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Wired (magazine)

Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, politics. Owned by Condé Nast, it is headquartered in San Francisco and has been in publication since March/April 1993. Several spin-offs have been launched, including Wired UK, Wired Italia, Wired Japan, Wired Germany. Condé Nast's parent company Advance Publications is the major shareholder of Reddit, an internet information conglomeration website. In its earliest colophons, Wired credited Canadian media theorist Marshall McLuhan as its "patron saint". From its beginning, the strongest influence on the magazine's editorial outlook came from techno-utopian cofounder Stewart Brand and his associate Kevin Kelly. From 1998 to 2006, Wired magazine and Wired News, which publishes at Wired.com, had separate owners. However, Wired News remained responsible for republishing Wired magazine's content online due to an agreement when Condé Nast purchased the magazine.

In 2006, Condé Nast bought Wired News for $25 million. Wired contributor Chris Anderson is known for popularizing the term "the long tail", as a phrase relating to a "power law"-type graph that helps to visualize the 2000s emergent new media business model. Anderson's article for Wired on this paradigm related to research on power law distribution models carried out by Clay Shirky in relation to bloggers. Anderson widened the definition of the term in capitals to describe a specific point of view relating to what he sees as an overlooked aspect of the traditional market space, opened up by new media; the magazine coined the term crowdsourcing, as well as its annual tradition of handing out Vaporware Awards, which recognize "products and other nerdy tidbits pitched and hyped, but never delivered". The magazine was founded by American journalist Louis Rossetto and his partner Jane Metcalfe, along with Ian Charles Stewart, in 1993 with initial backing from software entrepreneur Charlie Jackson and eclectic academic Nicholas Negroponte of the MIT Media Lab, a regular columnist for six years, wrote the book Being Digital, founded One Laptop per Child.

The founding designers were John Plunkett and Barbara Kuhr, beginning with a 1991 prototype and continuing through the first five years of publication, 1993–98. Wired, which touted itself as "the Rolling Stone of technology", made its debut at the Macworld conference on January 2, 1993. A great success at its launch, it was lauded for its vision, originality and cultural impact. In its first four years, the magazine won two National Magazine Awards for General Excellence and one for Design; the founding executive editor of Wired, Kevin Kelly, was an editor of the Whole Earth Catalog and the Whole Earth Review and brought with him contributing writers from those publications. Six authors of the first Wired issue had written for Whole Earth Review, most notably Bruce Sterling and Stewart Brand. Other contributors to Whole Earth appeared in Wired, including William Gibson, featured on Wired's cover in its first year and whose article "Disneyland with the Death Penalty" in issue 1.4 resulted in the publication being banned in Singapore.

Wired cofounder Louis Rossetto claimed in the magazine's first issue that "the Digital Revolution is whipping through our lives like a Bengali typhoon," yet despite the fact that Kelly was involved in launching the WELL, an early source of public access to the Internet and earlier non-Internet online experience, Wired's first issue de-emphasized the Internet and covered interactive games, cell-phone hacking, digital special effects, military simulations, Japanese otaku. However, the first issue did contain a few references to the Internet, including online dating and Internet sex, a tutorial on how to install a bozo filter; the last page, a column written by Nicholas Negroponte, was written in the style of an email message but contained fake, non-standard email addresses. By the third issue in the fall of 1993, the "Net Surf" column began listing interesting FTP sites, Usenet newsgroups, email addresses, at a time when the numbers of these things were small and this information was still novel to the public.

Wired was among the first magazines to list the email address of its contributors. Associate publisher Kathleen Lyman was brought on board to launch Wired with an advertising base of major technology and consumer advertisers. Lyman, along with Simon Ferguson, introduced revolutionary ad campaigns by a diverse group of industry leaders—such as Apple Computer, Sony, Calvin Klein, Absolut—to the readers of the first technology publication with a lifestyle slant; the magazine was followed by a companion website, a book publishing division, a Japanese edition, a short-lived British edition. Wired UK was relaunched in April 2009. In 1994, John Battelle, cofounding editor, commissioned Jules Marshall to write a piece on the Zippies; the cover story broke records for being one of the most publicized stories of the year and was used to promote Wired's HotWired news service. HotWired spawned websites Webmonkey, the search engine HotBot, a weblog, Suck.com. In June 1998, the magazine launched a stock index, the Wired Index, called the Wired 40 since July 2003.

