus, son of Calliope, buried them in Leivithra. In a myth, Thamyris challenged them to a singing contest, they punished Thamyris by blinding him and robbing him of his singing ability. According to a myth from Ovid's Metamorphoses—alluding to the connection of Pieria with the Muses—Pierus, king of Macedon, had nine daughters he named after the nine Muses, believing that their skills were a great match to the Muses.
He thus challenged the Muses to a match, resulting in his daughters, the Pierides, being turned into chattering magpies for their presumption. Pausanias records a tradition of two generations of Muses. Another, rarer genealogy is that they are daughters of Harmonia
A patron saint, patroness saint, patron hallow or heavenly protector is a saint who in Roman Catholicism, Anglicanism or Eastern Orthodoxy, is regarded as the heavenly advocate of a nation, craft, class, family or person. Saints become the patrons of places where they were born or had been active. However, there were cases in Medieval Europe where a city which grew to prominence and obtained for its cathedral the remains or some relics of a famous saint who had lived and was buried elsewhere, thus making him or her the city's patron saint – such a practice conferred considerable prestige on the city concerned. In Latin America and the Philippines and Portuguese explorers named a location for the saint on whose feast or commemoration they first visited the place, with that saint becoming the area's patron. Professions sometimes have a patron saint owing to that individual being involved somewhat with it, although some of the connections were tenuous. Lacking such a saint, an occupation would have a patron whose acts or miracles in some way recall the profession.
For example, when the unknown profession of photography appeared in the 19th century, Saint Veronica was made its patron, owing to how her veil miraculously received the imprint of Christ's face after she wiped off the blood and sweat. The veneration or "commemoration" and recognition of patron saints or saints in general is found in Roman Catholicism, Eastern Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, among some Lutherans and Anglicans. Catholics believe that patron saints, having transcended to the metaphysical, are able to intercede for the needs of their special charges, it is, however discouraged in most Protestant branches such as Calvinism, where the practice is considered a form of idolatry. Although Islam has no codified doctrine of patronage on the part of saints, it has been an important part of both Sunni and Shia Islamic tradition that important classical saints have served as the heavenly advocates for specific Muslim empires, cities and villages. Martin Lings wrote: "There is scarcely a region in the empire of Islam which has not a Sufi for its Patron Saint."
As the veneration accorded saints develops purely organically in Islamic climates, in a manner different to Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christianity, "patron saints" are recognized through popular acclaim rather than through official declaration. Traditionally, it has been understood that the patron saint of a particular place prays for that place's wellbeing and for the health and happiness of all who live therein. However, the Wahhabi and Salafi movements within Sunnism have latterly attacked the veneration of saints, which they claim are a form of idolatry or shirk. More mainstream Sunni clerics have critiqued this argument since Wahhabism first emerged in the 18th century; the critiques notwithstanding, widespread veneration of saints in the Sunni world declined in the 20th century under Wahhabi and Salafi influence. Calendar of saints Guardian angel List of blesseds List of saints Patron saints of ailments and dangers Patron saints of occupations and activities Patron saints of places Patron saints of ethnic groups Saint symbolism Catholic Online: Patron Saints Henry Parkinson.
"Patron Saints". In Herbermann, Charles. Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. "Patron Saint". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920
Pressing in winemaking is the process where the juice is extracted from the grapes with the aid of a wine press, by hand, or by the weight of the grape berries and clusters. Intact grape clusters were trodden by feet but in most wineries today the grapes are sent through a crusher/destemmer, which removes the individual grape berries from the stems and breaks the skins, releasing some juice, prior to being pressed. There are exceptions, such as the case of sparkling wine production in regions such as Champagne where grapes are traditionally whole-cluster pressed with stems included to produce a lighter must, low in phenolics. In white wine production, pressing takes place after crushing or/and before primary fermentation. In red wine production, the grapes are crushed but pressing doesn't take place till after or near the end of fermentation with the time of skin contact between the juice and grapes leaching color and other phenolics from the skin. 60-70% of the available juice within the grape berry, the free-run juice, can be released by the crushing process and doesn't require the use of the press.
The remaining 30-40% that comes from pressing can have higher pH levels, lower titratable acidity higher volatile acidity and higher phenolics than the free-run juice depending on the amount of pressure and tearing of the skins and will produce more astringent, bitter wine. Winemakers keep their free-run juice and pressed wine separate during much of the winemaking process to either bottle separately or blend portions of each to make a more complete, balanced wine. In practice the volume of many wines are made from 85-90% of free-run juice and 10-15% pressed juice; the timing of pressing and the methods used will influence other decisions in the winemaking process. In white wine making, pressing happens after harvest and crushing. Here, the biggest decision will be how much pressure to apply and how much pressed juice the winemakers wants in addition to the free-run juice; some grape varieties, such as Sémillon and Aurore have "liquidy" pulps that releases juice without needing much pressure that could risk tearing the skins.
