The term Wirtschaftswunder known as the Miracle on the Rhine, describes the rapid reconstruction and development of the economies of West Germany and Austria after World War II. The expression referring to this phenomenon was first used by The Times in 1950. Beginning with the replacement of the Reichsmark with the Deutsche Mark in 1948 as legal tender, a lasting era of low inflation and rapid industrial growth was overseen by the government led by West German Chancellor Konrad Adenauer and his Minister of Economics, Ludwig Erhard, who went down in history as the "father of the German economic miracle." In Austria, efficient labor practices led to a similar period of economic growth. The era of economic growth raised West Germany and Austria from total wartime devastation to developed nations in modern Europe. At the founding of the European Common Market in 1957 West Germany's economic growth stood in contrast to the struggling conditions at the time in the United Kingdom; the fundamental reason for the quick economic recovery of West Germany can be found in the ordoliberal growth model.
West Germany had a skilled workforce and a high technological level in 1946, but its capital stock had been destroyed during and after the war. This small capital stock was compounded by the difficulty in converting the German economy to the production of civilian goods, as well as rampant monetary and regulatory problems, leading to an unusually low economic output during the first post-war years; these initial problems were overcome by the time of the currency reform of 1948, which replaced the Reichsmark with the Deutsche Mark as legal tender, halting rampant inflation. This act to strengthen the West German economy had been explicitly forbidden during the two years that JCS 1067 was in effect. JCS 1067 had directed the U. S. forces of occupation in West Germany to "take no steps looking toward the economic rehabilitation of Germany". At the same time, the government, following Erhard's advice, cut taxes on moderate incomes. Walter Heller, a young economist with the U. S. occupation forces, to become chairman of President Kennedy's Council of Economic Advisers, wrote in 1949 that to "remove the repressive effect of high rates, Military Government Law No. 64 cut a wide swath across the German tax system at the time of the currency reform."
Individual income tax rates, in particular, fell dramatically. The tax rate on any income over 6,000 Deutschmark had been 95 percent. After tax reform, this 95 percent rate applied only to annual incomes above 250,000 Deutschmark. For the West German with an annual income of about 2,400 Deutschmark in 1950, the marginal tax rate fell from 85 percent to 18 percent; the Allied dismantling of the West German coal and steel industries decided at the Potsdam Conference was completed by 1950. Although the industrially important Saarland with its rich coal fields was returned to West Germany in 1957, it remained economically integrated in a customs union with France until 1959 and France extracted coal from the area until 1981. West Germany proceeded after 1948 to rebuild its capital stock and thus to increase its economic output at stunning rates; the high capital investment rate thanks to low consumption and a small need for replacement capital investments drove this recovery during the 1950s. Living standards rose with the purchasing power of wages increasing by 73% from 1950 to 1960.
As noted by the British journalist Terence Prittie in the early Sixties: Today the German working-man leads a comfortable life and wears a well-filled waistcoat. He eats well, his food – although German cooking lacks the elegance of French – is wholesome and appetizing, he buys good clothes, he dresses his wife and children well. He has money to spare for television sets, week-end excursions and football matches, and he is not afraid of celebrating on a grander scale. Productivity growth in West Germany enabled most workers to obtain significant improvements in their living standards and'security of life.' In addition, as noted by David Eversley, As real incomes rose, so public authorities were enabled to raise funds, both from taxation and through borrowing, to accelerate the rate of investment and current spending in projects which are immediately productive conducive to the creation of the good life, as seen in Germany... Any superficial examination of the German townscape, let alone perusal of the statistics, shows that Germany has spent sums on hospitals, theaters, parks, railway-stations, socially-aided housing, underground railways, museums, so on which are not to be compared with British efforts in this direction.
In addition to the physical barriers that had to be overcome for the West German economic recovery, there were intellectual challenges. The Allies confiscated intellectual property of great value, all German patents, both in Germany and abroad, used them to strengthen their own industrial competitiveness by licensing them to Allied companies. After the German surrender and for the next two years, the U. S. pursued a vigorous program to harvest all technological and scientific know-how as well as all patents in Germany. John Gimbel's book "Science Technology and Reparations: Exploitation and Plunder in Postwar Germany" concludes the "intellectual reparations" taken by the U. S. and the UK amounted to close t
The Metropolitan Opera Guild was established in 1935 to broaden the base of support for the Metropolitan Opera, promote greater interest in opera, develop future audiences by reaching out to a wide public and serving as an educational resource that provides programs, publications and services to schools, families and community groups nationwide. The Guild was the brainchild of Eleanor Robson Belmont, a retired actress and the first female member of the board of directors of the Metropolitan Opera, she believed opera belongs to the people, wished to provide them with more ways to connect to and enjoy the art form. In its first 75 years, the Guild contributed more than $245 million to the Met; the Guild provides services in many areas designed to further these goals. The Guild pursues its mission through a variety of educational outreach programs, publishing Opera News magazine and presenting special events season; the Guild's Education Department provides an innovative network of music and arts education programs to communities and schools nationwide.