The fortune of the magazine and allied enterprises corresponded to that of the dot-com bubble. In 1996, Rossetto and the other participants in Wired Ventures attempted to take the company public with an IPO; the initial attempt had to be withdrawn

Lincoln Park Public Schools (New Jersey)

The Lincoln Park Public Schools are a community public school district that serves students in pre-kindergarten through eighth grade from Lincoln Park, in Morris County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2014-15 school year, the district and its two schools had an enrollment of 1,296 students and 74.3 classroom teachers, for a student–teacher ratio of 17.4:1. The district is classified by the New Jersey Department of Education as being in District Factor Group "FG", the fourth-highest of eight groupings. District Factor Groups organize districts statewide to allow comparison by common socioeconomic characteristics of the local districts. From lowest socioeconomic status to highest, the categories are A, B, CD, DE, FG, GH, I and J. For ninth through twelfth grades, Lincoln Park public school students attend Boonton High School in Boonton as part of a sending/receiving relationship with the Boonton Public Schools, with Lincoln Park students accounting for a majority of students at the high school.

As of the 2017-18 school year, the high school had an enrollment of 603 students and 55.3 classroom teachers, for a student–teacher ratio of 10.9:1. The two districts have sought to sever the more-than-50-year-old relationship, citing cost savings that could be achieved by both districts and complaints by Lincoln Park that it is granted only one seat on the Boonton Public Schools' Board of Education, less than the number of seats that would be allocated based on the percentage of students of population. In April 2006, the Commissioner of the New Jersey Department of Education rejected the request; as of 2015-16 there were about 70 students from the borough attending the academy programs of the Morris County Vocational School District, which are the Morris County School of Technology in Denville. Schools in the district are: Elementary schoolLincoln Park Elementary School for grades preK-4 Melissa Flach-Bammer - PrincipalMiddle schoolLincoln Park Middle School for grades 5-8 Michael Meyer - Principal Core members of the district's administration are: James W. Grube, Superintendent Adrian Pollio, Business Administrator / Board Secretary Lincoln Park Public Schools Lincoln Park Public Schools's 2015–16 School Report Card from the New Jersey Department of Education School Data for the Lincoln Park Public Schools, National Center for Education Statistics

List of prime ministers of Italy

The Prime Minister of Italy President of the Council of Ministers, is the political leader of Italy since 1861. The Palazzo Chigi in Rome is the official residence of the Prime Minister; the Prime Minister is the President of the Council of Ministers and must receive a vote of approval from it to execute most political activities. The office is similar to those in most other parliamentary systems, but the leader of the Italian government is not authorized to request the dissolution of the Parliament or to dismiss ministers; the office was established by Articles 92 through to 96 of the current Constitution of Italy. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President of the Republic after each general election. Referred to in Italy as Premier, the right title of the office holder is President of the Council of Ministers, or just President of the Council; the formal Italian order of precedence lists the office as being ceremonially the fourth most important Italian state office. The office was first established in 1848 in Italy's predecessor state, the Kingdom of Sardinia, although it was not mentioned in the constitution, the Albertine Statute.

The candidate for office was appointed by the king and presided over a unstable political system. In its first 60 years of existence, Italy changed its prime minister 37 times. Regarding this situation, the first goal of Benito Mussolini, appointed in 1922, was to abolish the Parliament's ability to put him to a vote of no confidence, thus basing his power on the will of the king and the National Fascist Party alone. With the proclamation of the Italian Republic in 1946, the office received constitutional recognition and 29 men assumed the office in 73 years. Parties: 1861–1912: Historical Right Historical Left 1912–1922: Liberal Union Radical Party Reformist Socialist Party Military 1922–1943: National Fascist Party 1943–1946: Labour Democratic Party Action Party Christian Democracy Governments: Rightist coalition Leftist coalition Liberal coalition Fascist Military Mixed coalition Parties: 1946–1994: Christian Democracy Republican Party Socialist Party Independent 1994–present Centre-right Centre-left Independent Coalitions: 1946–1994: Centrist coalition Organic Centre-left Pentapartito/Quadripartito Mixed coalition 1994–present: Centre-right coalition Centre-left coalition Mixed coalition Living former Prime Ministers of Italy Prime Minister of Italy List of prime ministers of Italy by time in office Deputy Prime Minister of Italy Lists of incumbents Politics of Italy Guglielmotti, Umberto, ed..

