Winsford is a town and civil parish within the unitary authority of Cheshire West and Chester and the ceremonial county of Cheshire, England. It lies on the River Weaver south of Northwich and west of Middlewich, grew around the salt mining industry after the river was canalised in the 18th century, allowing freight to be conveyed northwards to the Port of Runcorn on the River Mersey; the town falls into the Winsford & Northwich Locality, with an estimated population in 2017 of 103,300. Winsford is split into three neighbourhoods: Over on the western side of the River Weaver, Wharton on the eastern side, Swanlow and Dene. Kings Henry III and Edward I held court at Darnhall near Winsford; the latter king founded Vale Royal Abbey at Darnhall, but moved it in 1277 to near Whitegate. A charter to hold a Wednesday market and an annual fair at Over was granted on 24 November 1280 by Edward I to the Abbot and convent of Vale Royal Abbey. From this charter can be traced the origins of the market, still held in the town.
In 2012, the charter grant was used to revive an annual fair in Winsford, with the name of Winsford Salt Fair. The Government gave permission for artificial improvements to the River Weaver in 1721 to allow large barges to reach Winsford from the port of Liverpool. At first, this was the closest that barges carrying china clay from Cornwall could get to the Potteries district of north Staffordshire, rapidly developing as the major centre of ceramic production in Britain. Cornish china clay was used in the production of stoneware; the clay was taken overland from Winsford by pack horse to manufacturers in the Potteries, a distance of about 30 miles. Locally produced salt was transported to the Potteries, for use in the manufacture of salt-glazed stoneware. Finished ceramics from the Potteries were brought back to Winsford, for export through the Port of Liverpool; that trade ended in the 1780s when the Trent and Mersey Canal opened and carried the goods through Middlewich, bypassing Winsford. The canalised River Weaver was the inspiration for the Duke of Bridgewater's canals, the engineer for the Weaver Navigation, Edwin Leader Williams and built the Manchester Ship Canal.
From the 1830s, salt became important to Winsford because the salt mines under Northwich had begun to collapse and another source of salt near the River Weaver was needed. A new source was discovered in Winsford, leading to the development of a salt industry along the course of the River Weaver, where many factories were established; as a result, a new town developed within 1 mi of the old Borough of Over, focused on Delamere Street. Most of the early development took place on the other side of the river, with new housing, pubs, chapels and a new church being built in the former hamlet of Wharton; as the prevailing winds blew the smoke away from Over, it became the place for the wealthier inhabitants to live. However, barge workers and others working in Winsford started to develop the area along the old Over Lane, now the High Street; the old borough had been connected by the 1860s. By the Second World War, employment in the salt trade had declined as one company took control of all the salt works and introduced methods of manufacture that needed much less labour.
Slum clearance started in the 1930s and, by the 1950s three new housing estates had been built on both sides of the river to replace sub-standard homes. However in the 1960s, Winsford could be described as "one long line of terraced houses from the station to Salterswall"; the town experienced a major expansion in the late 1960s and 1970s with its designation as an Expanded Town under the Town Development Act 1952 to take overspill from Liverpool. This saw the development of two new industrial areas on both sides of the town, new estates of council and private housing and a new shopping centre with a library, sports centre, civic hall and doctors' surgeries, but the town's population did not grow as much as planned, so the new civic buildings were too large for the population. The expansion led to a mix of people in the town, comprising the original Cheshire residents and a large wave of migrants from Liverpool. There was some friction between "Old" and "New" Winsfordians; the term "Woolyback" for "Old" Winsfordians was a common term of abuse related to their supposed rural roots.
These tensions have now subsided. Vale Royal Borough Council was formed in 1974, covering Winsford, Northwich and a large rural area of mid-Cheshire. In 1991, the council moved its main office from Northwich to a purpose-built headquarters in Winsford, which since April 2009 has been used by its successor authority Cheshire West and Chester Council; the same building houses Winsford Town Council. Since both Cheshire Fire Service and Cheshire Police have moved headquarters from the county town of Chester to Winsford; the local hamlets and villages of Moulton, Stanthorne, Wettenhall are all within the town's limits and use the town's resources. There are two layers of local government with responsibility for Winsford, Cheshire West and Chester Council, the town council. There used to be three tiers, however Vale Royal Borough Council and Cheshire County Council were abolished on 31 March 2009; the town falls within the Eddisbury constituency in Parliament, has been represented by Edward Timpson since 2019.
