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Wireless communication — otherwise known as “over the air” —is the transfer of information or power between two or more points that are not connected by an electrical conductor. The most common wireless technologies use radio waves. With radio waves, intended distances can be short, such as a few meters for Bluetooth or as far as millions of kilometers for deep-space radio communications, it encompasses various types of fixed and portable applications, including two-way radios, cellular telephones, personal digital assistants, wireless networking. Other examples of applications of radio wireless technology include GPS units, garage door openers, wireless computer mouse and headsets, radio receivers, satellite television, broadcast television and cordless telephones. Somewhat less common methods of achieving wireless communications include the use of other electromagnetic wireless technologies, such as light, magnetic, or electric fields or the use of sound; the term wireless has been used twice in communications history, with different meaning.

It was used from about 1890 for the first radio transmitting and receiving technology, as in wireless telegraphy, until the new word radio replaced it around 1920. The term was revived in the 1980s and 1990s to distinguish digital devices that communicate without wires, such as the examples listed in the previous paragraph, from those that require wires or cables; this became its primary usage in the 2000s, due to the advent of technologies such as mobile broadband, Wi-Fi and Bluetooth. Wireless operations permit services, such as mobile and interplanetary communications, that are impossible or impractical to implement with the use of wires; the term is used in the telecommunications industry to refer to telecommunications systems which use some form of energy to transfer information without the use of wires. Information is transferred in this manner over both long distances; the first wireless telephone conversation occurred in 1880, when Alexander Graham Bell and Charles Sumner Tainter invented the photophone, a telephone that sent audio over a beam of light.

The photophone required sunlight to operate, a clear line of sight between transmitter and receiver. These factors decreased the viability of the photophone in any practical use, it would be several decades before the photophone's principles found their first practical applications in military communications and in fiber-optic communications. A number of wireless electrical signaling schemes including sending electric currents through water and the ground using electrostatic and electromagnetic induction were investigated for telegraphy in the late 19th century before practical radio systems became available; these included a patented induction system by Thomas Edison allowing a telegraph on a running train to connect with telegraph wires running parallel to the tracks, a William Preece induction telegraph system for sending messages across bodies of water, several operational and proposed telegraphy and voice earth conduction systems. The Edison system was used by stranded trains during the Great Blizzard of 1888 and earth conductive systems found limited use between trenches during World War I but these systems were never successful economically.

In 1894, Guglielmo Marconi began developing a wireless telegraph system using radio waves, known about since proof of their existence in 1888 by Heinrich Hertz, but discounted as a communication format since they seemed, at the time, to be a short range phenomenon. Marconi soon developed a system, transmitting signals way beyond distances anyone could have predicted. Marconi and Karl Ferdinand Braun were awarded the 1909 Nobel Prize for Physics for their contribution to this form of wireless telegraphy. Millimetre wave communication was first investigated by Jagadish Chandra Bose during 1894–1896, when he reached an high frequency of up to 60 GHz in his experiments, he introduced the use of semiconductor junctions to detect radio waves, when he patented the radio crystal detector in 1901. The wireless revolution began in the 1990s, with the advent of digital wireless networks leading to a social revolution, a paradigm shift from wired to wireless technology, including the proliferation of commercial wireless technologies such as cell phones, mobile telephony, wireless computer networks, cellular networks, the wireless Internet, laptop and handheld computers with wireless connections.

