Winnipeg is the capital and largest city of the province of Manitoba in Canada. Centred on the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers, it is near the longitudinal centre of North America 110 kilometres north of the Canada–United States border; the city is named after the nearby Lake Winnipeg. The region was a trading centre for aboriginal peoples long before the arrival of Europeans. French traders built the first fort on the site in 1738. A settlement was founded by the Selkirk settlers of the Red River Colony in 1812, the nucleus of, incorporated as the City of Winnipeg in 1873; as of 2011, Winnipeg is the seventh most populated municipality in Canada. Being far inland, the local climate is seasonal by Canadian standards with average January lows of around −21 °C and average July highs of 26 °C. Known as the "Gateway to the West", Winnipeg is a railway and transportation hub with a diversified economy; this multicultural city hosts numerous annual festivals, including the Festival du Voyageur, the Winnipeg Folk Festival, the Jazz Winnipeg Festival, the Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival, Folklorama.
Winnipeg was the first Canadian host of the Pan American Games. It is home to several professional sports franchises, including the Winnipeg Blue Bombers, the Winnipeg Jets, Manitoba Moose, Valour FC, the Winnipeg Goldeyes. Winnipeg lies at the confluence of the Assiniboine and the Red River of the North, a location now known as "The Forks"; this point was at the crossroads of canoe routes travelled by First Nations before European contact. Winnipeg is named after nearby Lake Winnipeg. Evidence provided by archaeology, rock art and oral history indicates that native peoples used the area in prehistoric times for camping, hunting, tool making, trading and, farther north, for agriculture. Estimates of the date of first settlement in this area range from 11,500 years ago for a site southwest of the present city to 6,000 years ago at The Forks. In 1805, Canadian colonists observed First Nations peoples engaged in farming activity along the Red River; the practice expanded, driven by the demand by traders for provisions.
The rivers provided an extensive transportation network linking northern First Peoples with those to the south along the Missouri and Mississippi rivers. The Ojibwe made some of the first maps on birch bark, which helped fur traders navigate the waterways of the area. Sieur de La Vérendrye built the first fur trading post on the site in 1738, called Fort Rouge. French trading continued at this site for several decades before the arrival of the British Hudson's Bay Company after France ceded the territory following its defeat in the Seven Years' War. Many French men who were trappers married First Nations women, they developed as an ethnicity known as the Métis because of sharing a traditional culture. Lord Selkirk was involved with the first permanent settlement, the purchase of land from the Hudson's Bay Company, a survey of river lots in the early 19th century; the North West Company built Fort Gibraltar in 1809, the Hudson's Bay Company built Fort Douglas in 1812, both in the area of present-day Winnipeg.
The two companies competed fiercely over trade. The Métis and Lord Selkirk's settlers fought at the Battle of Seven Oaks in 1816. In 1821, the Hudson's Bay and North West Companies merged. Fort Gibraltar was renamed Fort Garry in 1822 and became the leading post in the region for the Hudson's Bay Company. A flood destroyed the fort in 1826 and it was not rebuilt until 1835. A rebuilt section of the fort, consisting of the front gate and a section of the wall, is near the modern-day corner of Main Street and Broadway Avenue in downtown Winnipeg. In 1869–70, present-day Winnipeg was the site of the Red River Rebellion, a conflict between the local provisional government of Métis, led by Louis Riel, newcomers from eastern Canada. General Garnet Wolseley was sent to put down the uprising; the Manitoba Act of 1870 made Manitoba the fifth province of the three-year-old Canadian Confederation. Treaty 1, which encompassed the city and much of the surrounding area, was signed on 3 August 1871 by representatives of the Crown and local Indigenous groups, comprising the Brokenhead Ojibway, Long Plain, Roseau River Anishinabe, Sandy Bay and Swan Lake communities.
