Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill was a British politician, army officer, writer. He was the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945, when he led Britain to victory in the Second World War, again from 1951 to 1955. Churchill represented five constituencies during his career as a Member of Parliament. Ideologically an economic liberal and imperialist, for most of his career he was a member of the Conservative Party, which he led from 1940 to 1955, but from 1904 to 1924 was a member of the Liberal Party. Of mixed English and American parentage, Churchill was born in Oxfordshire to a wealthy, aristocratic family, he joined the British Army in 1895, saw action in British India, the Anglo–Sudan War, the Second Boer War, gaining fame as a war correspondent and writing books about his campaigns. Elected an MP in 1900 as a Conservative, he defected to the Liberals in 1904. In H. H. Asquith's Liberal government, Churchill served as President of the Board of Trade, Home Secretary, First Lord of the Admiralty, championing prison reform and workers' social security.
During the First World War, he oversaw the Gallipoli Campaign. In 1917, he returned to government under David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions as Secretary of State for War and Air, for the Colonies, overseeing the Anglo-Irish Treaty and Britain's Middle East policy. After two years out of Parliament, he served as Chancellor of the Exchequer in Stanley Baldwin's Conservative government, returning the pound sterling in 1925 to the gold standard at its pre-war parity, a move seen as creating deflationary pressure and depressing the UK economy. Out of office during the 1930s, Churchill took the lead in calling for British rearmament to counter the growing threat from Nazi Germany. At the outbreak of the Second World War he was re-appointed First Lord of the Admiralty. In 1940 he became prime minister. Churchill oversaw British involvement in the Allied war effort against Germany and the Axis powers, resulting in victory in 1945, his wartime leadership was praised, although acts like the Bombing of Dresden and his wartime response to the Bengal famine generated controversy.
After the Conservatives' defeat in the 1945 general election, he became Leader of the Opposition. Amid the developing Cold War with the Soviet Union, he publicly warned of an "iron curtain" of Soviet influence in Europe and promoted European unity. Re-elected Prime Minister in 1951, his second term was preoccupied with foreign affairs, including the Malayan Emergency, Mau Mau Uprising, Korean War, a UK-backed Iranian coup. Domestically his government developed a nuclear weapon. In declining health, Churchill resigned as prime minister in 1955, although he remained an MP until 1964. Upon his death in 1965, he was given a state funeral. Considered one of the 20th century's most significant figures, Churchill remains popular in Britain and throughout the West, where he is seen as a victorious wartime leader who played an important role in defending Europe's liberal democracy from the spread of fascism. Praised as a social reformer and accomplished writer, among his many awards was the Nobel Prize in Literature.
Conversely, his imperialist views and comments on race, as well as his sanctioning of human rights abuses in the suppression of anti-imperialist movements seeking independence from the British Empire, have generated considerable controversy. Churchill was born at the family's ancestral home, Blenheim Palace in Oxfordshire, on 30 November 1874, at which time the United Kingdom was the dominant world power. Direct descendants of the Dukes of Marlborough, his family were among the highest levels of the British aristocracy, thus he was born into the country's governing elite, his paternal grandfather, John Spencer-Churchill, 7th Duke of Marlborough, had been a Member of Parliament for ten years, a member of the Conservative Party who served in the government of Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli. His own father, Lord Randolph Churchill, had been elected Conservative MP for Woodstock in 1873, his mother, Jennie Churchill, was from an American family whose substantial wealth derived from finance. The couple had met in August 1873, were engaged three days marrying at the British Embassy in Paris in April 1874.
The couple lived beyond their income and were in debt. In 1876 John Spencer-Churchill was appointed Viceroy of Ireland, with Randolph as his private secretary, resulting in the Churchill family's relocation to Dublin, when the entirety of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom, it was here that Jennie's second son, was born in 1880. Throughout much of the 1880s Randolph and Jennie were estranged, during this time she had many suitors. Churchill had no relationship with his father, his relationship with Jack was warm. In Dublin, the brothers were cared for by their nanny, Elizabeth Everest. Churchill nicknamed her "Woomany", wrote that "She had been my dearest and most intimate friend during the whole of the twenty years I had lived."Aged seven, he began boarding at St. George's School in Ascot, Berkshire. Visits home were to Connaught Place in London, where his parents had settled, while they took him on his first
John Edgar was a minister, professor of theology, moderator of the Secession Synod in 1828 and moderator of the Presbyterian Church of Ireland in 1842. He was Honorary Secretary to the Presbyterian Home Mission during the Famine in 1847, he was born near the eldest son of Samuel Edgar and Elizabeth McKee. He attended the Royal Belfast Academical Institution where he excelled as a student, was ordained a minister in the Presbyterian church in 1820, he became D. D. of Hamilton, USA in 1836, was elected moderator of the Presbyterian Church of Ireland for 1842–3, obtained LL. D. of New York in 1860. Edgar died aged 68 on 26 August 1866, in Cremore, Dublin, where he had gone to get medical treatment, he was survived by his wife Susanna, was buried in Balmoral Cemetery, Belfast. Edgar is known as the origin of the Temperance Movement because he poured alcohol out his window in 1829. On 14 August 1829 he wrote a letter in the Belfast Telegraph advocating temperance, he formed the Ulster Temperance Movement.