Winsford is served by two Cheshire Police teams. Winsford Neighbourhood Policing Team covers the town centre and Wharton, the Western Rural Neighbourhood Policing Team covers St Chads and Darnhall. A small area in
District of Columbia Court of Appeals v. Feldman, 460 U. S. 462, was a case decided by the United States Supreme Court in which the Court enunciated a rule of civil procedure known as the Rooker-Feldman doctrine. The doctrine holds that lower United States federal courts may not sit in direct review of state court decisions; the U. S. Congress enacted several pieces of legislation with respect to Washington, D. C.'s local judicial system. One required final judgments from the District of Columbia Court of Appeals to be treated like final judgments from the high court of any state. C. courts. The Court of Appeals passed rules requiring applicants to the D. C. bar to have graduated from an ABA-accredited law school. The plaintiffs - Feldman and Hickey - were practicing attorneys from other states, but neither had graduated from ABA-accredited law schools. Feldman had been admitted to the Virginia bar through an apprenticeship, had been admitted to the Maryland bar through a waiver of their requirements, based on his personal experience.
Feldman was denied admission by the Committee on Admissions of the District of Columbia Bar, so he sought a similar waiver of the D. C. rule, sending a letter to the D. C. Court of Appeals that suggested that their absolute prohibition of lawyers who had not attended certain schools was a violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act, of the Fourteenth Amendment; the D. C. Courts issued an opinion confirming. Hickey had a similar background, but did not suggest that the D. C. Court of Appeals was in violation of any laws; the plaintiff filed an action in the U. S. District Court for the District of Columbia, which denied jurisdiction based on Rooker's prohibition against federal courts hearing appeals of state court judgments; the U. S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia reversed, saying that this was not the kind of judicial determination that a federal court would be barred from hearing on appeal from a decision of a state court; the Supreme Court considered in this case whether the district court had jurisdiction to review this decision, which required an inquiry into whether the decision to be reviewed is a "judicial" decision, or one, administrative.
The Supreme Court, in an opinion by Justice Brennan, held that the District Court had properly dismissed the case for lack of jurisdiction to hear an appeal of the highest court in a state. The denial of a waiver for admission to the bar, an evaluation of specific facts in light of an existing rule of law, was a judicial determination, only appealable to the Supreme Court; the Court noted, that a facial challenge to the constitutionality of the law would not be considered a review of anything, decided by the D. C. Court of Appeals, remanded this question to the lower court. Justice Stevens dissented, noting that each plaintiff had asked the Court of Appeals to exercise administrative discretion by waiving the requirements, but neither plaintiff had sought review of the rule of law itself. Although Feldman had suggested that the rule was in violation of the law, he had not asked for the Court of Appeals to rule that it was, but had indicated a challenge that he might bring in the federal district court.
Admission to the bar in the United States List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 460 Text of District of Columbia Court of Appeals v. Feldman, 460 U. S. 462 is available from: Justia Library of Congress Oyez
The Timm Collegiate was a series of American-built two-seat light aircraft of the late 1920s. Otto Timm founded the O. W. Timm Aircraft Corp in 1922 with its base at Glendale, California; the firm changed its name to the Timm Airplane Co in 1928. During 1928 Timm designed the Collegiate series of parasol-winged two-seat light aircraft fitted with fixed tailwheel undercarriage; the six examples built between 1928 and 1930 were powered by a variety of engines of between 90 hp and 185 hp During their lives, several were re-fitted with different powerplants. During their operational lives, several of the six Collegiates were fitted with replacement powerplants, giving rise to new designation numbers; the aircraft served with private pilot owners both pre and post World War II. In 1930, the first Collegiate M-150 NC279V City of Los Angeles set an endurance record of 378 hours in flying the equivalent of 27,677 miles over Rosamond Dry Lake, California; the FAA civil aircraft register recorded two surviving airworthy examples as at August 2009.
One was operated by a private owner in California. The other NC337 was owned by Albert I. Stix and is on public display in the Historic Aircraft Restoration Museum at Dauster Field, Creve Coeur, near St Louis Missouri. Two other examples are in long term storage in a private collection in Oregon. K-90 c/n 102 90 hp Anzani 10: NC887E stored in Oregon in 2009 K-100 c/n 101 100 hp Kinner K-5 NC337 re-engined to a model C-165 with a 165 hp Comet 7-E. On display at HARM in 2009. TW-120 c/n 106 120 hp to 130 hp Western L-7. NC945Y. No longer extant. M-150 c/n 105 150 hp McClatchie Panther. NC279V owned in California in 2009. Two further examples converted to this standard. TC-165 c/n 101 C-165 re-engined with165 hp Continental A-70. NC337. On display at HARM in 2017. TC-165 c/n 104 165 hp Continental A-70. NX16E. No longer extant. C-165 c/n 101 K-100 re-engined with 165 hp Comet 7-E. Re-engined with 150 h.p McClatchie Panther. C-165 c/n 102 K-90 re-engined with 165 hp Comet 7-E. C-170 c/n 103 170 hp Curtiss Challenger re-fitted with 185 hp Curtiss Challenger.