On 8 November 1873, Winnipeg was incorporated with the Selkirk settlement as its nucleus. Métis legislator and interpreter James McKay named the city. Winnipeg's mandate was to govern and provide municipal services to citizens attracted to trade expansion between Upper Fort Garry / Lower Fort Garry and Saint Paul, Minnesota. Winnipeg developed after the coming of the Canadian Pacific Railway in 1881; the railway divided the North End, which housed Eastern Europeans, from the richer Anglo-Saxon southern part of the city. It contributed to a demographic shift beginning shortly after Confederation that saw the francophone population decrease from a majority to a small minority group; this shift resulted in Premier Thomas Greenway controversially ending legislative bilingualism and removing funding for French Catholic Schools in 1890. By 1911, Winnipeg was Canada's third-largest city. However, the city faced financial difficulty when the Panama Canal opened in 1914; the canal reduced reliance on Canada's rail system for international trade.
Winnipeg Route 42
Route 42 is a major arterial road located in Winnipeg, Manitoba. It connects the suburbs of North Kildonan, East Kildonan, Fort Rouge, Fort Garry, St. Norbert with the city's downtown core. In the north, it is a continuation of Manitoba Provincial Road 204; the route begins at PTH 75 and Turnbull Drive in the suburb of St. Norbert and, as Pembina Highway, crosses the Perimeter Highway South, runs north-northwest through Fort Garry. At Confusion Corner, it takes the name Donald Street until it crosses the Assiniboine River at the Midtown Bridge, splits into one-way streets where southbound traffic continues along Donald Street and northbound traffic follows Smith Street. At Notre Dame Avenue, it becomes King Street and Princess Street until it crosses Main Street and becomes the Disraeli Freeway, continuing northeast, passing through the neighbourhood of Point Douglas and crosses the Red River at the Disraeli Bridge, where it becomes Henderson Highway. Running north along the east bank of the Red River, it passes Hespeler Avenue and Chief Peguis Trail to Perimeter Highway North where it leaves the city as Provincial Road 204.
The namesakes of the various roads making up Route 42 are as follows: Pembina Highway, together with PTH 75, originated as a trail used by early settlers to travel between the Selkirk Settlement and Fort Pembina. Donald Street and Smith Street are named for the 1st Lord Strathcona. King Street is named for a local clergyman. Princess Street is named for Duchess of Argyll. Disraeli Freeway is named for Benjamin Disraeli. Henderson Highway is named for early Manitoba pioneer Samuel Robert Henderson
Winnipeg Route 70
Route 70 is a city route in Winnipeg, Canada. It runs from Route 57 to Route 42; the route has many street names along its length, listed as follows, north to south: Both Maryland and Sherbrook Streets were named Boundary and Milligan Streets. Boundary Street ran along the original western boundary of Winnipeg before the city expanded westward to St. James Street in 1882. Maryland Street is named after the Maryland estate, located on that road, owned by James Milligan, the namesake of Milligan Street. Stafford Street is named after 1st Earl of Stafford. From south to north
Portage and Main
Portage and Main is an intersection in the city of Winnipeg, Canada. It is located in downtown Winnipeg where Portage Main Street intersect; the corner is well-known across Canada as the "crossroads of Canada", due to its relative proximity to the longitudinal centre of Canada. The land upon which Portage and Main sits was purchased by Henry McKenney on 2 June 1862, he chose land where the north-south and east-west ox cart paths crossed, in order to build a general store with his half-brother John Christian Schultz. Portage and Main is now the hub of some of Winnipeg's main transportation routes, it was once the centre for the banking industry in Western Canada. The national banks have branches accessible from beneath Main, it has served as a temporary city square and meeting place for parades and events, including the Winnipeg General Strike of 1919. In 1974, the intersection was featured on an 8-cent stamp. In 1976, the City of Winnipeg signed an agreement with private developers to open an underground concourse linking shopping malls under the four corner properties.
This included a 40-year deal to permanently close the pedestrian crossings at the intersection, which street works were completed around 1978. With that deal set to expire, city officials are negotiating an early re-opening of the intersection to pedestrians; the concourse and walkways are connected through the Winnipeg Skywalk. The Portage and Main Circus houses a concrete sculptural wall created by Bruce Head. On 13 August 1981, Portage and Main was the place where Dale Hawerchuk signed his contract with the Winnipeg Jets and was the location of the "Save the Jets" rallies in 1995 and 1996. More Portage and Main has served as an anchor point for occasional street festivals and the winter lighting of holiday street decorations. Portage and Main is the brunt of popular jokes referring to it as the coldest and windiest intersection in Canada; the phrase Portage and Main has come to refer to the city of Winnipeg as a whole. The long-standing cold weather legend is unproven, because there are no official temperature measurements at any street corner in Canada to confirm the coldest intersection.
