Obama's Wars is a 2010 book written by Pulitzer Prize-winning investigative journalist Bob Woodward. The book was published by Simon & Schuster and released on September 27, 2010, it focuses on the internal debates and divisions within the Obama administration regarding the handling of the United States' involvement in the ongoing Iraq and Afghanistan wars. Woodward was interviewed by ABC News anchor Diane Sawyer to promote the book as well as PBS journalist Charlie Rose. In comments made to the press on September 22, 2010, White House Press Secretary Robert Gibbs responded to the book by stating, "I will say I think that the book portrays a thoughtful, vigorous policy process that led us to a strategy that gives us the best chance at achieving our objectives and goals in Afghanistan." He commented, "I hope people will read the whole book and see that we had a policy that -- and a situation in Afghanistan, neglected for seven years, badly under-resourced and in need of new ideas and a new strategy.
And the President shepherded through a process, thoughtful and deliberate and focused to come up with what was our best chance at success." In a video of Osama Bin Laden titled "Message to the American People", he recommends reading this book to gain insight into the mishandling of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars by President Barack Obama. Carlos Lozada of the Washington Post, called upon Woodward for his reaction to learning that The Obama Wars was one of the books Navy SEALs retrieved from Osama bin Laden's final Abbottabad hideout, after they killed him in 2011. Lozada quoted Woodward's comment that, if bin Laden had read his book more he would have returned to his mountain cave
Michael Charles Chiklis is an American actor and television producer. He is best known for his role as LAPD Detective Vic Mackey on the FX police drama The Shield, for which he won the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Drama Series, he is known for playing Commissioner Tony Scali on the ABC police drama The Commish, The Thing in the Fantastic Four film series, Jim Powell on the ABC science-fiction comedy-drama No Ordinary Family. Additionally, he co-starred as Vincent Savino in the CBS crime drama Vegas. In 2014 Chiklis joined the cast of American Horror Story for its fourth season, American Horror Story: Freak Show; the following year he was cast as Nathaniel Barnes, in the second season of Gotham, as a series regular. Chiklis was born in Massachusetts, his mother, Katherine, is a hospital administrative aide, his father, Charlie Chiklis, runs a hair/beauty salon. Chiklis has been described as inheriting his acting ability from his mother, his father is a second-generation Greek American and his mother is of Greek and Irish descent.
Chiklis grew up in Andover and began entertaining his family with celebrity imitations when he was five years old. As a child, Chiklis appeared in regional theater productions and became a member of the Actors' Equity Association at age thirteen. In the ninth grade, he portrayed Hawkeye Pierce in Andover High School's production of M*A*S*H, he attended Boston University College of Fine Arts, where he received a Bachelor of Fine Arts. After graduation, Chiklis moved to Brooklyn, New York City and was cast in the role of John Belushi in the controversial biopic Wired in 1989; the film flopped at the box office. He guest starred in several popular television series such as Miami Vice, B. L. Stryker, Wiseguy, L. A. Law, Murphy Brown, Seinfeld alongside bit parts in films like Nixon. Chiklis's first successful role was in The Commish, a police comedy/drama that ran from 1991–1996 on ABC. Chiklis played a police commissioner in a small city in upstate New York. After The Commish, Chiklis starred in the short-lived NBC sitcom Daddio.
After playing Curly Howard in the 2000 TV movie The Three Stooges, Chiklis decided to reinvent his image. With his wife's help, he shaved his head, he turned up to audition for The Shield looking nothing like the pudgy, friendly character of The Commish. Winning over creator Shawn Ryan, Chiklis nabbed the leading role of the show's anti-hero, LAPD Detective Vic Mackey, he won the 2002 Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor In A Drama Series for the role. Chiklis received a Golden Globe Award that same year for Best Performance by an Actor in a Television Series-Drama as well. Between 2004 and 2005, he was nominated for a Golden Globe for Best Actor in a Drama Series but did not win. Chiklis parodied his role as Vic Mackey in "Monstourage," an episode of Robot Chicken; the skit involved Mackey accidentally switching places with Ben Grimm. Since 2000, Chiklis has taken up a number of voice roles, voicing Chihiro's father, Akio, in the English dub of Hayao Miyazaki's Spirited Away and Roman/King Webster in the direct-to-video feature The Adventures of Tom Thumb and Thumbelina.