NC888E stored in Oregon in 2009. C-185 c/n 103 185 hp Curtiss Challenger, NC888E modified from C-170. Data from AerofilesGeneral characteristics Crew: 1 Capacity: 1 passenger Length: 24 ft 7 in Wingspan: 35 ft 0 in Useful lift: 643 lb Powerplant: 1 × Kinner K-5 5-cylinder radial, 100 hp Performance Maximum speed: 108 mph Cruise speed: 92 mph Stall speed: 35 mph Range: 600 miles Notes Bibliography Data and photographs of the Timm Collegiate series
Bruno De Wannemaeker is a Belgian sports administrator. In 1981 he graduated as Master in physical education and in 1983 as Master of rehabilitation science and physiotherapy at the Sports Institute of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven in Belgium. During his university studies he was active as handball player and windsurfer, he played a prominent role in the student sports organisation Apolloon as praeses finances, praeses skistage and praeses kiné. After mandatory military service in the Belgian army at the Royal Military Academy in Brussels, where he worked as chief physiotherapist, he worked for the Landelijke Windsurfing Federatie, Sun Touroperators Belgium, exportmanager for Biscuits Dupon en Belgian chocolates Van Coillie, Balta Industries and Event Masters. Since 2002, he has worked for the Flemish Government Bloso as a sports- and event-manager at the Flanders Sports Arena, Topsporthal Vlaanderen in Ghent. Since the mid-nineteen-eighties, he has been involved in race management, organization and measurement on more than 100 International, European and World Championships in sailing and kiteboarding.
His specialty lies the windsurfing disciplines such as slalom, formula windsurfing and wave riding. In 2007, he was one of the first to be involved in the kite racing discipline, he was appointed at the 2008 Beijing Olympics as International Race Officer on the 49R and windsurfing course and International Measurer for the RS:X class, 2010 Youth Olympic Games in Singapore as International Measurer for sailing and windsurfing and the 2012 London Olympics as International Measurer for the RS:X class. In 2012 he was associated with the ISAF Council's decision in May 2012 to replace the RS:X class with Kiteboard racing; the decision created a grass roots campaign to reinstate the RS:X Class and was overturned by the ISAF General Assembly, which reinstated windsurfing as an Olympic Discipline in Dublin on 10 November of the same year. The somewhat unfortunate legacy of the short-lived decision has not dissipated since; as a sports administrator he has been involved in the Flemish Yachting Association on educational and top sport issues, the International Sailing Federation as a member of the "Windsurfing and Kiteboarding Committee" since 1997.
He received international recognition as ISAF International Race Officer of Sailing in 2002, ISAF International Measurer of Sailing and ISAF International Judge of Sailing in 2009. He has been a board member of the International Funboard Class Association since 1989 and President since 2001, he has been vice-president of the International Windsurfing Association since 2001. He has been vice-president of the Vlaamse Yachting Federatie since 2004, he has been a board member of the International Kiteboarding Association since 2010 and vice–president since 2011. He was a member of the ISAF Windsurfing and Kiteboarding Committee from 2005 and vice-president from 2013 until its dissolution, he has been a member of the ISAF Equipment Committee since 2009. He has been a member of the ISAF International Measurers Sub-committee since 2013
Scooby-Doo 2: Monsters Unleashed is a 2004 American live-action/computer-animated family horror comedy film based on the animated television series franchise Scooby-Doo. It is the second installment in the Scooby-Doo live-action film series and a stand-alone sequel to 2002's Scooby-Doo, was directed by Raja Gosnell, written by James Gunn and released by Warner Bros. Pictures; the film stars Freddie Prinze Jr. Sarah Michelle Gellar, Linda Cardellini, Matthew Lillard, Seth Green, Tim Blake Nelson, Peter Boyle and Alicia Silverstone, with Neil Fanning reprising his role as the voice of Scooby-Doo; the film was released on March 26, 2004. It received negative reviews and failed to meet studio projections, earning $181.5 million from a $25 million budget. Its poor reception resulted in a planned third film being canceled. Fred, Velma and Scooby-Doo attend the opening of an exhibition at the Coolsonian Criminology Museum commemorating their past solved cases with monster costumes on display. However, the celebrations are interrupted by a masked man known as the Evil Masked Figure who steals two costumes using the reanimated Pterodactyl Ghost.