Winnipeg's city centre is 3–4 °C warmer than the airport, owing to the urban heat island effect. There are numerous cultural references to the intersection, including the 1992 Randy Bachman and Neil Young hit song “Prairie Town”, with the chorus repeating the line “Portage and Main, 50 below”; the British band Blurt have a song named “Portage & Main” on their album Kenny Rogers' Greatest Hit. It is the setting for the Stompin' Tom Connors song "Red River Jane". In his song "Free in the Harbour," Canadian folk singer Stan Rogers referenced Portage and Main as a stop for Hermitage Bay, Newfoundland fishermen on their way to find oil field work in "the hills of Alberta." Portage and Main is a property on the Canadian Monopoly board, was the inspiration for Fort Garry Brewing Company's "Portage and Main" India Pale Ale. Downtown Winnipeg The Man Who Created the Corner of Portage and Main, Manitoba Historical Society Transactions
Manitoba Highway 1
Provincial Trunk Highway 1 is Manitoba's section of the Trans-Canada Highway. It is a used, 4-lane divided highway, with the exception of a short 18 km section in the southeastern corner of the province, it is the main link between southern Manitoba's largest cities, serves as the province's main transportation link to the neighbouring provinces of Saskatchewan and Ontario. The highway is the only major east-west divided highway in Manitoba, carries a large majority of east-west traffic within and through the province, it has full freeway status sections at Winnipeg. The total distance of the Trans-Canada Highway in Manitoba is 490 km. PTH 1 is a important part of the national highway system, it is the only road that links the province of Manitoba with the province of Ontario, making it a major section of Canada's primary commercial and leisure route for all traffic travelling between Canada's largest cities, from Toronto and Montreal in the east to Calgary and Vancouver in the west. The highway is routed from west to east across the province of Manitoba.
It begins at the western provincial boundary with Saskatchewan, connecting with Saskatchewan's Highway 1 to become Manitoba Trans-Canada 1. The highway is designated as T-C 1 throughout Manitoba until it reaches the eastern provincial boundary with Ontario, where it continues as the main route to Kenora and the rest of Eastern Canada as Highway 17; the entire length of the Trans-Canada Highway in the province of Manitoba is a 4-lane divided highway, with the exception of the Winnipeg city route and an 18 kilometre section in eastern Manitoba between the town of Falcon Lake and the Manitoba-Ontario provincial boundary, a two-lane highway. PTH 1 has full expressway status on the routes around Winnipeg on the Perimeter Highway, around Portage la Prairie. Plans do exist to bring the entire length of PTH 1 to full expressway status in the future. Exit numbers only exist at three interchanges, only small sections of PTH 1 and the Perimeter Highway have freeway status. In the Winnipeg metro area, the Trans-Canada Highway has two official routes.
The main route passes directly through the city of Winnipeg on city streets, entering the city from the west and continuing along Portage Avenue, Main Street, Queen Elizabeth Way, St. Mary's Road, St. Anne's Road, Fermor Avenue where it re-joins the Perimeter Highway and continues east on TC 1. An alternate routing exits the main T-C 1 route on the western edge of Winnipeg onto the Perimeter Highway, which by-passes the city completely; the Perimeter Highway is a ring road which encircles Winnipeg and is used by commuters and through traffic on the Trans Canada Highway wishing to avoid congested city streets. The first Provincial Trunk Highways in Manitoba were numbered in 1926; the original Highway 1 was one of nine highways fanning out from Winnipeg, but was different in that it fanned out from the west and the east. Highway 1 was routed via provincial secondary roads; these are: Highway 1A into and out of Brandon Provincial Road 351 into and out of Carberry Highway 1A through Portage la Prairie Highway 26 from Portage la Prairie to Headingley Highway 9 from downtown Winnipeg to Lockport Highway 44 from Lockport to Whiteshell Provincial ParkIn 1949, Highway 1 had been rerouted on new construction northeast of Griswold, with the part of old route from Highway 21 to Highway 28 becoming part of Highway 21, the section from Highway 21 eastward being removed from the system, but becoming PR 455.