Other varieties, such as Catawba, have much tougher pulps. In red wine production the timing of when to press is one of the most important decisions in the wine making process since that will be the moment that maceration and phenolic extraction ceases; some winemakers use the decreasing sugar level scale and press once the wine has reached complete dryness. Winemakers will use taste to determine if the wine has extracted enough tannins to produce a balanced wine and may press before complete dryness. Though removing the skins by pressing removes some solids that the wine yeast need to complete fermentation and the benefits of pressing early is balanced by the risk of potential stuck fermentation; the quality of the vintage year and the overall ripeness of the harvested grapes may play a role since in cool years when the grapes are harvested under-ripe, the tannins in the grape are very "green" and harsh. In these years winemakers might press early, a process that the Australians call "short vatting".
In warmer years, the tannins may be full ripe or "sweet" and the winemaker may decide to do a period of extended maceration and not press the grapes for as long as a month after fermentation has completed. The pressed juice will require some additional treatment, which can be done separately to the pressed juice alone or to the entire batch of wine if the pressed juice is blended with the free-run; these treatments may include acid adjustments to lower pH, extended settling periods for clarification and additional racking to remove the extra suspended solids and the use of fining agents to remove extra solids or excess tannins. Grape pulp contains a lot of pectins that create colloid coagulation with these solids that will make the wine difficult to stabilize; some winemakers will use pectolytic enzymes during the maceration process to help break down the cell walls to allow the release of more juice freely. These enzymes are used with white wines to assist in clarification; the type of pressing used and the amount of suspended solids plays a particular role in filtering decisions as a high amount of suspended solids can clog and damage expensive filters.
The earliest wine press was the human foot or hand and squeezing grapes into a bag or container where the contents would ferment. The pressure applied by these manual means was limited and these early wines were pale in color and body. Humans discovered that more juice could be extracted and a better wine could be produced if they developed ways of pressing, it begin with the ancient Egyptians who developed a "sack press" made of cloth, squeezed with the aid of a giant tourniquet. The ancient Greeks and Romans developed large wooden wine presses that utilized large beams and windlasses to exert pressure on the pomace; that style of wine press would evolve into the basket press used in the Middle Ages by wine estates of the nobility and Catholic Church. There are many church records that showed feudal land tenants were willing to pay a portion of their crop to use a landlord's wine press if it was available; this was because added volume of wine that pressing could produce versus manual treading was substantial enough to justify the cost.
Machine pressing became more widespread in the 17th and 18th century as
A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people. A merchant is anyone, involved in business or trade. Merchants have been known for as long as industry and trade have existed. During the 16th-century, in Europe, two different terms for merchants emerged: One term, described local traders such as bakers, etc.. The status of the merchant has varied during different periods of history and among different societies. In ancient Rome and Greece, merchants may have been wealthy, but were not accorded high social status. In contrast, in the Middle East, where markets were an integral part of the city, merchants enjoyed high status. In modern times, the term has been used to refer to a businessperson or someone undertaking activities for the purpose of generating profit, cash flow and revenue utilizing a combination of human, financial and physical capital with a view to fuelling economic development and growth. Merchants have been known for as long as humans have engaged in commerce.
Merchants and merchant networks were known to operate in ancient Babylonia and Assyria, Egypt, India, Persia and Rome. During the European medieval period, a rapid expansion in trade and commerce, led to the rise of a wealthy and powerful merchant class; the European age of discovery opened up new trading routes and gave European consumers access to a much broader range of goods. From the 1600s, goods began to travel much further distances as they found their way into geographically dispersed market places. Following the opening Asia and the discovery of the New World, goods were imported from long distances: calico cloth from India, porcelain and tea from China, spices from India and South-East Asia and tobacco, sugar and coffee from the New World. By the eighteenth century, a new type of manufacturer-merchant was emerging and modern business practices were becoming evident; the English term, "merchant" comes from the Middle English, which itself originated from the Vulgar Latin mercatant or mercatans, formed from present participle of mercatare meaning to trade, to traffic or to deal in.