The wireless revolution has been driven by advances in radio frequency and microwave engineering, the transition from analog to digital RF technology, which enabled a substantial increase in voice traffic along with the delivery of digital data such as text messaging and streaming media. The core component of this revolution is the MOSFET. Power MOSFETs such as LDMOS are used in RF power amplifiers to boost RF signals to a level that enables long-distance wireless network access for consumers, while RF CMOS circuits are used in radio transceivers to transmit and receive wireless signals at low cost and with low power consumption; the MOSFET is the basic building block of modern wireless networks, including mobile networks such as 2G, 3G and 4G. Most of the essential elements in modern wireless networks are built from MOSFETs, including the base station modules, routers, RF circuits, radio transceivers, RF power amplifiers. MOSFET scaling is the primary factor behind increas


Kadirli, is a town and district of Osmaniye Province in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. It is located in 90 kilometres from the large city of Osmaniye. Population is 84,618 and 120,950; the Cilicia/Çukurova plain is rich farmland and a place of strategic importance on an important trade route between the Middle East and Anatolia. It has been settled since the time of the Hittites and after by various civilizations: Assyrians, Byzantines and Turks; the most prominent group of Turks to settle here were the Dulkadir lords, semi-autonomous barons during the Ottoman era, who ruled Gaziantep, Kahramanmaraş and Hatay for two centuries. They were dispersed after the land was captured by the Ottoman sultan Yavuz Sultan Selim I in 1517. Kadirli was occupied by French forces at the end of the First World War under the terms of the armistice signed by the Ottoman Empire; the French forces were resisted by local peoples and withdrew from the town in March 1920. Kadirli was a district in Kozan province between 1923-1926 and in Adana Province between 1926-1995.

In 1996, the province of Osmaniye province being connected to Osmaniye. Kadirli is a small town providing the basic infrastructure, such as shops and schools, to an area of rich farmland, which produces grain and 75% of Turkey's radishes. There are two reservoirs for irrigating the area. There is small scale industry. In the summertime, families move to the uplands of Taurus Mountains Plateau Maksutolugu, adjacent to Kahramanmaraş because of hot weather in a general manner working people staying in town join their families in the weekends. In recent times, inhabitants prefer to spend their summertime at the sea side in Yumurtalık and Mersin during hot season as an alternative of moving to plateau. In Kadirli, there is a vocational college connected with Osmaniye; the college offers two educational programs: Computer Programming and Industrial Electronics since 1997. There are many archaeological and touristic sites nearby such as: Karatepe National Park - 23 kilometres from Kadirli; the ruins of a walled city of the time of the Hittites.

Discovered by archaeologists Halet Cambel and Helmuth Theodor Bossert. Relics found here date from a late Hittite kingdom and include vast historic tablets and ruins a monumental gate and pillars of lions and sphinxes; the ruins gave us inscriptions in Hittite and Phoenician, which have been used to decipher the Hittite language. The Ala Cami is the oldest surviving monument in Kadirli, its remains display over a millennium and a half of local history in several building phases. In the late 5th / early 6th century the site was artificially terraced for the construction of a large basilical church, built in at least two stages from a variety of reused architectural elements and incorporating the hypogeum as a crypt, it seems to have fallen into disuse until the medieval period when it was converted into an Armenian church. This involved some modification to the original structure and the addition of a small church that sits inside the former nave of the church and reuses the original apse; this small church was converted into a mosque in the late 15th century, a minaret was attached to the original Byzantine structure.

Çukurova Alacami survey and excavation reports District governor's official website District municipality's official website Karatepe Photographic survey and description of the basilica at Flaviopolis / Kadirili

Tamara Ingram

Tamara Ingram, OBE is a British businesswoman working in the marketing and advertising industries. She is working as worldwide chief executive officer of the J Walter Thompson Company, part of the WPP group, she joined the Marsh and Mclennan group as the member of the Board of Directors on 17 July 2019. Ingram was born in London to John Michael Ingram, an influential British fashion designer, Sonia Leila Ingram, a psychotherapist, she attended Queen's College and subsequently the University of East Anglia, graduating with an honours degree in English and American Studies in 1982. Ingram joined Saatchi & Saatchi in 1985, where she remained for 16 years, becoming CEO in 1995 and executive chairman in 1999. Under her leadership, Saatchi & Saatchi became one of the most-awarded advertising agencies, including being named Cannes Agency of the Year. In 2001 Ingram left Saatchi & Saatchi to join McCann Erickson as chairman and chief executive officer, she joined Kantar as president of three of their marketing firms: Added Value, The Henley Centre & Fusion5.