These programs include open rehearsals and performances at the Metropolitan Opera, family education programs to introduce children to opera, community lecture series, master classes, interviews with opera professionals, production panels, backstage tours of the Met Opera House, a volunteer program, school residency programs, professional development courses for teachers, collaborations with colleges and universities throughout the country. Opera News, the monthly magazine published by the Guild, reports on opera around the world; each issue includes reviews of commercial recordings and live performances, profiles of artists, articles by eminent writers on the music scene. During the Saturday afternoon Met broadcast season, the magazine includes an in-depth guide to both radio and HD broadcasts. With a circulation of over 100,000, it is the world's largest-circulation magazine devoted to opera. Opera News maintains an active web site at; the Guild produces an annual series of public programs at major New York City venues that celebrate both the art and artists of opera.
In the seasons leading up to the creation of the Met Opera Guild in 1935, the financial situation at the Met Opera was dire. The Great Depression extinguished the social structure that gave rise to the old Met Opera, a place dominated by the whims of a few rich boxholders; the real admirers of the art form were revealed in box office receipts. In her memoirs, The Fabric of Memory, Belmont recalled, "We felt it important to broaden the base of responsibility for the future. … I presented … a plan for a membership organization with specified privileges and services, in exchange for dues scaled from $10 to $100. It was agreed that a portion of each membership would go toward maintaining the opera … Democratization of opera had begun!"In this way, Belmont helped pioneer the multi-source private funding model used by performing arts organizations and many other cultural institutions to this day. In its first year the Guild signed up 2,000 members and contributed $5,000 to the Met Opera for the purchase of a new cyclorama.
Belmont's vision was not limited to new types of membership. Starting in 1936 the Guild began publishing Opera News magazine, initiated the backstage tours program and a lecture series. Guild student matinees began the following year. Due to financial woes of the 1970s that cut arts teachers from schools, the Guild began its teacher training and in-school artists residencies. With European artists isolated in Europe by the political upheaval during World War II and the appreciable growth of American music conservatories during the latter half of the 19th century, American singers came into their own in the early 20th century, jump-starting the American operatic growth that continued after the war; the Met Opera Guild supported the cultivation of American opera singers. In the 1950s, Eleanor Belmont was responsible for the National Council Auditions, which take place across the 50 states discovering new talent and funneling them to the Met Opera's stage or its Young Artist Program for further training.
Today, the Met Opera Guild follows Belmont's dedication to American singers with its Masterly Singing series Masterly Singing webpage. Since its founding, the Metropolitan Opera Guild has continuously worked to foster a stimulated and educated community connecting the drama on the stage to the last person in the Family Circle, to the remote member of the radio and HD audience. Community Programs form the bridge across the footlights, bringing audiences nearer to opera, taking people backstage, offering insight and opportunities to explore the arts of opera; the Guild Community Programs include Lecture events, backstage tours, Opera Explorers Workshops, Score Desk seating at the opera, overseeing the Guild's volunteer corps. Community Programs' vision is to create community, stimulate conversation, open up opportunities that empower individuals to further e
National Credit Union Administration v. First National Bank & Trust Co. 522 U. S. 479, is a 1998 legal case in which the Supreme Court of the United States ruled that banks had prudential standing to challenge regulations that permitted credit unions to enroll unaffiliated members. The case involves the Federal Credit Union Act, which limits federal credit union membership to “groups having a common bond of occupation or association, or to groups within a well-defined neighborhood, community or rural district.” There are three permitted types of common bonds: occupational and community. Until 1982, federal credit unions formed along occupational lines consisted of the employees of one employer. In 1982, NCUA announced a multiple group occupational credit union policy that resulted in large, credit unions that offer banks competition for consumer products and services; because of their mutual form of ownership, credit unions are not subject to corporate taxes. Banks argue that since credit unions do not pay taxes, they may offer consumer banking products at prices lower than banks and thrifts.
