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Wired (magazine)

Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, politics. Owned by Condé Nast, it is headquartered in San Francisco and has been in publication since March/April 1993. Several spin-offs have been launched, including Wired UK, Wired Italia, Wired Japan, Wired Germany. Condé Nast's parent company Advance Publications is the major shareholder of Reddit, an internet information conglomeration website. In its earliest colophons, Wired credited Canadian media theorist Marshall McLuhan as its "patron saint". From its beginning, the strongest influence on the magazine's editorial outlook came from techno-utopian cofounder Stewart Brand and his associate Kevin Kelly. From 1998 to 2006, Wired magazine and Wired News, which publishes at Wired.com, had separate owners. However, Wired News remained responsible for republishing Wired magazine's content online due to an agreement when Condé Nast purchased the magazine.

In 2006, Condé Nast bought Wired News for $25 million. Wired contributor Chris Anderson is known for popularizing the term "the long tail", as a phrase relating to a "power law"-type graph that helps to visualize the 2000s emergent new media business model. Anderson's article for Wired on this paradigm related to research on power law distribution models carried out by Clay Shirky in relation to bloggers. Anderson widened the definition of the term in capitals to describe a specific point of view relating to what he sees as an overlooked aspect of the traditional market space, opened up by new media; the magazine coined the term crowdsourcing, as well as its annual tradition of handing out Vaporware Awards, which recognize "products and other nerdy tidbits pitched and hyped, but never delivered". The magazine was founded by American journalist Louis Rossetto and his partner Jane Metcalfe, along with Ian Charles Stewart, in 1993 with initial backing from software entrepreneur Charlie Jackson and eclectic academic Nicholas Negroponte of the MIT Media Lab, a regular columnist for six years, wrote the book Being Digital, founded One Laptop per Child.

The founding designers were John Plunkett and Barbara Kuhr, beginning with a 1991 prototype and continuing through the first five years of publication, 1993–98. Wired, which touted itself as "the Rolling Stone of technology", made its debut at the Macworld conference on January 2, 1993. A great success at its launch, it was lauded for its vision, originality and cultural impact. In its first four years, the magazine won two National Magazine Awards for General Excellence and one for Design; the founding executive editor of Wired, Kevin Kelly, was an editor of the Whole Earth Catalog and the Whole Earth Review and brought with him contributing writers from those publications. Six authors of the first Wired issue had written for Whole Earth Review, most notably Bruce Sterling and Stewart Brand. Other contributors to Whole Earth appeared in Wired, including William Gibson, featured on Wired's cover in its first year and whose article "Disneyland with the Death Penalty" in issue 1.4 resulted in the publication being banned in Singapore.

Wired cofounder Louis Rossetto claimed in the magazine's first issue that "the Digital Revolution is whipping through our lives like a Bengali typhoon," yet despite the fact that Kelly was involved in launching the WELL, an early source of public access to the Internet and earlier non-Internet online experience, Wired's first issue de-emphasized the Internet and covered interactive games, cell-phone hacking, digital special effects, military simulations, Japanese otaku. However, the first issue did contain a few references to the Internet, including online dating and Internet sex, a tutorial on how to install a bozo filter; the last page, a column written by Nicholas Negroponte, was written in the style of an email message but contained fake, non-standard email addresses. By the third issue in the fall of 1993, the "Net Surf" column began listing interesting FTP sites, Usenet newsgroups, email addresses, at a time when the numbers of these things were small and this information was still novel to the public.

Wired was among the first magazines to list the email address of its contributors. Associate publisher Kathleen Lyman was brought on board to launch Wired with an advertising base of major technology and consumer advertisers. Lyman, along with Simon Ferguson, introduced revolutionary ad campaigns by a diverse group of industry leaders—such as Apple Computer, Sony, Calvin Klein, Absolut—to the readers of the first technology publication with a lifestyle slant; the magazine was followed by a companion website, a book publishing division, a Japanese edition, a short-lived British edition. Wired UK was relaunched in April 2009. In 1994, John Battelle, cofounding editor, commissioned Jules Marshall to write a piece on the Zippies; the cover story broke records for being one of the most publicized stories of the year and was used to promote Wired's HotWired news service. HotWired spawned websites Webmonkey, the search engine HotBot, a weblog, Suck.com. In June 1998, the magazine launched a stock index, the Wired Index, called the Wired 40 since July 2003.