I presidenti del Consiglio dei Ministri dell'Unita' d'Italia ad oggi, Volume 3. CEN. Viviani, Maria Paola, ed.. La presidenza del Consiglio dei ministri in alcuni stati dell'Europa occidentale ed in Italia. Giuffrè. Rotelli, Ettore, ed.. La Presidenza Del Consiglio Dei Ministri: Il Problema Del Coordinamento Dell'amministrazione Centrale in Italia. Giuffrè. Marzo, Corradino. I governi della Repubblica. Storia dei Presidenti del Consiglio, Volume 1. Lupo. ISBN 978-8866671893

Samantha George

Dr Samantha George is a Senior Lecturer in Literature in the Social Sciences, Arts & Humanities Research Institute at the University of Hertfordshire. She completed a PhD at the University of York in 2004 taught in the Department of English Literature at Sheffield University till taking up her post at Hertfordshire in 2007, she is known for her research on eighteenth century literature and science with a particular emphasis on the role of women and botany. She is known for her work on Gothic and vampire literature and culture, is the convener of the'Open Graves, Open Minds: Vampires and the Undead in Modern Culture' research project at the University of Hertfordshire. In 2010, she organized the first Open Graves, Open Minds: Vampires and the Undead in Modern Culture conference, which achieved international coverage. In 2012 a symposium to mark the centenary of Bram Stoker's death was held. In the field of feminist botany she is best known for her book Botany and women's writing 1760-1830: from modest shoot to forward plant, following in the steps of Londa Schiebinger and Ann Shteir in the field of gender and science, detailing the exclusion of women from botany after Linnaeus' classification was published in English, because the sexual reproduction of plants was considered harmful to'female modesty'.

Since she has continued to research and publish on the intersections of literature and science, in particular botany. She has been Reviews Editor for Literature for the Journal of Eighteenth Century Studies. Membership of learned societies include the British Society of Literature and Science, the British Association of Romantic Studies, the British Society for Eighteenth-Century Studies and the International Gothic Association. Dr George publishes under the pen name of Sam George. Select publications include; the Poetry of Erasmus Darwin. The Encyclopedia of British Literature 1660-1789. Day, G. & Lynch, J.. Wiley Blackwell2014 George, S. Carl Linnaeus, Erasmus Darwin and Anna Seward: Botanical Poetry and Female Education Mar 2014 In: Science and Education. 23, 3, p. 673-694 22 p. George, S. Girlhood's Tender Shoots: Education and Natural Science in Juvenile Literature for Girls 1760-1840 Pickering and Chatto. George, S. Teaching Vampire Literature: Blood and Gore in the Academy In: Gothic Studies.

Forthcoming George, S. The Tulip: A Cultural History Reaktion Books.2013 George, S. He make in the mirror no reflect': undead aesthetics and mechanical reproduction -'Dorian Gray','Dracula', David Reed's'vampire painting 1 Dec 2013 Open Graves, Open Minds: Representations of Vampires and the Undead from the Enlightenment to the Present Day George, S. & Hughes, B.. Manchester: University of Manchester Press, p. 56-78 22 p. George, S. Foreword Dec 2013 The Vampire Goes to College: Essays on Teaching with the Undead. Nevarez, L. A.. New Jersey: McFarland George, S. & Hughes, B. Open Graves, Open Minds: Representations of Vampires and the Undead from the Enlightenment to the Present Day University of Manchester Press. 320 p. George, S. Sam George In Conversation With Sir Christopher Frayling Jul 2013 Misdirect Movies. Rimmer, J. & Bracey, A.. Manchester: Cornerhouse Publications, p. 60-67 7 p. George, S. & Hughes, B. Introduction: undead reflections: the sympathetic vampire and its monstrous other May 2013 In: Gothic Studies.