By the early 1950s, Highway 1 had become an important east-west route in all of the western provinces. Most of the provincial highways that Highway 1 traversed on were re-numbered and designated as Highway 4 between 1958 and 1968, the #1 was relocated to its present route. In 1962, the Trans-Canada Highway in Manitoba was completed, Highway 1 across all of the western provinces was incorporated as part of the Trans-Canada Highway. In 1955, most intra-city traffic in the Winnipeg area was diverted onto the newly built Perimeter Highway; that year, the Perimeter Highway's southern section was merged with the Trans-Canada Highway system, due to the amount of traffic using it to bypass the city. That section of the highway was used, still is today. On October 6, 2006 the Trans-Canada Highway Portage la Prairie by-pass was closed due to a structural defect found in the bridge over the CN Rail Line. On October 31, 2007, a $19 million project to rebuild the bridge was completed, the by-pass was re-opened to traffic.
On October 25, 2007, a major federal/provincial construction project twinning the highway in western Manitoba between the Saskatchewan-Manitoba provincial boundary and the town of Hargrave was completed, with 34 kilometres of newly divided highway lanes opened to traffic. On April 9, 2008, the Government of Manitoba announced that construction of a new interchange would begin in the summer of 2008 at the intersection of Highway 16 and the Trans Canada Highway mainline route, located a short distance west of Portage la Prairie; this project has been delayed and its current status is unknown. On February 27, 2008 the Manitoba Highway Traffic Board approved a request by the Government of Manitoba to raise the speed limit on the Trans Canada Highway in Manitoba to 110 km/h along the section between the Saskatchewan-Manitoba provincial boundary and Winnipeg; the speed limit was raised on July 1, 2009, though it was only raised on one po
Polo Park is a shopping centre in Winnipeg, Canada. It is situated on the former Polo Park Racetrack near the junction of Portage Avenue and St. James Street and is the largest mall of the eight malls in the city, it is the 15th largest shopping centre in Canada and the 15th largest between Guildford Town Centre and Laurier Quebec. The Polo Park Mall opened on August 20, 1959 and became one of the first enclosed shopping malls in Canada when a roof was added in 1963, the other being the Park Royal Shopping Centre; the district was once the sports hub of Winnipeg, with the Winnipeg Arena, Canad Inns Stadium, Winnipeg Velodrome all of, located at Polo Park. The Velodrome was torn down in the 1990s to make way for a strip mall that includes Home Depot and Chapters; the arena and stadium have since been demolished and replaced by new retail and office complexes. The former CKY building is situated next to the mall, it used to house the city's CTV Television Network affiliate, CKY-TV, CKY radio, FM 92 CITI.
It was the original home of the WTN network. Corus Radio Winnipeg has occupied the building since 2011, as part of a lease agreement between Corus Entertainment and Cadillac Fairview. Studios for CJOB 680, CFPG-FM 99.1 and CJKR-FM 97.5 are located on the second floor of the three-story building. In 1986, the mall underwent a $75 million renovation; this addition was panned by downtown Winnipeg merchants, who voiced their objections to the plan at city council meetings in 1984. The expanded shopping centre opened in mid-August 1986. Another expansion took place in 2007; the cost of this addition was $30 million. A new $49-million expansion to Polo Park opened October 1, 2014 in the former Zellers space on the mall's second level; the redeveloped space included 114,000 square feet of 17 new stores. Polo Park has added new retail complexes which are located on properties adjacent to the north of the mall. Polo North is located on the site of the former Winnipeg Arena, while The Plaza at Polo Park is being developed on the former Canad Inns Stadium grounds.
Downtown Winnipeg is an area of the city located near the confluence of the Red and Assiniboine rivers. It is the oldest urban area in Winnipeg, is home to the city's commercial core, city hall, the seat of Manitoba's provincial government, a number of major attractions and institutions; the City of Winnipeg's official downtown boundaries are: the Canadian Pacific Railway mainline on the north, Gomez Street and the Red River on the east, the Assiniboine River on the south. The western boundaries are downtown are irregular, following along a number of different streets, back lanes, across properties. Speaking, the western boundaries are further west of Balmoral and Isabel Streets. In 2016, Canadian Geographic produced a map. Neighbourhoods in the downtown area include the Exchange District, Central Park, The Forks, Chinatown; the downtown area is three square kilometres. Winnipeg Square, Bell MTS Place, Portage Place, the flagship store of the Bay are all located on the downtown section of Portage Avenue.