In 2005 WPP acquired the Grey Global Group, bringing a large amount of Procter & Gamble’s business into the group's remit. Due to her strong relationship with P&G, Ingram joined Grey London as Group CEO, subsequently taking on the dual roles of president and CEO of Team P+G, responsible for the Procter and Gamble relationship throughout the WPP Group. In May 2015, Ingram was promoted to Chief Client Team Officer of WPP, a role which will see her overseeing all of WPP’s global accounts, which combined account for more than a third of WPP’s $20billion revenue. In addition to her advertising and marketing career, Ingram has held numerous public and private sector directorships, she is a Trustee of Save the Children and the Royal Drawing School. Between 2001 and 2011 she served as chairman of Visit London, in 2011 was appointed an OBE for services to tourism through her work with the organisation, she has sat on the boards of EDF Energy, the Sage Group, the London Development Agency, the British Tourist Authority, the Almeida Theatre and the Royal Court Theatre.

Ingram is a member of The Marketing Society, the Marketing Group of Great Britain, Women in Advertising and Communications London, Advertising Women of New York. She is a board member of the Ad Council and on the board of directors for Effie Worldwide. In 2006 Ingram was shortlisted for the Veuve Clicquot Business Woman of the Year Award and in 2007 was named ‘Woman to Watch’ by Advertising Age. Ingram is an avid tennis player, has won the London Highbury Fields Tennis Tournament with Daniel Brachfeld in 2009 and 2010

Juha K. Tapio

Juha K. Tapio is a Finnish writer and critic whose only novel, Frankensteinin muistikirja was awarded the Helsingin Sanomat Literary Prize for the best Finnish first novel of 1996; the novel is a metafiction written as a kind of sequel to Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein or, the Modern Prometheus. Tapio's novel begins in Paris in the 1920s, where two American expatriate writers, Gertrud Stein and Ernst Hemingway come across a strange manuscript, which appears to be a diary written by the monster created by Victor Frankenstein, they discover that the writer of the diary is living in Paris under the name Frank Stein. Their curiosity aroused, they arrange a meeting with Mr. Stein, who appears to be a rather amiable elderly gentleman, if somewhat rough-hewn in outward appearance - there is nothing monstrous about him at first sight; the "monster" tells the two writers his own story after having fled his father's castle. The "monster,", immortal not, relates his adventures through Europe in the 19th century, commenting on his way on the continent's political and intellectual turmoil in that troubled century, as well as his own moral progress.

The main theme of the book is the complex relation and interchange between fact and fiction and copy, normality and abnormality. Another important theme is the nature of human identity. Moreover, the whole concept of originality in art and literature is questioned, as everything in human culture, including art, is tradition-based and thus indebted to various traditions, a kind of joint effort - whereas Western media and the press have always tended to emphasize the sovereignty of the individual artist/writer as a master of his/her own creation. Indeed, it would be more appropriate to think of the writer as a kind of receptacle and organizer of a common meme-pool; as with Frankenstein's monster, put together piecemeal from dead body parts and re-called to life, a work of art is put together of hitherto unrelated "dead" elements, which together may form something new and unique. In the novel, the point of view of the visual artist is dealt with using the character of Pablo Picasso and his more or less "monstrous" paintings.

Tapio has published a handful of short stories in the Finnish science fiction and fantasy magazine Portti. Paddon, Seija: A review of the novel Frankensteinin muistikirja, World Literature Today, Autumn 1997 issue. Paddon, Seija: Juha K. Tapio's Frankenstein's Notebook and Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley's Frankenstein or, The Modern Prometheus: Whose Monster is he, anyway? Scandinavian-Canadian Studies, Volume 10, 1997, p. 23-33. The monster reveal'd. Extracts from the novel Frankensteinin muistikirja. Translated by Anselm Hollo. Books from Finland 1/1997