He has performed in several episodes of Family Guy and had a voice role in Heavy Gear: The Animated Series. In 2005, he starred in Fantastic Four as Thing and reprised the role in its 2007 sequel, Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer. Being a fan of the comic book series, he had dreamed of playing the character if there was a Fantastic Four movie being produced. Chiklis was praised for his performance in a film that otherwise earned mixed reviews, his wife visited him on set during the filming but was not aware that he would be in his full bodysuit and makeup as The Thing. Chiklis had a role in the 2008 film Eagle Eye as the United States Secretary of Defense. In the wake of Bernard Madoff scandal, Chiklis is developing a series at FX about a similar investment scheme; the project, called House of Cards, concerns a group committing an elaborate scam similar to the Madoff fraud. Chiklis had been developing the project since February 2008 after he and his wife became victims of a Ponzi scheme themselves.
Cards will center on the leader of the scheme, with Chiklis planning to executive produce but not star. Chiklis starred in the ABC television series No Ordinary Family, which premiered on September 28, 2010, as part of the 2010–11 television season and ended in April, 2011, he co-starred in the CBS Crime drama Vegas. In March 2014, it was announced that Chiklis had been cast in American Horror Story: Freak Show, the fourth season of the FX anthology series. In 2014 Chiklis played a small part towards the end of the FX series Sons of Anarchy, where he appears first on the episode "Rose Red", he played a trucker who first encounters Gemma on her way to her father at a truck stop implied to be Vic Mackey. In the series finale, his character drives his tractor-trailer truck head-first into Jax Teller. In 2015 he appeared in Gotham as Captain Nathaniel Barnes. In a nod to Chiklis' time on the Strike Team on The Shield, his character established a named "Strike Force". Chiklis released his first solo album INFLUENCE in September 2016.
Chiklis produced the album at his own Extravaganza Music Studio. Chiklis married Michelle Moran on June 21, 1992, they have two daughters: Autumn, born on October 9, 1993, Odessa, born in 1999. Autumn played Vic Mackey's daughter Cassidy
The Final Days
The Final Days is a 1976 non-fiction book written by Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein about the Watergate scandal. A follow up to their 1974 book All the President's Men, The Final Days concerns itself with the final months of the Presidency of Richard Nixon including battles over the Nixon White House tapes and the impeachment process against Richard Nixon. Not long after the resignation of Richard Nixon in August 1974, Woodward and Bernstein took a leave of absence from The Washington Post in order to begin work on the book, they intended to cover just the last hundred days of the Nixon presidency but expanded it further back. They hired two research assistants, Scott Armstrong and Al Kamen, among them they interviewed 394 people involved in the tale. People were anxious to talk in an effort to get their perspective on the events included in the narrative, all of the sources were promised anonymity in return. In this way and Bernstein constructed a fly on the wall type narrative of the events in question.
While the book was being written, there were some intimations that it was going to be a "blockbuster" in terms of content, but Woodward demurred, saying instead that it would be "a book of a hundred small surprises."According to Jon Marshall's 2011 retrospective look at Watergate and the press, although Bernstein got co-equal credit on the cover, he in fact did few interviews and not only less of the writing than Woodward, but less than either Armstrong or Kamen. As noted in the book's foreword, all the information and scenarios depicted were taken from interviews with 394 people who were involved; the content of the interviews was considered on the record, but the identity of the sources remained confidential. Every detail was checked, any information that could not be confirmed by two separate accounts was left out of the book. In an example of the book's approach, J. Fred Buzhardt co-operated with Woodward and Bernstein during the research for the book, by sitting for eight "extensive" interviews.