The term is used to refer to any type of reseller, but can be used with a specific qualifier to suggest a person who deals in a given characteristic such as "speed merchant" to refer to someone who enjoys fast driving. Other known uses of the term include: "dream merchant" used to describe someone who peddles idealistic visionary scenarios and "merchant of war" to describe proponents of war. Elizabeth Honig has argued that concepts relating to the role of a merchant began to change in the mid-16th century; the Dutch term, became rather more fluid during the 16th century when Antwerp was the most global market town in Europe. Two different terms, for a merchant, began to be used, meerseniers referred to local merchants including bakers, sellers of dairy products and stall-holders, while the alternate term, was used to describe those who traded in goods or credit on a large scale; this distinction was necessary to separate the daily trade that the general population understood from the rising ranks of traders who took up their places on a world stage and were seen as quite distant from everyday experience.
Broadly, merchants can be classified into two categories: A wholesale merchant operates in the chain between the producer and retail merchant dealing in large quantities of goods. In other words, a wholesaler does not sell directly to end-users; some wholesale merchants only organize the movement of goods rather than move the goods themselves. A retail merchant or retailer sells merchandise to end-users or consumers in small quantities. A shop-keeper is a retail merchant. However, the term'merchant' is used in a variety of specialised contexts such as in merchant banker, merchant navy or merchant services. Merchants have existed as long as business and commerce have been conducted. A merchant class characterized many pre-modern societies. Open air, public markets, where merchants and traders congregated, were known in ancient Babylonia and Assyria, Egypt, India, Persia and Rome; these markets occupied a place in the town's centre. Surrounding the market, skilled artisans, such as metal-workers and leather workers, occupied premises in alley ways that led to the open market-place.
These artisans may have sold wares directly from their premises, but prepared goods for sale on market days. In ancient Greece markets operated within the agora, in ancient Rome the forum. Rome had two forums; the latter was a vast expanse. The Roman forum was arguably the earliest example of a permanent retail shop-front. In antiquity, exchange involved direct selling through permanent or semi-permanent retail premises such as stall-holders at market places or shop-keepers selling from their own premises or through door-to-door direct sales via merchants or peddlers; the nature of direct selling centred around transactional exchange, where the goods were on open display, allowing buyers to evaluate quality directly through visual inspection. Relationships between merchant and consumer were minimal playing into public concerns about the quality of produce; the Phoenicians were well known amongst contemporaries as "traders in purple" – a
A vineyard is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown for winemaking, but raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice. The science and study of vineyard production is known as viticulture. A vineyard is characterised by its terroir, a French term loosely translating as "a sense of place" that refers to the specific geographical and geological characteristics of grapevine plantations, which may be imparted in the wine; the earliest evidence of wine production dates from between 6000 and 5000 BC. Wine making technology improved with the ancient Greeks but it wasn't until the end of the Roman Empire that cultivation techniques as we know them were common throughout Europe. In medieval Europe the Church was a staunch supporter of wine, necessary for the celebration of the Mass. During the lengthy instability of the Middle Ages, the monasteries maintained and developed viticultural practices, having the resources, security and interest in improving the quality of their vines, they owned and tended the best vineyards in Europe and vinum theologium was considered superior to all others.
European vineyards were planted with a wide variety of the Vitis vinifera grape. However, in the late 19th century, the entire species was nearly destroyed by the plant louse phylloxera accidentally introduced to Europe from North America. Native American grapevines include varieties such as Vitis labrusca, resistant to the bug. Vitis vinifera varieties were saved by being grafted onto the rootstock of Native American varieties, although there is still no remedy for phylloxera, which remains a danger to any vineyard not planted with grafted rootstock; the quest for vineyard efficiency has produced a bewildering range of systems and techniques in recent years. Due to the much more fertile New World growing conditions, attention has focussed on managing the vine's more vigorous growth. Innovation in palissage and pruning and thinning methods have replaced more general, traditional concepts like "yield per unit area" in favor of "maximizing yield of desired quality". Many of these new techniques have since been adopted in place of traditional practice in the more progressive of the so-called "Old World" vineyards.
Other recent practices include spraying water on vines to protect them from sub-zero temperatures, new grafting techniques, soil slotting, mechanical harvesting. Such techniques have made possible the development of wine industries in New World countries such as Canada. Today there is increasing interest in developing organic, ecologically sensitive and sustainable vineyards. Biodynamics has become popular in viticulture; the use of drip irrigation in recent years has expanded vineyards into areas which were unplantable. For well over half a century, Cornell University, the University of California and California State University, among others, have been conducting scientific experiments to improve viticulture and educate practitioners; the research includes investigating pest control. The International Grape Genome Program is a multi-national effort to discover a genetic means to improving quality, increasing yield and providing a "natural" resistance to pests; the implementation of mechanical harvesting is stimulated by changes in labor laws, labor shortages, bureaucratic complications.