In 1834, Edgar told a parliamentary committee inquiring into the causes and consequences of drunkenness in the United Kingdom that there were 550 "dram shops" in Belfast and 1,700 shops selling intoxicants in Dublin as well as numerous illicit distillers "even in the most civilised districts of Ulster". He was the founder of the Ulster Female Penitentiary in 1839, a residential home for prostitutes; the meeting which led to the establishment of the Presbyterian Orphan Society was held in 1866 in his drawing room. Edgar was involved in the relief effort by the presbyterian church in Connaught during the Irish famine; the church was accused of proselytizing during the famine period. In the May Street Presbyterian Church he said, "I hope soon to have an opportunity of directing public attention to spiritual famine in Connaught, but our effort now is to save the perishing body... Our brother is starving, till we have satisfied his hunger, we have no time to inquire whether he is Protestant or Romanist".
Edgar was interested in Gaelic language and culture, was critical of other Protestant faiths the Church of Ireland for not preaching in the Irish language. Select works of John Edgar, D. D. LL. D: Professor of systematic theology for the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland, edited by William Dool Killen, 1869
The Ron Paul presidential campaign of 1988 began in early 1987 when former Congressman Ron Paul of Texas announced his candidacy for the 1988 presidential nomination of the Libertarian Party. He joined the third party after leaving the Republican Party over the Reagan administration's handling of the federal budget, he ran on a platform that included non-interventionism in foreign conflicts, decriminalization of illegal drugs on a federal level, a return to the gold standard, the abolition of the Federal Reserve and a reduction in all government spending. Paul defeated Native American activist Russell Means at the Libertarian Party's National Convention in Seattle to win the party's presidential nomination. Former Alaska State representative Andre Marrou was selected as his running mate. After over a year of campaigning as the Libertarian Party nominee, Paul received little media coverage, was excluded from presidential debates. On Election Day, he was on the ballot in 46 states and the District of Columbia, finished in third place with 0.47% of the vote, behind Democratic candidate Michael Dukakis and the winner Vice President George H.
W. Bush. Paul was elected to Texas's 22nd congressional district as a Republican during a special election early in 1976, he supported Ronald Reagan's presidential bid that year. Paul lost his bid for re-election in late 1976, but was elected back to the seat in 1978. During his time in office, Paul followed the political and economic principles of laissez-faire advocate Ludwig von Mises, gained a reputation as Dr. No, voting against legislation he felt was unconstitutional, he advanced legislation establishing term limits for Congressmen, opposed any implementation of a military draft. After serving four terms in the U. S. House of Representatives, Paul vied for the 1984 Republican Party Senatorial nomination in Texas, gained a reputation as an adept fundraiser, he was defeated in the primary and returned to his practice of obstetrics and gynecologyIn January 1987, Paul left the Republican Party to run for the Libertarian Party nomination after becoming disillusioned by the spending policies of the Reagan administration and presumptive Republican presidential nominee George H.
W. Bush. On leaving the party, Paul remarked: "Ronald Reagan has given us a deficit ten times greater than what we had with the Democrats, it didn't take more than a month after 1981, to realize there would be no changes." The Libertarian Party had courted Paul for the previous six years. Ron Paul announced his candidacy for the Libertarian Party's presidential nomination on February 16, 1987 during a party luncheon in San Francisco, California. During his announcement speech, Paul commented that "Big government is running away with our freedom and our money, the Republicans are just as much to blame as the Democrats." He proclaimed himself as "a choice for freedom." According to Paul, Libertarian Party leaders notified him that there would be little opposition to his run at the party's September 1987 National convention. Paul campaigned for the nomination for the most part of 1987, traveling to numerous state conventions, he visited Pennsylvania in April to discuss the Libertarian Party's platform with students from Penn State.
Native American activist, challenger to Paul, Russell Means of South Dakota appeared at the event. Means had announced his Libertarian presidential nomination candidacy a day before Paul. While Means received heightened media attention for his comments regarding Native Americans and militancy, reports in the news media circulated that highlighted Paul's calls for the nation to return to the Gold Standard, diminish the power of the Federal Reserve. Paul and Means were described as members of the right and left wing of the Libertarian Party, respectively. By June, Paul was appearing at speaking events with Libertarian vice presidential candidate Andre Marrou. Marrou had served as a Libertarian member of the Alaska House of Representatives; the pair campaigned side-by-side in Idaho where Paul remarked "that a Libertarian can win the White House in the not-too-distant future." After that, Paul traveled west to address Libertarian Party officials in Oregon. By the end of the month, Paul had raised $200,000 for his campaign.
As the convention approached, Paul was one of seven candidates vying for the party's nomination. However, he and Means were the only candidates mentioned in the press. Speculation that Marrou could be chosen as a compromise candidate surrounded the event, at which 800 attendees were expected; the Libertarian National Convention, formally called the Culture of Freedom Conference and Presidential Nominating Convention, was held from September 2–6 at the Sheraton Hotel in Seattle, Washington. His candidacy was seen as problematic because of the party's long support for freedom of choice on abortions. One of his opponents, Native American activist Russell Means, emphasized that he was pro-choice on the abortion issue. In a forum held prior to the nomination, Means dismissed the greater funds raised by Paul's campaign, commenting that Means was receiving "10 times more press" than the former Congressman and was therefore "100 times more effective." Another candidate expressed his desire to "put handcuffs on all IRS agents."Paul was nominated on the first ballot with 196 of the 368 votes cast, with his closest opponent, receiving 120 votes.
He thanked the delegates with his wife, Carol, by his side. Alaska state legislator Andre Marrou, one of the party's few elected officeholders, was chosen as the vice presidential nominee. Paul returned to the campaign trail and entered the General election stretch of the campaign a year ahead of the nominees for the two major parties, he traveled to Unive