One person was interviewed as many as 17 times. Release of the book was preceded by the publishing of excerpts in Newsweek magazine, which included a number of the authors' more vivid narrations. At the same time, revelations from these excerpts appeared in many newspaper stories. Two revelations that caught the most attention regarded Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. One was the disparaging comments about Nixon that Kissinger made to his staff, such as a reference to "our meatball President." The other, which received more attention, was a memorable August 7, night-before-resignation-announcement scene with the president, in which a sobbing Nixon asked Kissinger to kneel and pray with him in the Lincoln Sitting Room, with Nixon ending up curled on the floor, beating the carpet with his fist whilst bemoaning his fate. The sensational nature of some of the excerpts brought significant criticism. Other items revealed by the excerpts included Nixon's deteriorating mental state, fears among his sons-in-law that he posed a possible danger to himself, Nixon's strong strain of anti-Semitism, that the president and First Lady Pat Nixon were estranged and had been for some time.
The promotion was effective: this issue of Newsweek became the fastest selling one in the magazine's history. The debate over these particular incidents colored much of the subsequent reaction to the book; the book contains two parts, with twenty chapters. The first carries on from where All the President's Men leaves off, in particular from April 30, 1973, when John Dean, the White House counsel, was fired, brings the narrative through developments of in 1973 and up to late July 1974. Part II consists of a day-by-day account of the title-referenced final days, beginning with "Wednesday, July 24" and continuing through "Friday, August 9". There is a Cast of Characters at the beginning, starting at Robert Abplanalp and finishing with Ronald L. Ziegler, a Chronology at the end, running from November 5, 1968 through August 9, 1974. Both are intended to help the reader keep the complex chain of people in mind; as published by Simon & Schuster, the book contained some photographic illustrations and cost $10.95.
After it became the fastest selling book in the publisher's history, the price was raised to $11.95 to defray paper costs and, in the publisher's words, as part of "maintaining priority press time so that can get on press before other books." Reviews of the book focused both on the disclosures within it and the methods by which it was written. Regarding the first, the Los Angeles Times said the book was "Fascinating, mordant, frightening...." Newsweek, which ran the excerpts, described it as "An extraordinary work of reportage on the epic political story of our time."The book as a whole gave a more balanced, at times sympathetic, portrait of Nixon. The New York Times daily review by Christopher Lehmann-Haupt said that the book was "Unprecedented... emerges from the book as a tragic figure weathering a catastrophic ordeal, weathering it with considerable courage and dignity." This fuller depiction did much to ameliorate the initial denunciations of the book. Making reference to the debate swirling around the book, the Times wrote: But can we believe The Final Days?
Are Messrs. Woodward and Bernstein credible? All that can be reported here is that the experience of reading the book is credible — that is, the book is artistically believable. After all, as extraordinarily fresh as the whole thing seems
A hardcover or hardback book is one bound with rigid protective covers. It has a sewn spine which allows the book to lie flat on a surface when opened. Following the ISBN sequence numbers, books of this type may be identified by the abbreviation Hbk. Hardcover books are printed on acid-free paper, they are much more durable than paperbacks, which have flexible damaged paper covers. Hardcover books are marginally more costly to manufacture. Hardcovers are protected by artistic dust jackets, but a "jacketless" alternative is becoming popular: these "paper-over-board" or "jacketless hardcover" bindings forgo the dust jacket in favor of printing the cover design directly onto the board binding. If brisk sales are anticipated, a hardcover edition of a book is released first, followed by a "trade" paperback edition the next year; some publishers publish paperback originals. For popular books these sales cycles may be extended, followed by a mass market paperback edition typeset in a more compact size and printed on shallower, less hardy paper.
