Eugène Meyer (inventor)
Eugène Meyer was a French mechanic credited with making important contributions to the development of the bicycle. He received a French patent for wire wheels in 1868 and is now believed to be the person responsible for making the penny farthing feasible and known. Meyer was lived in Paris, he placed 10th in the 1869 Paris-Rouen race. James Moore rode a Meyer high wheeler at the Midland Counties Championship in Wolverhampton in August 1870, thereby introduced the design to England. Meyer died in Brunoy en Essonne at the age of 63. Review of Bicycle Design: An Illustrated History with great image of "Eugène Meyer’s 1869 bicycle with tension spoking" "Courtesy of Keizo Kobayashi via MIT Press"
GKN plc is a British multinational automotive and aerospace components company headquartered in Redditch, Worcestershire. The company was known as Guest and Nettlefolds and can trace its origins to 1759 and the birth of the Industrial Revolution; the origins of GKN lie in the founding of the Dowlais Ironworks in the village of Dowlais, Merthyr Tydfil, Wales, by Thomas Lewis and Isaac Wilkinson. John Guest was appointed manager of the works in 1767. In 1786 Guest was succeeded by his son, Thomas Guest, who formed the Dowlais Iron Company with his son-in-law William Taitt. Guest introduced the works prospered. Under Guest's leadership, alongside his manager John Evans, after his death in 1852 that of his wife Lady Charlotte Guest, the Dowlais Ironworks gained the reputation of being "one of the World's great industrial concerns". Though the Bessemer process was licensed in 1856, nine years of detailed planning and project management were needed before the first steel was produced; the company thrived with its new cost-effective production methods, forming alliances with the Consett Iron Company and Krupp.
By 1857 G. T. Clark and William Menelaus, his manager, had constructed the "Goat Mill", the world's most powerful rolling mill. By the mid-1860s, Clark's reforms had borne fruit in renewed profitability. Clark delegated day-to-day management to Menelaus, his trusteeship terminating in 1864 when ownership passed to Sir Ivor Guest. Clark continued to direct policy, building a new plant at the docks at Cardiff and vetoing a joint-stock company, he formally retired in 1897. On 9 July 1900, the Dowlais Iron Company and Arthur Keen's Patent Nut and Bolt Company merged to form Guest, Keen & Co. Ltd. Nettlefolds Limited, a leading manufacturer of fasteners, established in Smethwick, West Midlands in 1854, was acquired in 1902 leading to the change of name to Guest and Nettlefolds -. In 1920 John Lysaght and Co. was acquired. Steel production remained under increasing profit margin pressure. In 1930 the company combined its steel production business with that of rival Baldwins to form Guest Keen Baldwins, which now held: Baldwins: Coke ovens at Margam.
Due to a resultant global shortage of pig iron, in 1937 the company fired-up the single remaining blast furnace at Dowlais. All of the sites were bombed by the Nazi Luftwaffe during the war, the required investment meant that all of these assets were nationalised as part of the 1951 Iron and Steel Act, resultantly becoming part of the Iron and Steel Corporation of Great Britain. GKN were still reliant on the supply of good quality steel, so in 1954 negotiated from the asset realisation company the repurchase of key assets from ISC, which were renamed Guest Keen Iron and Steel Co. In 1961 the company's name changed again to GKN Steel Company; these mergers heralded half a century in which GKN became a major manufacturer of screws, nuts and other fasteners. The company reflected the vertical integration fashionable at the time embracing activities from coal and ore extraction, iron and steel making to manufacturing finished goods. After the First World War it became apparent that Britain was to follow France and more the United States in developing a large scale auto-industry.