The gang are ridiculed by journalist Heather Jasper Howe. Concluding an old enemy is the mastermind, the gang revisit old cases, dismissing the former Pterodactyl Ghost, Jonathan Jacobo, due to his apparent death during a failed prison escape three years ago, they guess that Jeremiah Wickles, the Black Knight Ghost's portrayer and Jacobo's cell mate in prison, is the culprit. Going to Wickles' mansion, the group fall through a trapdoor and into a cage targeting unwelcome callers, but escape with the aid of Daphne's cosmetics. Inside, the gang find a book. Shaggy and Scooby-Doo find a note inviting Wickles to visit the Faux Ghost nightclub, they are attacked by the Black Knight Ghost, but escape when Daphne fights him off while Velma discovers its weak spot and disables it. Before fleeing, the rest of the gang had discovered through the book found in Wickles' mansion that the key ingredient to creating the monsters was a substance called "randomonium", which can be found at the old silver mining town.
Daphne and Fred go to the museum accompanied by the curator Patrick Wisely, but discover that the rest of the costumes have been stolen. Heather Jasper Howe turns the city against them; the gang go to the mines. As they confront Wickles, he states that he and Jacobo hated each other and that he has no connection to the museum robberies. Shaggy and Scooby, after overhearing the rest of the gang criticizing their tendency to bumble every operation, their most recent offense in failing to secure the Pterodactyl Ghost at the museum, resolve to better themselves and become real detectives. Following the lead from Wickles' note, their first clue they sneak into the Faux Ghost wearing disguises to try and solve the mystery, only to discover it's a hangout for all the villains Mystery Inc. unmasked. After speaking to Wickles, they hear. Scooby causes a scene and his disguise falls off, the two escaped through a trash chute. On their way out, they spot Patrick uncharacteristically assaulting someone who appears to be a member of his staff, ordering him to find answers to who vandalized his museum.
Escaping an awkward interaction with Patrick and Scooby spot Wickles leaving the club and follow him. The gang find the Monster Hive where the costumes are brought to life as real monsters. Shaggy and Scooby play around with the machine's control panel, bringing several costumes to life, the gang flees with the panel as the Evil Masked Figure terrorizes the city. Escaping to their old high school clubhouse, the gang realizes they can reverse the control panel's power by altering its wiring. Captain Cutler's Ghost emerges from the lake, forcing the gang to head back to the mines, encountering the various monsters along the way; when Velma tries to give Shaggy and Scooby the control panel they refuse to take it believing they'll just ruin everything and admit that they feel inadequate compared to the rest of the gang. Velma convinces them they're fine just the way they are. Velma sees Patrick in the mines, finding a shrine dedicated to Jacobo built by Patrick, but Patrick proves his innocence by helping Velma after a catwalk unexpectedly gives way under her, before being taken away by the Pterodactyl Ghost.
The gang confront the Evil Masked Figure as the Tar Monster captures all of them but Scooby, who uses a fire extinguisher to freeze the Tar Monster's body. He reactivates the control panel; the gang takes the Evil Masked Figure to the authorities and Daphne unmasking him as Heather. When asked why Heather did what she had to do, Velma pulls and peels Heather's face off, revealing she is Jacobo in disguise. Jacobo's cameraman Ned is arrested as an accomplice; the sleuths are praised as heroes in Coolsville. In the Faux Ghost, the gang celebrates their victory with the reformed criminals. Freddie Prinze Jr. as Fred Jones Ryan Vrba as Young Fred Sarah Michelle Gellar as Daphne Blake Emily Tennant as Young Daphne Matthew Lillard as Shaggy Rogers Cascy Beddow as Young Shaggy Nazanin Afshin-Jam as Shaggy Chick Linda Cardellini as Velma Dinkley Lauren Kennedy as Young Velma Seth Green as Patrick Wisely Peter Boyle as Jeremiah Wickles Tim Blake Nelson as Dr. Jonathan Jacobo Alicia Silverstone as Heather Jasper Howe Karin Konoval as Aggie Wilkins Joe Macleod as Skater Dude No. 1 Brandon Jay McLaren as Skater Dude No. 2 Cal
The New Hill Historic District is a national historic district located at New Hill, North Carolina, an unincorporated community in southwestern Wake County. The district encompasses the commercial and residential center and includes 2,820 acres, 59 buildings, one structure; the district developed between about 1860 and 1950, includes notable examples of Colonial Revival and Tudor Revival style architecture. Notable buildings include the W. T. Roundy commercial complex, C. J. Bright's general merchandise store or New Hill Emporium, W. T. Roundy House, Duncan Lashley House, John Bright House, New Hill Baptist Church, Glass-Gardner House, several farm complexes, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2001. List of Registered Historic Places in North Carolina