This is intended to, in part, prolong the life of the immediate buying boom that occurs for some best sellers: After the attention to the book has subsided, a lower-cost version in the paperback, is released to sell further copies. In the past the release of a paperback edition was one year after the hardback, but by the early twenty-first century paperbacks were released six months after the hardback by some publishers, it is unusual for a book, first published in paperback to be followed by a hardback. An example is the novel The Judgment of Paris by Gore Vidal, which had its revised edition of 1961 first published in paperback, in hardcover. Hardcover books are sold at higher prices than comparable paperbacks. Books for the general public are printed in hardback only for authors who are expected to be successful, or as a precursor to the paperback to predict sale levels. Hardcovers consist of a page block, two boards, a cloth or heavy paper covering; the pages are sewn together and glued onto a flexible spine between the boards, it too is covered by the cloth.
A paper wrapper, or dust jacket, is put over the binding, folding over each horizontal end of the boards. Dust jackets serve to protect the underlying cover from wear. On the folded part, or flap, over the front cover is a blurb, or a summary of the book; the back flap is. Reviews are placed on the back of the jacket. Many modern bestselling hardcover books use a partial cloth cover, with cloth covered board on the spine only, only boards covering the rest of the book. Bookbinding Paperback
A biography, or bio, is a detailed description of a person's life. It involves more than just the basic facts like education, work and death. Unlike a profile or curriculum vitae, a biography presents a subject's life story, highlighting various aspects of his or her life, including intimate details of experience, may include an analysis of the subject's personality. Biographical works are non-fiction, but fiction can be used to portray a person's life. One in-depth form of biographical coverage is called legacy writing. Works in diverse media, from literature to film, form the genre known as biography. An authorized biography is written with the permission, at times, participation of a subject or a subject's heirs. An autobiography is written by the person himself or herself, sometimes with the assistance of a collaborator or ghostwriter. At first, biographical writings were regarded as a subsection of history with a focus on a particular individual of historical importance; the independent genre of biography as distinct from general history writing, began to emerge in the 18th century and reached its contemporary form at the turn of the 20th century.
One of the earliest biographers was Cornelius Nepos, who published his work Excellentium Imperatorum Vitae in 44 BC. Longer and more extensive biographies were written in Greek by Plutarch, in his Parallel Lives, published about 80 A. D. In this work famous Greeks are paired with famous Romans, for example the orators Demosthenes and Cicero, or the generals Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar. Another well-known collection of ancient biographies is De vita Caesarum by Suetonius, written about AD 121 in the time of the emperor Hadrian. In the early Middle Ages, there was a decline in awareness of the classical culture in Europe. During this time, the only repositories of knowledge and records of the early history in Europe were those of the Roman Catholic Church. Hermits and priests used this historic period to write biographies, their subjects were restricted to the church fathers, martyrs and saints. Their works were meant to be inspirational to the people and vehicles for conversion to Christianity.
One significant secular example of a biography from this period is the life of Charlemagne by his courtier Einhard. In Medieval Islamic Civilization, similar traditional Muslim biographies of Muhammad and other important figures in the early history of Islam began to be written, beginning the Prophetic biography tradition. Early biographical dictionaries were published as compendia of famous Islamic personalities from the 9th century onwards, they contained more social data for a large segment of the population than other works of that period. The earliest biographical dictionaries focused on the lives of the prophets of Islam and their companions, with one of these early examples being The Book of The Major Classes by Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi, and began the documentation of the lives of many other historical figures who lived in the medieval Islamic world. By the late Middle Ages, biographies became less church-oriented in Europe as biographies of kings and tyrants began to appear; the most famous of such biographies was Le Morte d'Arthur by Sir Thomas Malory.
The book was an account of his Knights of the Round Table. Following Malory, the new emphasis on humanism during the Renaissance promoted a focus on secular subjects, such as artists and poets, encouraged writing in the vernacular. Giorgio Vasari's Lives of the Artists was the landmark biography focusing on secular lives. Vasari made celebrities of his subjects, as the Lives became an early "bestseller". Two other developments are noteworthy: the development of the printing press in the 15th century and the gradual increase in literacy. Biographies in the English language began appearing during the reign of Henry VIII. John Foxe's Actes and Monuments, better known as Foxe's Book of Martyrs, was the first dictionary of the biography in Europe, followed by Thomas Fuller's The History of the Worthies of England, with a distinct focus on public life. Influential in shaping popular conceptions of pirates, A General History of the Pyrates, by Charles Johnson, is the prime source for the biographies of many well-known pirates.