GKN acquired another fastener manufacturer, F. W. Cotterill Ltd. in 1919. Cotterill owned; the forgings produced at the Garrington Darlaston plant supplemented by a large plant at Bromsgrove, enabled GKN to become a major supplier of crankshafts, connecting rods, half-shafts and numerous smaller forged components to the UK auto-industry during and beyond the period of massive expansion between the two world wars. In 1920, GKN purchased their subsidiary, Joseph Sankey and Sons Ltd.. After training as an engineer, Sankey founded a major tea tray producer. A pioneer motorist, he became friends with Herbert Austin, becoming a supplier of sheet steel components to the industry. By 1914, the company's customers for sheet steel bodies included Austin, Humber, Rover and Argyll. Due to complaints from motor manufacturers about the propensity of the then-wooden wheels on early cars to disintegrate on the slightest encounter with any roadside kerb, using his experience from tea trays Sankey developed an alternate pressed-steel wheel.
Production started in 1908, with customers including Herbert Austin and William Morris. In addition to his original factory at Bilston a new plant was established near Wellington, devoted to wheel production. By the time the business was acquired by GKN, the plant was supplying wheels to many UK manufacturers. By 1969 the highly-automated Wellington plant was producing over 5½ million wheels a year at a maximum rate of 30,000 per day; the business undertook other automotive related works, including supplying the chassis for the Triumph Herald and its derivatives. They were at this time building the versatile GKN developed GKN FV432 armoured personnel carrier; the postwar government nationalised the steel industry under Iron and Steel Corporation of Great Britain. The act of parliament of 1949 took effect in February 1951. In 1951, a new subsidiary Blade Research & Development was formed at Aldridge, Staffordshire, to produce aero
Brescia is a city and comune in the region of Lombardy in northern Italy. It is situated at the foot of the Alps, a few kilometres from the lakes Iseo. With a population of more than 200,000, it is the second largest city in the region and the fourth of northwest Italy; the urban area of Brescia extends beyond the administrative city limits and has a population of 672,822, while over 1.5 million people live in its metropolitan area. The city is the administrative capital of the Province of Brescia, one of the largest in Italy, with over 1,200,000 inhabitants. Founded over 3,200 years ago, Brescia has been an important regional centre since pre-Roman times, its old town contains the best-preserved Roman public buildings in northern Italy and numerous monuments, among these the medieval castle, the Old and New cathedral, the Renaissance Piazza della Loggia and the rationalist Piazza della Vittoria. The monumental archaeological area of the Roman forum and the monastic complex of San Salvatore-Santa Giulia have become a UNESCO World Heritage Site as part of a group of seven inscribed as Longobards in Italy, Places of Power.
Brescia is considered to be an important industrial city. The metallurgy and the production of machine tools and firearms are of particular economic significance, along with mechanical and automotive engineering; the major companies based in the city are utility company A2A, steel producer Lucchini, firearms manufacturer Beretta, shotgun producer Perazzi, machine tools manufacturer Camozzi and gas equipment manufacturer Cavagna Group. Nicknamed Leonessa d'Italia, Brescia is the home of Italian caviar, is known for being the original production area of the Franciacorta sparkling wine as well as the prestigious Mille Miglia classic car race that starts and ends in the city. In addition, Brescia is the setting for most of the action in Alessandro Manzoni's 1822 play Adelchi. Brescia and its territory was the "European Region of Gastronomy" in 2017. Various myths relate to the founding of Brescia: one assigns it to Hercules while another attributes its foundation as Altilia by a fugitive from the siege of Troy.
According to another myth, the founder was the king of the Ligures, who had invaded the Padan Plain in the late Bronze Age. Colle Cidneo was named after that version, it is the site of the medieval castle; this myth seems to have a grain of truth, because recent archaeological excavations have unearthed remains of a settlement dating back to 1,200 BC that scholars presume to have been built and inhabited by Ligures peoples. Others scholars attribute the founding of Brescia to the Etruscans; the Gallic Cenomani, allies of the Insubres, invaded in the 7th century BC, used the town as their capital. The city became Roman in 225 BC. During the Carthaginian Wars,'Brixia' was allied with the Romans. During a Celtic alliance against Rome the city remained fateful to the Romans. With their Roman allies the city destroyed the Insubres by surprise. Subsequently, the city and the tribe entered the Roman world peacefully as faithful allies, maintaining a certain administrative freedom. In 89 BC, Brixia was recognized as civitas and in 41 BC, its inhabitants received Roman citizenship.