On Main Street are Winnipeg's City Hall, Union Station, the Manitoba Centennial Centre, which includes the Manitoba Museum, the Planetarium, the Centennial Concert Hall and the Winnipeg Railway Museum. Although over 60,000 people work downtown, only 13,470 people live in the Downtown area. There are several residential projects under construction on Waterfront Drive and in the Exchange District, the residential population of the area is projected to increase in the next few years; the Downtown Winnipeg Zoning By-Law defines the boundaries of the Downtown planning area, several sectors within it. The downtown census area is smaller, omitting a three-block extension at the north edge. There is a larger Downtown community area, used for Community Social Data Strategy for Winnipeg; the Waterfront District is a newly emerging district located in the northeast corner of downtown Winnipeg. The area runs along the west bank of the Red River along the built Waterfront Drive and features Stephen Juba Park.
The Waterfront district has seen a number of residential construction projects since 2005. Sunstone Boutique Hotels has an $11-million plan to build a three-storey, 67-room boutique hotel on what is now a gravel parking lot, along with a new casual-dining restaurant in the one-storey brick former Harbourmaster's building; the plans involve construction of a public plaza area at the south end of the property. Central Park is one of Winnipeg's most densely populated neighbourhoods with 13,755 people per square km according to Statistics Canada's 2001 Census. Seventy per cent of all refugees coming to Winnipeg live downtown, in and around the Central Park area. Central Park includes many different ethnicities including Arabs, Chinese, Ojibway and African. With the increase in the African population, Central Park has been transforming in recent years, it is now the home to the'Central Market', with more markets planned to come. Many of the markets will sell imported African crafts. During warm Saturday nights, live entertainment fills the air, residents enjoy free Sunday movie screenings to enjoy an evening outdoors.
The Knox Centre at Knox United Church presents international films in various languages - with English subtitles - every Thursday evening. The Exchange District is a National Historic Site of Canada. Just one block north is one of Canada's most famous intersections and Main, the Exchange District comprises twenty city blocks and 150 heritage buildings, it is known for its intact turn-of-the-century collection of warehouses, financial institutions, early terra cotta clad skyscrapers. Winnipeg's theatre district is located on the east side of the Exchange District, home to the Royal Manitoba Theatre Centre, Centennial Concert Hall which houses the Winnipeg Symphony Orchestra, the Royal Winnipeg Ballet, the Manitoba Opera; the west side of the Exchange is home to Cinematheque, a small movie theatre located in the Artspace building on Albert Street. The Exchange District's Old Market Square annually hosts the Jazz Winnipeg Festival, the Winnipeg Fringe Theatre Festival, the Manitoba Electronic Music Exhibition.
Renovations to Old Market Square completed in 2012 added "The Cube", a new $1.5 million stage, with a skin made up of 20,000 aluminum links. The stage contains green room and two performance levels; the district is home to Paterson Globalfoods Institute. Broadway-Assiniboine lies in the southern part of downtown on the north bank of the Assiniboine River; the neighbourhood is one of the more densely populated in Winnipeg, with 14,895 people per square kilometre. It features many notable landmarks such as the Hotel Fort Garry and the Manitoba Legislative Building. Broadway-Assiniboine is home to many notable restaurants; the population of Broadway-Assiniboine was 5,080 as of the 2006 Census. The most common transportation method of the people in South Portage is walking, with 41.1%, more than six and a half times higher than the overall 6.2% for Winnipeg. The average employment income for the area is just $28,818, lower than Winnipeg's average employment income of $33,518; the Forks is a national historic, recreational and entertainment area site located in downtown Winnipeg where the Assiniboine and Red Rivers meet.
The Forks was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1974 due to its status as a cultural landscape that had borne witness to six thousand years of human activity. South Portage is the group of blocks located between Portage Avenue, Main Street, Broadway