Credit unions do not come under the requirements of the Community Reinvestment Act, 12 U. S. C. §§ 2901 -2906, as they lend to their membership. The Court affirmed First National Bank and Trust Company v. National Credit Union Administration which had remanded the case to the district court; this meant that, without legislation changing the language of the statute, a broad order could have been issued enjoining the admission of members to any federal occupational credit union who did not share the original single common bond of occupation. All parties to the suit, asked the court to delay acting while Congress considered legislation. Without legislation, it was feared that many of the large credit unions in existence would face the likelihood that their stream of new members would slow to a trickle and, their long term viability prospects diminish. P. L. 105-219 contains clauses to preserve all existing multiple bond arrangements and permit new members to be added to all current groups. It includes provisions to curb future growth of multiple-group credit unions—instructions to NCUA with respect to chartering single groups where possible and providing geographic components to affiliations.
Groups of more than 3,000 would not be permitted to affiliate with an existing credit union. Multiple group credit unions could extend their membership to persons and organizations located within areas underserved by other depository institutions. From the Senate-reported version, capital standards are prescribed—7% of net worth for a well-capitalized credit union—and a cap is placed on commercial loans—1.75% of net worth. This limits the total amount of member business loans over $50,000 that a well-capitalized credit union may carry to 12.25% of net worth. From the version reported by the Senate Banking Committee, a sequence of prompt corrective actions is prescribed for implementation as a federally insured credit union's net worth declines below prescribed levels. There are new auditing procedures and voting requirements for a credit union to convert to a bank or thrift charter; the legislation mandates studies on the differences between the regulatory and tax treatment accorded credit unions and other federally insured financial institutions.
It requires the federal banking agencies to detail their progress in efforts to streamline regulatory burdens. It imposes a requirement that the Secretary of the Treasury recommend, within one year and administrative action to reduce and simplify the tax burden on small banking institutions: insured depository institutions having less than $1 billion in assets and banks having total assets between $1 and $10 billion. List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 522 List of United States Supreme Court cases Lists of United States Supreme Court cases by volume Text of Nat'l Credit Union Admin. v. First Nat'l Bank & Trust Co. 522 U. S. 479 is available from: Cornell Justia Library of Congress Oyez
Oscar Machado Zuloaga International Airport is a general aviation airport in the Miranda state of Venezuela, serving Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. The airport is named in honor of an engineer and civic developer; the airport sits atop a ridge 20 kilometres south near the town of Charallave. Low mountain terrain lies between the airport and Caracas; the airport has an ILS approach to Runway 10. The Charallave VOR-DME is 0.6 nautical miles northeast of the Runway 28 threshold. Customs and Immigration are available; the airport has full services, maintenance, aircraft/avionics repair shops, snack bar, pilots briefing room and two flight schools. Transport in Venezuela List of airports in Venezuela OpenStreetMaps - Oscar Machado Zuloaga OurAirports - Oscar Machado Zuloaga SkyVector - Oscar Machado Zuloaga
John James Bannon was an American television and stage actor, known as Jack Bannon. He was best known for his role as Art Donovan on Lou Grant, a role he played for the duration of the series, from 1977 to 1982. Bannon's parents were Bea Benaderet, he graduated from the University of California, Santa Barbara in 1963. At age 24, Bannon began working as a dialog coach on Petticoat Junction, the sitcom on which his mother starred. In 1963, he appeared in the Season 1 episode "Kate's Recipe For Hot Rhubarb" of the series as Bobbie Joe's date, Roger. In 1969, Bannon was seen again on Petticoat Junction appearing as "Buck" in the episode "One of Our Chickens Is Missing". Bannon portrayed Buck Williams in the ABC drama Trauma Center, he appeared in other television series of the 1960s and 1970s, including The Beverly Hillbillies, Green Acres, Daniel Boone, The Rockford Files, Charlie's Angels. Bannon's signature role was that of Art Donovan on Lou Grant. Bannon's obituary in The Hollywood Reporter described the character as an "amiable assistant editor" of the fictional Los Angeles Tribune newspaper.