Augustus founded a civil colony there in 27 BC, he and Tiberius constructed an aqueduct to supply it. Roman Brixia had at least three temples, an aqueduct, a theatre, a forum with another temple built under Vespasianus, some baths; when Constantine advanced against Maxentius in 312, an engagement took place at Brixia in which the enemy was forced to retreat as far as Verona. In 402, the city was ravaged by the Visigoths of Alaric I. During the 452 invasion of the Huns under Attila, the city sacked. Forty years it was one of the first conquests by the Gothic general Theoderic the Great in his war against Odoacer. In 568, Brescia was taken from the Byzantines by the Lombards, who made it the capital of one of their semi-independent duchies; the first duke was Alachis, who died in 573. Dukes included the future kings of the Lombards Rothari and Rodoald, Alachis II, a fervent anti-Catholic, killed in battle at Cornate d'Adda in 688; the last king of the Lombards, had held the title Duke of Brescia.
In 774, Charlemagne captured the city and ended the existence of the Lombard kingdom in northern Italy. Notingus was the first bishop. From 855 to 875, under Louis II the Younger, Brescia become de facto capital of the Holy Roman Empire; the power of the bishop as imperial representative was opposed by the local citizens and nobles, Brescia becoming a free commune around the early 12th century. Subsequently, it expanded into the nearby countryside, first at the expense of the local landholders, against the neighbouring communes, notably Bergamo and Cremona. Brescia defeated the latter two times at Pontoglio at the Grumore and in the battle of the Malamorte. During the struggles in 12th and 13th centuries between the Lombard cities and the German emperors, Brescia was implicated in some of the leagues and in all of the uprisings against them. In the Battle of Legnano the contingent from Brescia was the second in size after that of Milan; the Peace of Constance that ended the war with Frederick Barbarossa confirmed the free status of the comune.
In 1201 the podestà Rambertino Buvalelli made peace and established a leagu
A motorcycle called a bike, motorbike, or cycle, is a two- or three-wheeled motor vehicle. Motorcycle design varies to suit a range of different purposes: long distance travel, cruising, sport including racing, off-road riding. Motorcycling is riding a motorcycle and related social activity such as joining a motorcycle club and attending motorcycle rallies. In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, the first to be called a motorcycle. In 2014, the three top motorcycle producers globally by volume were Honda and Hero MotoCorp. In developing countries, motorcycles are considered utilitarian due to lower prices and greater fuel economy. Of all the motorcycles in the world, 58% are in the Asia-Pacific and Southern and Eastern Asia regions, excluding car-centric Japan. According to the US Department of Transportation the number of fatalities per vehicle mile traveled was 37 times higher for motorcycles than for cars; the term motorcycle has different legal definitions depending on jurisdiction.
There are three major types of motorcycle: street, off-road, dual purpose. Within these types, there are many sub-types of motorcycles for different purposes. There is a racing counterpart to each type, such as road racing and street bikes, or motocross and dirt bikes. Street bikes include cruisers, sportbikes and mopeds, many other types. Off-road motorcycles include many types designed for dirt-oriented racing classes such as motocross and are not street legal in most areas. Dual purpose machines like the dual-sport style are made to go off-road but include features to make them legal and comfortable on the street as well; each configuration offers either specialised advantage or broad capability, each design creates a different riding posture. In some countries the use of pillions is restricted; the first internal combustion, petroleum fueled. It was designed and built by the German inventors Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach in Bad Cannstatt, Germany in 1885; this vehicle was unlike either the safety bicycles or the boneshaker bicycles of the era in that it had zero degrees of steering axis angle and no fork offset, thus did not use the principles of bicycle and motorcycle dynamics developed nearly 70 years earlier.