It can be expensive to hire labor for short periods of time, which does not square well with the need to reduce production costs and harvest often at night. However small vineyards, incompatible widths between rows of grape vines and steep terrain hinder the employment of machine harvesting more than the resistance of traditional views which reject such harvesting. Numbers of New World vineyard plantings have been increasing as fast as European vineyards are being uprooted. Between 1990 and 2003, the number of U. S. vineyards increased from 1,180 to 3,860 km2 or 292,000 to 954,000 acres, while Australian vineyard numbers more than doubled from 590 to 1,440 km2 and Chilean vineyards grew from 654 to 1,679 km2. The size of individual vineyards in the New World is significant. Europe's 1.6 million vineyards are an average of 0.2 km2 each, while the average Australian vineyard is 0.5 km2, providing considerable economies of scale. Exports to Europe from New World growers increased by 54% in the six years up to 2006.
There have been significant changes in the kinds of grapes that are grown. For example, in Chile, large areas of low-quality grapes have been replaced with such grapes as Chardonnay and Cabernet Sauvignon. In Argentina, due to an economic down-turn, acreage of Malbec was reduced in the 1980s, but in the 1990s, during the quality revolution incited by Malbec Pioneer Nicolás Catena Zapata, growers started planting more Malbec, most notably in higher altitudes where cooler temperatures and more intense sunlight yields more concentrated yet smoother and more complex malbecs. Grape changes are in response to changing consumer demand but sometimes result from vine pull schemes designed to promote vineyard change. Alternatively, the development of "T" budding now permits the grafting of a different grape variety onto existing rootstock in the vineyard, making it possible to switch varieties within a two-year period. Local legislation dictates which varieties are selected, how they are grown, whether vineyards can be irrigated and when grapes can be harvested, all of which in serves to rein
Wine fraud relates to the commercial aspects of wine. The most prevalent type of fraud is one where wines are adulterated with the addition of cheaper products and sometimes with harmful chemicals and sweeteners. Counterfeiting and the relabelling of inferior and cheaper wines to more expensive brands is another common type of wine fraud. A third category of wine fraud relates to the investment wine industry. An example of this is when wines are offered to investors at excessively high prices by a company who go into planned liquidation. In some cases the wine is never bought for the investor. Losses in the UK have been high, Police to act. In the US, investors have been duped by fraudulent investment wine firms. Independent guidelines to potential wine investors are now available. In wine production, as wine is technically defined as fermented grape juice, the term "wine fraud" can be used to describe the adulteration of wine by substances that are not related to grapes. In the retailing of wine, as wine is comparable with any other commodity, the term "wine fraud" can be used to describe the mis-selling of wine in general.
Fraud in wine production refers to the use of additives. This may include colouring agents such as elderberry juice, flavourings such as cinnamon at best, or less desirable additives at worst; some varieties of wine have sought after characteristics. For example some wines have a deep, dark color and flavor notes of spices due to the presence of various phenolic compounds found in the skin of the grapes. Fraudsters will use additives to artificially create these characteristics. Fraud in the selling of wine, has seen much attention focused on label fraud and the investment wine market. Counterfeit labelling of rare and cult wines, unregulated investment wine firms characterise this type of fraud. Wine Spectator noted as much as 5% of the wine sold in secondary markets could be counterfeit and the DTI believes losses by investors to rogue wine investment firms amount to hundreds of millions of pounds. For as long as wine has been made, it has been manipulated and counterfeited. In ancient Rome, Pliny the Elder complained about the abundance of fraudulent Roman wine, so great that the nobility could not be assured that the wine they were pouring on their table was genuine.
For the poor and middle class of Rome, local bar establishments seemed to have an unlimited supply of the prestigious Falernian wine for unusually low prices. During the Middle Ages, wines from questionable origins were passed off as wines from more prestigious regions. In London, local authorities established laws for tavern owners prohibiting French and German wines from being cellared together so as to prevent the potential for mixing the wines or falsely representing them to the consumer. If a producer or merchant was found selling fraudulent or "corrupt wine", they were forced to drink all of it. In medieval Germany, the penalty for selling fraudulent wine ranged from branding to beating to death by hanging. During the Age of Enlightenment, advancements in science ushered in a new occupation of "wine doctors" who could fashion examples of wines from obscure items and chemicals. Writers like Joseph Addison wrote of this "fraternity of chymical operators" who would use apples to make Champagne and sloe to make Bordeaux and sell these wines fraudulently on the market.