The fortune of the magazine and allied enterprises corresponded to that of the dot-com bubble. In 1996, Rossetto and the other participants in Wired Ventures attempted to take the company public with an IPO; the initial attempt had to be withdrawn

Lincoln Park Public Schools (New Jersey)

The Lincoln Park Public Schools are a community public school district that serves students in pre-kindergarten through eighth grade from Lincoln Park, in Morris County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2014-15 school year, the district and its two schools had an enrollment of 1,296 students and 74.3 classroom teachers, for a student–teacher ratio of 17.4:1. The district is classified by the New Jersey Department of Education as being in District Factor Group "FG", the fourth-highest of eight groupings. District Factor Groups organize districts statewide to allow comparison by common socioeconomic characteristics of the local districts. From lowest socioeconomic status to highest, the categories are A, B, CD, DE, FG, GH, I and J. For ninth through twelfth grades, Lincoln Park public school students attend Boonton High School in Boonton as part of a sending/receiving relationship with the Boonton Public Schools, with Lincoln Park students accounting for a majority of students at the high school.

As of the 2017-18 school year, the high school had an enrollment of 603 students and 55.3 classroom teachers, for a student–teacher ratio of 10.9:1. The two districts have sought to sever the more-than-50-year-old relationship, citing cost savings that could be achieved by both districts and complaints by Lincoln Park that it is granted only one seat on the Boonton Public Schools' Board of Education, less than the number of seats that would be allocated based on the percentage of students of population. In April 2006, the Commissioner of the New Jersey Department of Education rejected the request; as of 2015-16 there were about 70 students from the borough attending the academy programs of the Morris County Vocational School District, which are the Morris County School of Technology in Denville. Schools in the district are: Elementary schoolLincoln Park Elementary School for grades preK-4 Melissa Flach-Bammer - PrincipalMiddle schoolLincoln Park Middle School for grades 5-8 Michael Meyer - Principal Core members of the district's administration are: James W. Grube, Superintendent Adrian Pollio, Business Administrator / Board Secretary Lincoln Park Public Schools Lincoln Park Public Schools's 2015–16 School Report Card from the New Jersey Department of Education School Data for the Lincoln Park Public Schools, National Center for Education Statistics

List of prime ministers of Italy

The Prime Minister of Italy President of the Council of Ministers, is the political leader of Italy since 1861. The Palazzo Chigi in Rome is the official residence of the Prime Minister; the Prime Minister is the President of the Council of Ministers and must receive a vote of approval from it to execute most political activities. The office is similar to those in most other parliamentary systems, but the leader of the Italian government is not authorized to request the dissolution of the Parliament or to dismiss ministers; the office was established by Articles 92 through to 96 of the current Constitution of Italy. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President of the Republic after each general election. Referred to in Italy as Premier, the right title of the office holder is President of the Council of Ministers, or just President of the Council; the formal Italian order of precedence lists the office as being ceremonially the fourth most important Italian state office. The office was first established in 1848 in Italy's predecessor state, the Kingdom of Sardinia, although it was not mentioned in the constitution, the Albertine Statute.

The candidate for office was appointed by the king and presided over a unstable political system. In its first 60 years of existence, Italy changed its prime minister 37 times. Regarding this situation, the first goal of Benito Mussolini, appointed in 1922, was to abolish the Parliament's ability to put him to a vote of no confidence, thus basing his power on the will of the king and the National Fascist Party alone. With the proclamation of the Italian Republic in 1946, the office received constitutional recognition and 29 men assumed the office in 73 years. Parties: 1861–1912: Historical Right Historical Left 1912–1922: Liberal Union Radical Party Reformist Socialist Party Military 1922–1943: National Fascist Party 1943–1946: Labour Democratic Party Action Party Christian Democracy Governments: Rightist coalition Leftist coalition Liberal coalition Fascist Military Mixed coalition Parties: 1946–1994: Christian Democracy Republican Party Socialist Party Independent 1994–present Centre-right Centre-left Independent Coalitions: 1946–1994: Centrist coalition Organic Centre-left Pentapartito/Quadripartito Mixed coalition 1994–present: Centre-right coalition Centre-left coalition Mixed coalition Living former Prime Ministers of Italy Prime Minister of Italy List of prime ministers of Italy by time in office Deputy Prime Minister of Italy Lists of incumbents Politics of Italy Guglielmotti, Umberto, ed..

I presidenti del Consiglio dei Ministri dell'Unita' d'Italia ad oggi, Volume 3. CEN. Viviani, Maria Paola, ed.. La presidenza del Consiglio dei ministri in alcuni stati dell'Europa occidentale ed in Italia. Giuffrè. Rotelli, Ettore, ed.. La Presidenza Del Consiglio Dei Ministri: Il Problema Del Coordinamento Dell'amministrazione Centrale in Italia. Giuffrè. Marzo, Corradino. I governi della Repubblica. Storia dei Presidenti del Consiglio, Volume 1. Lupo. ISBN 978-8866671893