Instead, it relied on two outrigger wheels to remain upright while turning. The inventors called their invention the Reitwagen, it was designed as an expedient testbed for their new engine, rather than a true prototype vehicle. The first commercial design for a self-propelled cycle was a three-wheel design called the Butler Petrol Cycle, conceived of Edward Butler in England in 1884, he exhibited his plans for the vehicle at the Stanley Cycle Show in London in 1884. The vehicle was built by the Merryweather Fire Engine company in Greenwich, in 1888; the Butler Petrol Cycle was a three-wheeled vehicle, with the rear wheel directly driven by a 5⁄8 hp, 40 cc displacement, 2 1⁄4 in × 5 in bore × stroke, flat twin four-stroke engine equipped with rotary valves and a float-fed carburettor and Ackermann steering, all of which were state of the art at the time. Starting was by compressed air; the engine was liquid-cooled, with a radiator over the rear driving wheel. Speed was controlled by means of a throttle valve lever.
No braking system was fitted. The driver was seated between the front wheels, it wasn't, however, a success, as Butler failed to find sufficient financial backing. Many authorities have excluded steam powered, electric motorcycles or diesel-powered two-wheelers from the definition of a'motorcycle', credit the Daimler Reitwagen as the world's first motorcycle. Given the rapid rise in use of electric motorcycles worldwide, defining only internal-combustion powered two-wheelers as'motorcycles' is problematic. If a two-wheeled vehicle with steam propulsion is considered a motorcycle the first motorcycles built seem to be the French Michaux-Perreaux steam velocipede which patent application was filled in December 1868, constructed around the same time as the American Roper steam velocipede, built by Sylvester H. Roper Roxbury, Massachusetts. Who demonstrated his machine at fairs and circuses in the eastern U. S. in 1867, Roper built about 10 steam cars and cycles from the 1860s until his death in 1896.
In 1894, Hildebrand & Wolfmüller became the first series production motorcycle, the first to be called a motorcycle. Excelsior Motor Company a bicycle manufacturing company based in Coventry, began production of their first motorcycle model in 1896; the first production motorcycle in the US was the Orient-Aster, built by Charles Metz in 1898 at his factory in Waltham, Massachusetts. In the early period of motorcycle history, many producers of bicycles adapted their designs to accommodate the new internal combustion engine; as the engines became more powerful and designs outgrew the bicycle origins, the number of motorcycle producers increased. Many of the nineteenth century inventors who worked on early motorcycles moved on to other inventions. Daimler and Roper, for example, both went on to develop automobiles. At the turn of the 19th century the first major mass-production firms were set up. In 1898, Triumph Motorcycles in England began producing motorbikes, by 1903 it was producing over 500 bikes.
Other British firms were Royal Enfield and Birmingham Small Arms Company who
William Stanley (inventor)
William Ford Robinson Stanley was a British inventor with 78 patents filed in both the United Kingdom and the United States of America. He was an engineer who designed and made precision drawing and mathematical instruments, as well as surveying instruments and telescopes, manufactured by his company "William Ford Stanley and Co. Ltd." Stanley was a skilled architect who designed and founded the UK's first Trades school, Stanley Technical Trades School, as well as designing the Stanley Halls in South Norwood. Stanley built his two homes, he was a noted philanthropist, who gave over £80,000 to education projects during the last 15 years of his life. When he died, most of his estate, valued at £59,000, was bequeathed to trade schools and students in south London, one of his homes was used as a children's home after his death, in accordance with his will. Stanley was a member of societies. Besides these activities, he was a painter and photographer, as well as an author of a variety of publications, including plays, books for children, political treatises.