15, 1, p. 1-7 George, S. & Hughes, B. Open Graves, Open Minds: Vampires and the Undead in Modern Culture May 2013 In: Gothic Studies. 15, 1 George, S.'Not Strictly Proper for A Female Pen': Anna Seward Nineteenth-Century Literary Criticism. Gale2011 George, S. & Martin, A. Botanising Women: Transmission and European Exchange Oct 2011 Special Issue: Women and Notany. Journal of Literature and Science 4: 1 George, S. Epistolary Exchange: the Familiar Letter and the Female Botanist, 1760-1820 Oct 2011 In: Journal of Literature and Science. 4, 1, p. 12-29 18 p. 1 A. E. Introduction. Botanising Women: Transmission and European Exchange In: Journal of Literature and Science. 4, 1, p. 1-112010 George, S. Animated beings: enlightenment entomology for girls Dec 2010 In: British Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies. 33, 4, p. 487-505 19 p.2007 George, Sam. Botany and women's writing 1760-1830: from modest shoot to forward plant. Manchester: Manchester University Press. ISBN 9780719076978. Retrieved 23 February 2015.2006 George, S. Cultivating the Botanical Woman: Rousseau and the Instruction of Ladies in Botany In: Zeitschrift fur Padagogische Historiographie.

12, 1, p. 3-112005 George, S.'Not Strictly Proper For A Female Pen': Eighteenth-Century Poetry and the Sexuality of Botany In: Comparative Critical Studies. 2, 2, p. 191-210 George, S. Linnaeus in letters and the cultivation of the female mind: "Botany in an English dress" In: British Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies. 28, 1, p. 1-18 George, S. The cultivation of the female mind: enlightened growth, luxuriant decay and botanical analogy in eighteenth-century texts In: History of European Ideas. 31, 2, p. 209-223

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is a condition characterised by an exaggerated response of the immune system to the fungus Aspergillus. It occurs most in people with asthma or cystic fibrosis. Aspergillus spores are ubiquitous in soil and are found in the sputum of healthy individuals. A. fumigatus is responsible for a spectrum of lung diseases known as aspergilloses. ABPA causes airway inflammation, leading to bronchiectasis—a condition marked by abnormal dilation of the airways. Left untreated, the immune system and fungal spores can damage sensitive lung tissues and lead to scarring; the exact criteria for the diagnosis of ABPA are not agreed upon. Chest X-rays and CT scans, raised blood levels of IgE and eosinophils, immunological tests for Aspergillus together with sputum staining and sputum cultures can be useful. Treatment consists of antifungal medications. All patients have clinically diagnosed asthma, present with wheezing, shortness of breath and exercise intolerance. Moderate and severe cases have symptoms suggestive of bronchiectasis, in particular thick sputum production, as well as symptoms mirroring recurrent infection such as pleuritic chest pain and fever.

Patients with asthma and symptoms of ongoing infection, who do not respond to antibiotic treatment, should be suspected of ABPA. Aspergillus spores are small and can penetrate deep into the respiratory system to the alveolar level. In healthy people and adaptive immune responses are triggered by various immune cells drawn to the site of infection by numerous inflammatory cytokines and neutrophilic attractants. In this situation, mucociliary clearance is initiated and spores are phagocytosed, clearing the infection from the host. In people with predisposing lung diseases—such as persistent asthma or cystic fibrosis —several factors lead to an increased risk of ABPA; these include immune factors, as well as genetic factors. By allowing Aspergillus spores to persist in pulmonary tissues, it permits successful germination which leads to hyphae growing in mucus plugs. There are hypersensitivity responses, both a type I response and a type III hypersensitivity response; the reaction of IgE with Aspergillus antigens results in mast cell degranulation with bronchoconstriction and increased capillary permeability.

Immune complexes and inflammatory cells are deposited within the mucous membranes of the airways, leading to necrosis and eosinophilic infiltration. Type 2 T helper cells appear to play an important role in ABPA due to an increased sensitivity to interleukin 4 and IL-5; these cytokines up-regulate mast cell degranulation. Aspergillus utilises a number of factors to continue evading host responses, notably the use of proteolytic enzymes that interrupt IgG antibodies aimed towards it. Another important feature is its ability to interact and integrate with epithelial surfaces, which results in massive pro-inflammatory counter-response by the immune system involving IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1. Proteases released by both the fungus and neutrophils induce further injury to the respiratory epithelium, leading to initiation of repair mechanisms at the site of infection. Aspergillus spores and hyphae can interact with ECM proteins, it is hypothesised that this process facilitates the binding of spores to damaged respiratory sites.