A notable early collection of biographies of eminent men and women in the United Kingdom was Biographia Britannica edited by William Oldys. The American biography followed the English model, incorporating Thomas Carlyle's view that biography was a part of history. Carlyle asserted that the lives of great human beings were essential to understanding society and its institutions. While the historical impulse would remain a strong element in early American biography, American writers carved out a distinct approach. What emerged was a rather didactic form of biography, which sought to shape the individual character of a reader in the process of defining national character; the first modern biography, a work which exerted considerable influence on the evolution of the genre, was James Boswell's The Life of Samuel Johnson, a biography of lexicographer and man-of-letters Samuel Johnson published in 1791. While Boswell's personal acquaintance with his subject only began in 1763, when Johnson was 54 years old, Boswell covered the entirety of Johnson's life by means of additional research.
Itself an important stage in the development of the modern genre of biography, it has been claimed to be the greatest biography writte
All the President's Men
All the President's Men is a 1974 non-fiction book by Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, two of the journalists who investigated the first Watergate break-in and ensuing scandal for The Washington Post. The book chronicles the investigative reporting of Woodward and Bernstein from Woodward's initial report on the Watergate break-in through the resignations of H. R. Haldeman and John Ehrlichman, the revelation of the Nixon tapes by Alexander Butterfield in 1973, it relates the events behind the major stories the duo wrote for the Post, naming some sources who had refused to be identified for their initial articles, notably Hugh Sloan. It gives detailed accounts of Woodward's secret meetings with his source Deep Throat, whose identity was kept hidden for over 30 years. Gene Roberts, the former executive editor of The Philadelphia Inquirer and former managing editor of The New York Times, has called the work of Woodward and Bernstein "maybe the single greatest reporting effort of all time."A film adaptation, produced by Robert Redford, starring Redford and Dustin Hoffman as Woodward and Bernstein was released in 1976.
That same year, a sequel to the book, The Final Days, was published, which chronicled the last months of Nixon's presidency, starting around the time their previous book ended. Woodward and Bernstein had considered the idea of writing a book about Watergate, but did not commit until actor Robert Redford expressed interest in purchasing the film rights. In Telling the Truth About Lies: The Making of "All the President's Men," Woodward noted that Redford played an important role in changing the book's narrative from a story about the Watergate events to one about their investigations and reportage of the story; the name of the book alludes to the nursery rhyme about Humpty Dumpty. An allusion similar to, made more explicitly a quarter-century earlier in the Robert Penn Warren novel All the King's Men, which describes the career of a fictional corrupt governor, loosely based on Huey Long. Dick Snyder of Simon & Schuster purchased the right to publish the book through the agent David Obst; the authors received an advance of $55,000.
In his memoir, Michael Korda said of the book's publication that it "transformed book publishing into a red-hot part of media" and books became "news" instead of history. Because the book was embargoed until publication day, there were no advance copies for reviewers. Simon & Schuster became known as the "Watergate" publisher by following up All the President's Men with books by John Dean, Maureen Dean, John Ehrlichman and John Mitchell; the Woodward and Bernstein Watergate Papers, an exhibition at the University of Texas at Austin 40 years retrospective joint interview on CBS
John David Landis is an American film director, screenwriter and producer. He is best known for the comedy films that he has directed, such as National Lampoon's Animal House, The Blues Brothers, An American Werewolf in London, Trading Places, Three Amigos, Coming to America and Beverly Hills Cop III, for directing Michael Jackson's music videos for "Thriller" and "Black or White". Landis was born into a Jewish family in Chicago, the son of Shirley Levine and Marshall Landis, an interior designer and decorator. Landis and his parents relocated to Los Angeles. Though spending his childhood in California, Landis still refers to Chicago as his hometown, is a big fan of the Chicago White Sox baseball team; when Landis was a young boy, he watched The 7th Voyage of Sinbad which inspired him to become a director: I had complete suspension of disbelief—really, I was eight years old and it transported me. I was on that beach running from that dragon, it just dazzled me, I bought it completely. And so, I sat through it twice and when I got home, I asked my mom, "Who does that?