William Stanley was born on Monday 2 February 1829 in Islington, one of nine children of John Stanley and his wife, Selina Hickman, a direct descendant of Thomas Stanley, the 17th-century author of History of Philosophy. He was baptised on Wednesday 4 March 1829 at Islington. At the age of 10 Stanley started going to a day school run by a Mr Peil until he was 12. From the age of 12 until he was 14, his maternal uncle William Ford Hickman paid for his education at a different school. Despite having limited formal learning, Stanley taught himself mathematics, astronomy, French, chemistry and theology, he attended lessons in technical drawing at the London Mechanics’ Institution, where he enrolled in 1843, attending engineering and phrenology lessons. While living in Buntingford between 1849 and 1854, Stanley founded a literary society with a local chemist, they charged a subscription of five shillings a year. This was spent on books to form a library, they had many guest speakers, on one occasion Lord Lytton, the author of The Last Days of Pompeii, came to address the Society on Pompeii.
Being "intensely interested" in architecture, he submitted a design for a competition in The Builder magazine, but did not win. In 1843, at the age of 14, Stanley's father insisted that he help him in his trade. Stanley worked in his father's unsuccessful building business, becoming adept at working with metal and wood to obtain employment as a plumber/drainage contractor and joiner in London, he joined his father in 1849 at an engineering works at Whitechapel, working as a Pattern Maker's Improver where he invented the steel wheel spider-spokes. His father discouraged him from seeking a patent for this invention. For the following five years, he was in partnership with his maternal uncle, a builder, at Buntingford. In 1854, Stanley fell in love with a girl in Buntingford, Bessie Sutton, but her family refused to let them marry. On 2 February 1857, he married Eliza Ann Savory, they lived "above the shop", as they could only afford to rent four rooms in the same street as his shop. Five years the couple moved to Kentish Town moving to South Norwood in the mid-1860s.
The couple adopted Stanley's niece Eliza Ann and another child, Maud Martin, whose father and brother drowned at sea. Stanley acted upon a remark made by his father in 1854 about the high cost and poor quality of English drawing instruments compared to those imported from France and Switzerland, started a business making mathematical and drawing instruments. At first he rented a shop and parlour at 3 Great Turnstile and began the business with £100 capital, he invented a new T-square which became universally used. A cousin, Henry Robinson, joined him with a capital of £150, but died in 1859. Stanley stopped using the name Robinson and changed his signature as a consequence of being robbed of his cheque book during the early days of his business. Stanley produced a'Panoptic Stereoscope' in 1855, financially successful. Stereoscopes had sold for five shillings each – Stanley discovered a simpler method to make them, which enable him to sell them for one shilling, he was able to take an additional shops at 3–4 Great Turnstile and 286 High Holborn, as well as a skilled assistant.
He did not patent the Panoptic, so it was soon copied around the world, but he had sold enough to provide the capital required to manufacture scientific instruments. In 1861 he invented a straight line dividing machine for which he won first prize in the 1862 International Exhibition in London. Stanley brought out the first catalogue of his products in 1864. By the fifth edition, Stanley was able to list important customers such as several government departments, the Army, the Royal Navy, railways at home and abroad, London University. From 1865, he worked on improving the elegance and stability of surveying instruments the theodolite, whose construction he simplified, it had a rotating telescope for measuring horizontal and vertical angles and able to take sights on prominent objects at a distance. The component parts were reduced to fewer than half of the 226 used in the previous version, making it lighter and more accurate. Stanley designed and set up a factory in 1875 or 1876 (called The Stanley Works, it was listed in the 1876 Croy
Harley-Davidson, Inc. or Harley, is an American motorcycle manufacturer, founded in Milwaukee, Wisconsin in 1903. One of two major American motorcycle manufacturers to survive the Great Depression, the company has survived numerous ownership arrangements, subsidiary arrangements, periods of poor economic health and product quality, as well as intense global competition, to become one of the world's largest motorcycle manufacturers and an iconic brand known for its loyal following. There are events worldwide as well as a company-sponsored brand-focused museum. Noted for a style of customization that gave rise to the chopper motorcycle style, Harley-Davidson traditionally marketed heavyweight, air-cooled cruiser motorcycles with engine displacements greater than 700 cm³ and has broadened its offerings to include its more contemporary VRSC and middle-weight Street platforms. Harley-Davidson manufactures its motorcycles at factories in Pennsylvania. Construction of a new plant in Thailand is scheduled to begin in late 2018.