As concentrations of Aspergillus proteases increase, the immunological effect switches from pro-inflammatory to inhibitory, further reduces phagocytic ability to clear Aspergillus. Repeated acute episodes lead to wider scale damage of pulmonary structures and function via irreversible lung remodelling. Left untreated, this manifests as progressive bronchiectasis and pulmonary fibrosis, seen in the upper lobes, can give rise to a similar radiological appearance to that produced by tuberculosis; the exact criteria for the diagnosis of ABPA are not yet universally agreed upon, though working groups have proposed specific guidelines. Minimal criteria include five factors: the presence of asthma and/or cystic fibrosis, a positive skin test to Aspergillus sp. an IgE > 417 IU/mL, an increased specific IgE or IgG Aspergillus sp. antibodies, the presence of infiltrates on a chest X-ray. ABPA should be suspected in patients with a predisposing lung disease—most asthma or cystic fibrosis— and is associated with chronic airway limitation.

Patients present with symptoms of recurrent infection such as fever, but do not respond to conventional antibiotic therapy. Poorly-controlled asthma is a common finding, with a case series only finding 19% of ABPA patients with well-controlled asthma. Wheezing and hemoptysis are common features, mucus plugging is seen in 31–69% of patients; the first stage involves exposing the skin to Aspergillus fumigatus antigens. The test should be performed first by skin prick testing, if negative followed with an intradermal injection; the overall sensitivity of th

Andy McLaren

Andy McLaren is a Scottish professional footballer. He began his career in 1989 with Dundee United where he was for 10 years and was part of the team when they won the Scottish Cup in 1994, he had trouble with cannabis and cocaine and spent time in rehab before returning to football in June 2000. In 2009, to help others to avoid the pitfalls that he experienced, he established the A&M Training and Development organisation. McLaren, a winger, began his career in 1989 with Dundee United where he remained for 10 years, helping them win the Scottish Cup in 1994, he left Tannadice for English club Reading in 1999 and during his spell had a brief loan spell at Livingston. On returning to Reading, he admitted to alcoholism. After spending time in rehabilitation, he returned to football in June 2000 when he was signed for Kilmarnock by the manager Bobby Williamson. During his time at Rugby Park, he won his only Scotland cap, a substitute appearance in a 1–1 draw against Poland in April 2001, he returned to Dundee United.

He played for one season at Dundee United team, before being loaned to Partick Thistle and Greenock Morton before joining Morton permanently in 2005. After a season at Cappielow, he joined Dundee in July 2006. In his side's defeat at Clyde on 16 December 2006, McLaren was sent off for aiming a blow at a Clyde player, before getting a second red after striking another opponent on the way off the pitch. Once into the dressing rooms he received his third red card for kicking a hole in the door of the referee's room; as a consequence of his actions, Dundee decided to release him from his contract on 20 December 2006. In February 2007, McLaren signed for Ayr United on a part-time deal until the end of 2006–07, scoring on his début a month later. McLaren was released from Somerset Park in May 2008, in August 2008 spent a few games on trial at Bathgate Thistle, before a short spell at Lesmahagow and a short trial at Pollok, whom he left on the back of yet another red card. McLaren joined Petershill in 2009.

On 12 May 2016, McLaren signed for Tynecastle A. F. C. as a player-coach. McLaren gave a positive drugs test in 2000 during his time at Reading and was banned from football. After receiving treatment for drug addiction and alcoholism, McLaren returned to football with Kilmarnock, continuing to receive treatment upon returning to first club Dundee United in 2004. Upon signing for Morton permanently in 2005, McLaren admitted to manager Jim McInally he had suffered from abuse as a child, which had led to his drug and alcohol problems, he announced he had considered suicide, including crashing into a lorry at 80 mph. McLaren's life is detailed in his autobiography, where he chronicles his abuse as a child; as highlighted in his autobiography, Andy wanted to help young people avoid the pitfalls that have affected his life and career. In February 2009 Andy established an organisation – A&M Training now A&M Scotland through which he delivers presentations and talks to young people on his life both in and out of football.

A&M Scotland provides activities such as football coaching and organised games as a way of diverting young people away from involvement in gangs and violence and uses sport and groupwork to build confidence and self-esteem in young people. In December 2014 the charity was named The Guardian UK Small/Medium Charity of the Year. Scottish Premier League Player of the Month: August 2000 Andy McLaren at Post War English & Scottish Football League A–Z Player's Database Andy McLaren at Soccerbase