Bevo (mascot)

Bevo is the live mascot of the athletic programs at the University of Texas at Austin. Bevo is a Texas Longhorn steer with burnt orange and white coloring from which the university derived its color scheme; the profile of the Longhorn's head and horns gives rise to the school's hand symbol and saying: "Hook'em Horns". The most recent Bevo, Bevo XV, was introduced to Texas football fans on September 4, 2016, his predecessor, Bevo XIV, died of cancer on October 16, 2015. Bevo XV is owned by Betty and John Baker's Sunrise Ranch in Texas; the idea to use a live longhorn as the university's mascot is attributed to UT alumnus Stephen Pinckney in 1916. Pinckney gathered $124 from other alumni to purchase a steer in the Texas Panhandle, which they named "Bo" and shipped to Austin. A Longhorn steer was not the original mascot of the University of Texas; the original mascot was an American Pit Bull Terrier named "Pig". There have been fifteen Bevos to date. Bevo was named "Bo" but came to be called Bevo soon after his first appearance at Texas' 1916 Thanksgiving Day game.

After the game, Ben Dyer declared, "His name is Bevo, long may he reign!" Ben Dyer died before stating why he chose the name Bevo. The first is that Bevo was named after an amber colored non-alcoholic beverage named Bevo, the other is that he added an "o" to the plural form of beef, beev; the most popular theory is that Cadets from Texas A&M stole the mascot to brand 13 - 0, the score the Aggies had won by the year before. Faced with that dilemma some UT student suggested combining the 1 and 3 to create a B, made an E out of the -, added a V, kept the 0 to create BEVO. Bevo II once charged an SMU cheerleader. Bevo III ran amok across campus for 2 days. Bevo IV once attacked a parked car, while Bevo V scattered the Baylor band. Bevo XV broke free of handlers during the January 1, 2019 Sugar Bowl scattering reporters as he attempted to get to the University of Georgia mascot, Uga; the longest reigning Bevo was Bevo XIII, supplied to the university by John T. Baker, owner of the Sunrise Ranch in Liberty Hill, Texas.

Baker is past president of the Texas Longhorn Breeders Association of America and serves as a judge in its competitions. Bevo XIII named Sunrise Express, was a champion steer at the age of 3, before becoming the UT mascot. Bevo XIII served 16 seasons on the sideline, he presided over 191 UT football games and attended President George W. Bush's inauguration in 2001. During his tenure, he presided over four conference football championships and a Heisman trophy award for Ricky Williams. Bevo XIII was the winningest Bevo in UT history, was replaced by youth grand champion Sunrise Studly, becoming Bevo XIV, at the September 4, 2004 football game versus the University of North Texas, it was the only time that two Bevos have appeared at the same football game. Bevo XIII was returned to Baker's ranch. Bevo XIII died on October 2006 due to heart failure. Bevo XIV attended George W. Bush's second inauguration in January 2005, he attended the 2005 Rose Bowl win over Michigan as well as the 2006 Rose Bowl game in which the Longhorns won the 2005–2006 National Championship over USC.

As of May 6, 2008, Bevo XIV weighed 1,800 pounds, stood 5 feet 8 inches, his horns measured 72 inches tip-to-tip. His birthday was April 8. At the 2008 Houston Livestock Show and Rodeo, he took home the honors of Reserve Grand Champion. On October 13, 2015, it was announced, he died on October 16, 2015. On September 3, 2016, a young 19 month old Bevo XV was unveiled at a special 100 year anniversary event at the University of Texas at Austin, celebrating 100 years of a live Bevo mascot. Bevo is one of the most recognized college mascots and has been called "the toughest-looking animal mascot in sports". Bevo makes appearances at all home football games of the University of Texas, as well as many away games, he typically makes appearances at important pep rallies, such as the ones in the weeks before the games against Texas A&M and the University of Oklahoma. Following commencement ceremonies, he is on hand for photographs with graduates and their families. Since 1945, the care of Bevo during his transportation and appearances has been entrusted to an honorary organization of undergraduate students called the Silver Spurs.