Following the Phylloxera epidemic, when true wine was scarce, wine fraud rose. Some merchants would take dried raisins grown from other species of grapevines and make wine that they passed off as being from a more prestigious provenance such as the more well known wines from France or Italy. In the early 19th century, several European writers wrote about the risk and prevalence of wine fraud. In 1820, German chemist Friedrich Accum noted that wine was one of the commodities most at risk for being fraudulently manipulated and misrepresented. In 1833, the British wine writer Cyrus Redding echoed the alarm over the unchecked operations of these "wine doctors"; the concern over wine fraud grew enough that provisions against the adulteration and misrepresentation of wine was included in British Parliament's Adulteration of Food and Drink Act 1860. Several European governments enacted legislation defining what constitutes "wine" so as to distinguish authentic winemaking from the workings of these wine counterfeiters.
The French government first defined wine as the product of fermented grape juice in 1889, followed by the German government in 1892 and the Italian government in 1904. Fraud of a different nature occurred during prohibition in the United States, when wine production was illegal, as grape merchants would sell "bricks" of grape concentrate across the United States along with a packet of dried yeast; the bricks would come with a "warning label" cautioning people not to mix the contents of the brick, yeast and sugar in a pot and seal such pot for seven days, or else "an illegal alcoholic beverage will result". The practice of adding grape spirits to wine was once considered manipulative and fraudulent but today is accepted practice for the production of all fortified wines, like Port. Over the years, winemaking techniques have evolved; the first, primitive "natural wine" or "authentic wine" was most the result of crushed grapes being forgotten while stored in a container. The process of allowing wild yeast found on the surface of the grape conduct fermentation in an uncontrolled environment creates a crude style of wine that may not be palatable to many people
Bottling lines are production lines that fill a product a beverage, into bottles on a large scale. Many prepared foods are bottled, such as sauces, marinades and vinegars. Packaging of bottled beer involves drawing the product from a holding tank and filling it into bottles in a filling machine, which are capped and packed into cases or cartons. Many smaller breweries send their bulk beer to large facilities for contract bottling—though some will bottle by hand. All beer bottles are glass; the first step in bottling beer is depalletising, where the empty bottles are removed from the original pallet packaging delivered from the manufacturer, so that individual bottles may be handled. The bottles may be rinsed with filtered water or air, may have carbon dioxide injected into them in attempt to reduce the level of oxygen within the bottle; the bottle enters a "filler" which fills the bottle with beer and may inject a small amount of inert gas on top of the beer to disperse the oxygen, as oxygen can ruin the quality of the product via oxidation.
The bottles go through a "capper", which applies a bottle cap, sealing the bottle. A few beers are bottled with a cage. Next the bottle enters a labelling machine. To ensure traceability of the product, a lot number the date and time of bottling, may be printed on the bottle; the product is packed into boxes and warehoused, ready for sale. Depending on the magnitude of the bottling endeavor, there are many different types of bottling machinery available. Liquid level machines fill bottles so they appear to be filled to the same line on every bottle, while volumetric filling machines fill each bottle with the same amount of liquid. Overflow pressure fillers are the most popular machines with beverage makers, while gravity filling machines are most cost effective. In terms of automation, inline filling machines are most popular, but rotary machines are much faster albeit much more expensive; the process for bottling wine is similar to that for bottling beer, except wine bottles differ in volumes and shapes.
Traditionally, a cork is used to provide closure to wine bottles. After filling, a bottle travels to a corking machine where a cork is compressed and pushed into the neck of the bottle. Whilst this is happening, the corker vacuums the air out of the bottle to form a negative pressure headspace; this removes any oxygen from the headspace, useful as latent oxygen can ruin the quality of the product via oxidation. A negative pressure headspace will counteract pressure caused by the thermal expansion of the wine, preventing the cork from being forced from the bottle. Champagnes and sparkling wines may further be sealed with a muselet, which ensures the cork will not explode off in transit. Alternative wine closures such as screw caps are available; some bottling lines incorporate a fill height detector which reject under or over-filled bottles, a metal detector. After filling and corking, a plastic or tin capsule is applied to the neck of the bottle in a capsular. Next the bottle enters a labeller.
The product is packed into boxes and warehoused, ready for sale. Beverage can Packaging and labeling Yam, K. L. "Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology", John Wiley & Sons, 2009, ISBN 978-0-470-08704-6