Who makes the movie?" Landis began his film career working as a mailboy at 20th Century Fox. He worked as a "go-fer" and as an assistant director during filming MGM's Kelly's Heroes in Yugoslavia in 1969. During that time Landis became acquainted with actors Don Rickles and Donald Sutherland, both of whom would work in his films. Following Kelly's Heroes, Landis worked on several films that were shot in Europe, including Once Upon a Time in the West, El Condor and A Town Called Bastard. Landis worked as a stunt double. I worked on all kind of movies. French foreign movies. I worked on a movie called Red Sun where Toshiro Mifune kills me, puts a sword through me.... I worked as a stunt guy. I worked as a dialogue coach. I worked as an actor. I worked as a production assistant. Landis made his directorial debut with Schlock, he was 21 years old. The film, which he wrote and appeared in, is a tribute to monster movies; the gorilla suit for the film was made by Rick Baker—the beginning of a long-term collaboration between Landis and Baker.
Though complete in 1971, it was not released until 1973 that Schlock was released after it caught the attention of Johnny Carson. Carson was a fan of the film and invited Landis as a guest on The Tonight Show, showing clips from the film and in the process bringing attention to it. Schlock has since gained a cult following, but Landis has described the film as "terrible". Landis was hired to directed The Kentucky Fried Movie after David Zucker saw his Tonight Show appearance; the film was inspired by the satirical sketch comedy of shows like Monty Python, Free the Army, The National Lampoon Radio Hour and Saturday Night Live. It is notable for being the first film written by the Zucker and Zucker team, who would have success with Airplane! and The Naked Gun trilogy. Sean Daniel, an assistant to Universal executive Thom Mount, saw The Kentucky Fried Movie and recommend Landis to direct Animal House based on that. Landis says of the screenplay, "It was literally one of the funniest things I read.
It had a nasty edge like National Lampoon. I told him it was wonderful smart and funny, but everyone’s a pig for one thing." While it received mixed reviews, it was a massive financial success, earning over $120 million at the domestic box office, making it the highest grossing comedy film of its time. It's success started the gross out film genre, it featured the screen debuts of John Belushi, Karen Allen and Kevin Bacon. In 1980, he co-wrote and directed The Blues Brothers, a comedy starring John Belushi and Dan Aykroyd, it featured musical numbers by R&B and soul legends James Brown, Cab Calloway, Aretha Franklin, Ray Charles and John Lee Hooker. It was, at the time, one of the most expensive films made, costing $30 million, it is speculated that Spielberg and Landis engaged in a rivalry, the goal of, to make the more expensive movie. The rivalry might have been a friendly one, as Spielberg makes a cameo appearance in Blues Brothers and Landis had made a cameo in 1941 as a messenger. In 1981, Landis wrote and directed another cult-status movie, the comedy-horror An American Werewolf in London.
It was Landis's most personal project. It was another commercial success for Landis and inspired studios to put comedic elements in their horror films. On July 23, 1982, during the filming of Twilight Zone, actor Vic Morrow and child extras Myca Dinh Le and Renee Shin-Yi Chen were killed in an accident involving an out-of-control helicopter; the three were caught under the aircraft. The National Transportation Safety Board reported in October 1984: The probable cause of the accident was the detonation of debris-laden high temperature special effects explosions too near a low-flying helicopter leading to foreign object damage to one rotor blade and delamination due to heat to the other rotor blade, the separation of the helicopter's tail rotor assembly, the uncontrolled descent of the helicopter; the proximity of the helicopter to the special effects explosions was due to the failure to establish direct communications and coordination between the pilot, in command