Bevo rides in a special burnt orange livestock trailer with his name on the side. Bevo is a steer. In 2002, an alumni group proposed that Bevo be given neuticles to "increase his masculinity". During football games, he stands or sits placidly behind one of the end zones and is greeted by UT players when they score touchdowns. Bred to be docile, he is riled only in the most extreme of circumstances. On the morning of December 25, 2014, Christmas Day, Longhorn Network aired a five-hour-long, "yule log"-styled special featuring footage of Bevo XIV at a ranch set to Christmas music. In a photo shoot prior to the 2019 Sugar Bowl, Bevo XV charged through a pen containing the steer on-field, towards the University of Georgia mascot, Uga the bulldog. Bevo was corralled, with no serious injuries. Traditions: Bevo The Truth About Bevo Bevo XIII dead at 22 Un

The Ruler's Back

The Ruler's Back is the second studio album by British-American rapper Slick Rick, released July 2, 1991, on Def Jam Recordings. It features production from Slick Rick and Mr. Lee; the album and its music videos were recorded and filmed before Slick Rick was sentenced to a 5-year prison term. Upon its release, The Ruler's Back achieved notable chart success, peaking at number 29 on the Billboard 200, number 18 on the Top R&B/Hip-Hop Albums chart; the album features the hit single "I Shouldn't Have Done It", which peaked at number 2 on the Hot Rap Singles. "I Shouldn't Have Done It" "The New Rap Language" by Spoonie Gee and The Treacherous Three "La Di Da Di" by Doug E. Fresh and Slick Rick "Think" by Lyn Collins "It's a Boy" "Impeach the President" by The Honey Drippers "Mister Magic" by Grover Washington, Jr. "King" "Uphill Peace of Mind" by Kid Dynamite "La Di Da Di" by Doug E. Fresh and Slick Rick "The Ruler's Back" by Slick Rick "King Of Rock" by Run-DMC "Mistakes of a Woman in Love With Other Men" "Double Barrel" by Dave & Ansel Collins "Think" by Lyn Collins "I'm Broken Hearted" by James Brown "Moses" "Sunday Coming" by Alton Ellis "Impeach the President" by The Honey Drippers "Different Strokes" by Syl Johnson "Bond" "Sing a Simple Song" by Please "Bring the Noise" by Public Enemy "Stoned Out of My Mind" by The Chi-Lites "Theme from the Planets" by Dexter Wansel "Do the Funky Penguin" by Rufus Thomas "Kool is Back" by Funk, Inc.

"Runaway" "Think" by Lyn Collins "The Show" by Doug E. Fresh, Slick Rick and The Get Fresh Crew "Ship" "Change the Beat" by Fab 5 Freddy feat. Beside "La Di Da Di" by Doug E. Fresh and Slick Rick "Slick Rick - the Ruler" "La Di Da Di" by Doug E. Fresh and Slick Rick "Top Cat" "Funky President" by James Brown "Rock Steady" by Aretha Franklin "Don't Worry About It" by Jimmy "Bo" Horne "Venus" sampled "Venus" by Frankie Avalon "Synthetic Substitution" by Melvin Bliss "Bring the Noise" by Public Enemy "La Di Da Di" by Doug E. Fresh and Slick Rick "Change the Beat" by Fab 5 Freddy feat. Beside "Atomic Dog" by George Clinton Slick Rick - performer, executive producer Vance Wright - producer, executive producer Mr. Lee - producer Russell Simmons - executive producer Francesca Spero - executive producer Darroll Gustamachio - engineer, mixing Thom Leinbach - Gabriel moreno - engineer, mixing Everett Ramos - engineer, mixing Rory Young - programming, engineer Cey Adams - design Jules T. Allen- Alvaro Almagro - photography The Ruler's Back at Discogs View the album's lyrics Listen to the album on YouTube