The actor appeared in all 114 episodes of the series. The actor's film career included What Ever Happened to Aunt Alice?, Little Big Man, Death Warrant. On stage, he acted for 20 years in the Coeur d’Alene Summer Theatre company. Bannon died on October 25, 2017, in Coeur d'Alene, from cancer at the age of 77, he was survived by his wife, Ellen Travolta, an actress and elder sister of John Travolta, a sister, two stepchildren. Jack Bannon on IMDb
Size Zero, titled Inji Iduppazhagi in Tamil, is a 2015 Telugu-Tamil bilingual romantic comedy film directed by Prakash Kovelamudi. The film was made in Telugu and Tamil. Produced by Prasad V Potluri, the film features Anushka Shetty in the lead role while Arya, Prakash Raj and Sonal Chauhan play supporting roles; the movie was remade in Odia as Chhati Tale Ding Dong. Soundarya aka Sweety is an overweight, independent woman, she is conscious about her weight but does not let it affect her. She falls in love with Abhishek, once a prospective groom for her and now a friend, she finds out that he is in love with Simran. Sweety is devastated and joins a weight loss clinic called Size Zero as she thinks that her weight is the issue. One of her friends, in the clinic with her, develops kidney problems because of the weight loss drugs given in the clinic. Sweety begins a crusade against the clinic, she is joined by Simran. Abhi starts to fall for Sweety; the rest of the movie is how Sweety gets her Prince Charming back.
Cameo appearances as themselves In February 2015, Prasad V Potluri announced a new bilingual film venture titled Size Zero, to be directed by Prakash Kovelamudi, which would feature Arya and Anushka Shetty in the lead roles. Nirav Shah and M. M. Keeravani were signed on as cinematographer and music composer while the script was announced to be written by Prakash's wife Kanika. Shruti Haasan was reported to be making an extended guest appearance, while Urvashi and Master Bharath formed the principal cast; the Tamil version of the film began shoot after a launch ceremony in Chennai. Shruti Haasan soon left the project citing differences with the producers, after a conflict during the making of another film with them. Though it was suggested that she would instead perform an item number in the film instead, she refuted the claims. After talks with other actress to replace her including Esha Gupta, Sonal Chauhan subsequently joined the team to play the second female lead role in April 2015. Nagarjuna enacted a guest appearance in the film during the shoot in May 2015, while Jiiva will reprise it in the Tamil version.
Dubbing voice for Arya in Telugu was provided by actor Nandoo. Anushka prepared for her role in the film by putting on weight to portray her character. After shooting several schedules, in early July 2015 some important crucial romantic scenes were being shot between Arya and Shetty at Ramoji Film City in Hyderabad. On 18 July 2015 makers released a press statement stating. Music is composed by M. M. Keeravani. On 31 August 2015, a teaser was released in which the audio release date was stated as 6 September 2015. But, due to unknown reasons makers postponed the audio launch. Behindwoods rated the album 2.75 out of 5 and called it "A LIGHTWEIGHT album from Keeravani!". Makers announced the worldwide release date as 2 October 2015 coinciding Gandhi Jayanti. Makers postponed the release date to 21 October 2015, they again postponed the release date to 27 November 2015 Prior to the release, Sonal Chauhan, who plays an NRI in the movie, described the movie as a "story with a lot of heart and made by a team of people who sincerely felt for it."
Behindwoods gave the film 2.25 out of 5 and concluded, "See it for Anushka and a few good moments". Indiaglitz gave 2.75 out of 5 saying, "After watching'Inji Idupazhagi', you will leave the movie hall with a smile and satisfaction."Times Of India rated the movie 3/5. Iluvcinema concluded it as a wholesome family entertainer. Tamilglitz rated the movie 4/5 and wrote "A must watch for the message being conveyed". Allindiaroundup rated the movie 2.75/5 and reviewed the movie as "On the whole, Size Zero is a film which has some interesting moments going its way. You can give this film a shot for Anuhska’s stunning performance and some feel good moments. One time watchable movie!" BLR Eagle wrote "It is Anushka’s Show, Though it established few emotional scenes. You can watch this movie for Anushka’s stunning performance." FilmiBeat gave 2.5/5 and wrote "Yes, the film has its issues in the technical department, but Inji Iduppazhagi can be considered saved by Anushka's terrific performance and a relevant social message."
Shruti Haasan was replaced by Angela Krislinzki for the title song of Size Zero. Baradwaj Rangan of the Hindu called it "Lots of minuses in this story of a plus-sized woman" in his review Size Zero on IMDb