The company markets its products worldwide. Besides motorcycles, the company licenses and markets merchandise under the Harley-Davidson brand, among them apparel, home decor and ornaments, accessories and scale figures of its motorcycles, video games based on its motorcycle line and the community. In 1901, 20-year-old William S. Harley drew up plans for a small engine with a displacement of 7.07 cubic inches and four-inch flywheels. The engine was designed for use in a regular pedal-bicycle frame. Over the next two years and his childhood friend Arthur Davidson worked on their motor-bicycle using the northside Milwaukee machine shop at the home of their friend, Henry Melk, it was finished in 1903 with the help of Walter Davidson. Upon testing their power-cycle and the Davidson brothers found it unable to climb the hills around Milwaukee without pedal assistance, they wrote off their first motor-bicycle as a valuable learning experiment. Work began on a new and improved second-generation machine.
This first "real" Harley-Davidson motorcycle had a bigger engine of 24.74 cubic inches with 9.75 inches flywheels weighing 28 lb. The machine's advanced loop-frame pattern was similar to the 1903 Milwaukee Merkel motorcycle; the bigger engine and loop-frame design took it out of the motorized bicycle category and marked the path to future motorcycle designs. The boys received help with their bigger engine from outboard motor pioneer Ole Evinrude, building gas engines of his own design for automotive use on Milwaukee's Lake Street; the prototype of the new loop-frame Harley-Davidson was assembled in a 10 ft × 15 ft shed in the Davidson family backyard. Most of the major parts, were made elsewhere, including some fabricated at the West Milwaukee railshops where oldest brother William A. Davidson was toolroom foreman; this prototype machine was functional by September 8, 1904, when it competed in a Milwaukee motorcycle race held at State Fair Park. It was placed fourth; this is the first documented appearance of a Harley-Davidson motorcycle in the historical record.
In January 1905, small advertisements were placed in the Automobile and Cycle Trade Journal offering bare Harley-Davidson engines to the do-it-yourself trade. By April, complete motorcycles were in production on a limited basis; that year, the first Harley-Davidson dealer, Carl H. Lang of Chicago, sold three bikes from the five built in the Davidson backyard shed. Years the original shed was taken to the Juneau Avenue factory where it would stand for many decades as a tribute to the Motor Company's humble origins until it was accidentally destroyed by contractors cleaning the factory yard in the early 1970s. In 1906, Harley and the Davidson brothers built their first factory on Chestnut Street, at the current location of Harley-Davidson's corporate headquarters; the first Juneau Avenue plant was a 40 ft × 60 ft single-story wooden structure. The company produced about 50 motorcycles that year. In 1907, William S. Harley graduated from the University of Wisconsin–Madison with a degree in mechanical engineering.
That year additional factory expansion came with a second floor and with facings and additions of Milwaukee pale yellow brick. With the new facilities production increased to 150 motorcycles in 1907; the company was incorporated that September. They began selling their motorcycles to police departments around this time, a market, important to them since. In 1907 William A. Davidson, brother to Arthur and Walter Davidson, quit his job as tool foreman for the Milwaukee Road railroad and joined the Motor Company. Production in 1905 and 1906 were all single-cylinder models with 26.84 cubic inch engines. In February 1907 a prototype model with a 45-degree V-Twin engine was displayed at the Chicago Automobile Show. Although shown and advertised few V-Twin models were built between 1907 and 1910; these first V-Twins produced about 7 horsepower. This gave about double the power of the first singles. Top speed was about 60 mph. Production jumped from 450 motorcycles in 1908 to 1,149 machines in 1909. By 1911, some 150 makes of motorcycles had been built in the United States – although just a handful would survive the 1910s.
In 1911, an improved V-Twin model was introduced. The new engine had me